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Bransford, et al. (2000) " How People Learn "  

Bransford, et al. (2000) " How People Learn "  

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... in order to understand blended learning in higher education it is beneficial to consider what we know in each of these arenas: what we know about learning generally, what we know about adult learning and what we know about technology-mediated teaching and learning. One lens through which to view learning generally in a blended environment is the "How People Learn" (HPL) framework To understand how people learn, Bransford and his colleagues, Brown and Cocking (2000), reviewed elements of successful learning environments and concluded that they share certain characteristics (see Figure 1). Good learning environments are learner-centered, knowledge-centered, assessment- centered, and community centered. ...

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Development, implementation and reflection of blended learning scenarios, have become established in both research and education (Mehl, 2011). Results are evident for the different phases of teacher education. Imbedded in a design based research a blended learning scenario was developed in which students were enabled to video-record each other's te...

Citations

... The frameworks explicitly indicated that students take the biggest share of blended learning benefits. Indicators of effectiveness, successfulness, and impact included such student experiences as satisfaction, engagement, motivation, and attitude (Bekele, 2010;Garrison, 2011;Johnson et al., 2008;Khan, 2010;Ojha & Rahman, 2021;Shea, 2007;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wong et al., 2014); student performance in examinations (Bekele & Menchaca, 2008;Garrison, 2011;Johnson et al., 2008;Khan, 2010;Shea, 2007;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wagner et al., 2008;Wong et al., 2014); knowledge acquisition, construction, and lifelong learning spirit (Andrade et al., 2022;Bekele, 2009b;Garrison, 2011;Lim & Wang, 2016;Mishra & Koehler, 2006;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wagner et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015); higher-order thinking including meta-cognition (Bekele, 2009b;Garrison, 2011;Lim & Wang, 2016;Shea, 2007;Wagner et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015); course instrumentality (Johnson et al., 2008); rate of return from investment in blended learning (Bekele, 2009b;Khan, 2010); and sustainability and scalability of blended learning (Bekele, 2009b). These were the leading indicators of blended learning successfulness, effectiveness, or impact that appear consistent with student-centred and constructivist approaches recently preferred in HE. ...
... The frameworks explicitly indicated that students take the biggest share of blended learning benefits. Indicators of effectiveness, successfulness, and impact included such student experiences as satisfaction, engagement, motivation, and attitude (Bekele, 2010;Garrison, 2011;Johnson et al., 2008;Khan, 2010;Ojha & Rahman, 2021;Shea, 2007;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wong et al., 2014); student performance in examinations (Bekele & Menchaca, 2008;Garrison, 2011;Johnson et al., 2008;Khan, 2010;Shea, 2007;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wagner et al., 2008;Wong et al., 2014); knowledge acquisition, construction, and lifelong learning spirit (Andrade et al., 2022;Bekele, 2009b;Garrison, 2011;Lim & Wang, 2016;Mishra & Koehler, 2006;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wagner et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015); higher-order thinking including meta-cognition (Bekele, 2009b;Garrison, 2011;Lim & Wang, 2016;Shea, 2007;Wagner et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015); course instrumentality (Johnson et al., 2008); rate of return from investment in blended learning (Bekele, 2009b;Khan, 2010); and sustainability and scalability of blended learning (Bekele, 2009b). These were the leading indicators of blended learning successfulness, effectiveness, or impact that appear consistent with student-centred and constructivist approaches recently preferred in HE. ...
... The frameworks explicitly indicated that students take the biggest share of blended learning benefits. Indicators of effectiveness, successfulness, and impact included such student experiences as satisfaction, engagement, motivation, and attitude (Bekele, 2010;Garrison, 2011;Johnson et al., 2008;Khan, 2010;Ojha & Rahman, 2021;Shea, 2007;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wong et al., 2014); student performance in examinations (Bekele & Menchaca, 2008;Garrison, 2011;Johnson et al., 2008;Khan, 2010;Shea, 2007;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wagner et al., 2008;Wong et al., 2014); knowledge acquisition, construction, and lifelong learning spirit (Andrade et al., 2022;Bekele, 2009b;Garrison, 2011;Lim & Wang, 2016;Mishra & Koehler, 2006;Shea & Bidjerano, 2010;Wagner et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015); higher-order thinking including meta-cognition (Bekele, 2009b;Garrison, 2011;Lim & Wang, 2016;Shea, 2007;Wagner et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015); course instrumentality (Johnson et al., 2008); rate of return from investment in blended learning (Bekele, 2009b;Khan, 2010); and sustainability and scalability of blended learning (Bekele, 2009b). These were the leading indicators of blended learning successfulness, effectiveness, or impact that appear consistent with student-centred and constructivist approaches recently preferred in HE. ...
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... Extant literature points to the increasing use of BL in education, its acceptance as a pedagogical approach, as well as its transformative power (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000;Dziuban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004;Garrison & Kanuka, 2004;Garrison & Vaughan, 2008;Graham, Allen, & Ure, 2005;Osguthorpe & Graham, 2003;Shea, 2007). Osguthorpe and Graham (2003), as stated in Larsen (2012), identified the following six reasons for using BL:1) pedagogical richness, 2) access to knowledge, 3) social interaction, 4) personal agency, 5) cost-effectiveness and 6) ease of revision. ...
Technical Report
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... what are the possible benefits as well as loses, etc.? Within all these, the other fundamental question for a theoretical framework on blended learning to answer is the question: what happens to learners' cognition, students' motivation as well as their affective dimension when they are engaged in online learning rather than the traditional classroom learning? (Shea, 2007). Higher Institutions of Learning, while making access to academic engagements possible for all students without restricting them to physical presence in the classrooms make two significant changes: a) institutions reduce students' physical presence at specific place and at a particular time. ...
... In doing so, institutions of learning help students to get time to follow other pursuits such as work (for working students), child rearing (for nursing mother students) which are equally also more time and place bound, b) the second advantage is the additional students' intake without much constraints to increase physical infrastructure. Through such mechanism, educational access is significantly increased with less additional investment in physical infrastructure (Shea, 2007). (Shea, 2007) promotes a model of blended learning which offers some kind of pyramid framework beginning with the fundamental assumptions regarding the nature of knowledge. ...
... Through such mechanism, educational access is significantly increased with less additional investment in physical infrastructure (Shea, 2007). (Shea, 2007) promotes a model of blended learning which offers some kind of pyramid framework beginning with the fundamental assumptions regarding the nature of knowledge. This is followed by identifying the theories of learning that reflect these philosophical underpinnings (You, 1993). ...
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This study explored students and teachers of Higher Educational Institutions perspectives on the potential of Blended Learning post-Covid- 19. Using Shea’s 2007 Four-Model of Blended Learning and the framework of Complex Adaptive Blended Learning (BL) Systems, this paper investigated the correlation between Blended Learning (BL) and students learning outcomes in constructivists learning. The findings provided convincing support that Online Blended Learning offers some potential for teaching in higher institutions more than the stand-alone traditional face-to-face classroom. This is especially the case when teaching intends to enhance students reciprocal learning, students’ inquiry-based learning, learners posing questions and seeking answers on their own, as well as promoting cooperative/collaborative learning among students. Even though, the findings did not entirely dismiss the traditional face-to-face teaching, nevertheless, the results strongly suggest that blending face-to-face teaching with online teaching offers tremendous potential for inquiry-based and constructivist learning more than the traditional classroom face-to-face teaching alone. Additionally, BL creates both cohesive and effective learning environment overcoming geographical and physical barriers of traditional classroom teaching to promote self-paced critical learning among students, especially in institutions of higher learning.
... Aydin's (2005) study found that gender had no effect on faculty's perception of roles and competencies. Shea's (2007) study showed that the number of times faculty had taught online was an important consideration in how motivated faculty is in the online modality; with more experience in the online modality, selfconfidence levels increase. Less experienced faculty report that they struggle to communicate because of the absence of faceto-face interaction, are unfamiliar with effective online pedagogy, lack the opportunity to observe online teaching. ...
... As a completion and balanced education, many scholars agreed on blended learning. Therefore, the blended learning approach -the integration of face-to-face and online learning -has been seen as a hopeful opportunity for traditional teaching and learning (So & Bonk, 2010;Garrison & Kanuka, 2004;Shea, 2007;Mahaye, 2020). ...
... Also, Colis & Moonen (2001) comment blended learning as a hybrid of the internet and traditional face-to-face education since instruction takes place both online and in the classroom, where the web component becomes a natural production of in-person instruction. Shea (2007) states that blended learning often combats the access problem. Due to the fact that some parts of blended learning take place online, with less demand for physical classroom space, institutions can care for more learners with the same opportunity. ...
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... URL: https://www.economist.com/britain/2020/04/30/the-government-ponders-bailing-out-universities 304 Chickering & Gamson (1987) Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education p.2 seven principles in three main conditions for good learning environments: learnercenteredness (principle 5, 6 & 7); knowledge-centeredness (principle 1, 3 & 4) and community-centeredness (principle 2) 305 (Shea, 2007). In our analysis, knowledgecenteredness includes the elements from the fourth condition "assessmentcenteredness" identified by Shea. ...
... First of all, one of main advantage of blended learning is that it provides learners with more flexibility than traditional face-to-face learning, as it incorporates asynchronous elements in its online component, which are accessible without time nor place constraints 306 (Garner & Rouse, 2016). An additional advantage of asynchronous learning is that it is self-paced 307 (Alebaikan & Troudi, 2010), thus giving students more ownership over their learning 308 (Shea, 2007). Moreover, the lecture's content can also be distributed in various formats such as written materials, videos or podcasts for instance with the use of course management systems (CMS) or learning management systems (LMS), enabling higher education institutions to accommodate diverse learning styles 309 (Picciano, 2009 provided by the in-class face-to-face interactions, which makes it a more attractive learning delivery model than simply online learning 310 (Graham, 2006). ...
... Thus, institutions offering blended courses are likely to attract more tuition paying students, both traditional and non-traditional, thereby increasing their revenues. Blended learning also allows higher education institutions to make higher education accessible to more students without having to make additional investments in physical infrastructure, as most of the instruction is moved online, thereby freeing up classroom space 311 (Shea, 2007). Furthermore, not only does blended learning allow for the size of the cohort to be increased, while at the same time decreasing the number of classes, it also allows for a reduction of in-class interactions between the teaching staff and students, enabling institutions to save on staffing costs 312 (Poon, 2013). ...
Thesis
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In a context of heightened competition for students, reputation and funding, exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, and increased expectations from all stakeholders (governments, companies and students) toward higher education, only the fittest public institutions, which manage to seize the opportunities of digitalisation, may survive.
... Extant literature points to the increasing use of BL in education, its acceptance as a pedagogical approach, as well as its transformative power (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000;Dziuban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004;Garrison & Kanuka, 2004;Garrison & Vaughan, 2008;Graham, Allen, & Ure, 2005;Osguthorpe & Graham, 2003;Shea, 2007). Osguthorpe and Graham (2003), as stated in Larsen (2012), identified the following six reasons for using BL:1) pedagogical richness, 2) access to knowledge, 3) social interaction, 4) personal agency, 5) cost-effectiveness and 6) ease of revision. ...
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this provides details of research which evaluated the implementation of TEL using Moodle at the National University of Samoa
... Extant literature points to the increasing use of BL in education, its acceptance as a pedagogical approach, as well as its transformative power (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000;Dziuban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004;Garrison & Kanuka, 2004;Garrison & Vaughan, 2008;Graham, Allen, & Ure, 2005;Osguthorpe & Graham, 2003;Shea, 2007). Osguthorpe and Graham (2003), as stated in Larsen (2012), identified the following six reasons for using BL:1) pedagogical richness, 2) access to knowledge, 3) social interaction, 4) personal agency, 5) cost-effectiveness and 6) ease of revision. ...
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This report provides details of a baseline study at the National University of Samoa which evaluated the level of infrastructure, the skill level in using technology of both staff and students at the university. The findings of the three surveys provided recommendations on the development of a Technology enabled learning policy for NUS as well as inform critical areas for technology training.
... Online and blended learning (OBL) is valued for its potential to remove barriers, such as accessibility and flexibility, that prevent students from participating in traditional education (Shea, 2007). Institutions face challenges when they (plan to) redesign their programmes in order to implement OBL (Jara and Mellar, 2009;Moskal, Dziuban and Hartman, 2013). ...
... However, the implementation was time intensive, spanning a period of 18 months, and resource intensive. With respect to this design of OBL programmes in education, it is important to take note that several stakeholders influence OBL design decisions i.e. management, faculty and learners (Shea, 2007). Therefore, it is crucial that the CQI approach supports management and faculty to implement OBL programmes that go further than increasing the convenience and productivity to learners (Graham and Robison, 2007). ...
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Institutions considering online and blended learning (OBL) face the challenge of strategically adopting OBL to develop, implement, monitor, assess and improve the quality of programmes and courses. The principles of continuous quality improvement (CQI) allow this challenge to be addressed. Effective CQI management implies that quality assurance and quality improvement follow and inform each other as part of a continuous cycle. Scholars report however, that quality management of OBL usually focuses on assurance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a state of the art approach for effective CQI management which allows practitioners to achieve coherence between quality assurance and improvement of OBL. In this conceptual paper we link and integrate work across fields to address the challenge of achieving coherence between quality assurance and improvement. We discuss research in the context of CQI that uncovers features of OBL that prevent practitioners from achieving coherence. The conceptual model for effective CQI of OBL integrates data based decision-making. The conceptual model provides a foundation for research on the effectiveness of this CQI management approach in the context of OBL. The quality management approach supports practitioners during the entire CQI-cycle to foster dialogue and consultation between all stakeholders in the institution in order to strategically develop assess and improve the quality of OBL programmes and courses. The originality of the model lies in making explicit data-based decision making as a driver for effective CQI management in the context of OBL.
... One of these frameworks is the Community of Inquiry (COI) (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 2001, p. 87) that although is not specifically designed for blended learning environments, it entails relevant factors to blended learning such as cognitive presence, social presence and teaching presence. Other frameworks such as Shea's (2007) pyramid framework or Khan's (2001) octagonal model examined blended learning from different perspectives. However, recent frameworks such as the Complex Adaptative Blended Learning Systems (Wang, Han & Yang, 2015) attempted to incorporate not only all the elements in blended learning environments but also how these elements work individually and together in order to provide a complete picture of a blended learning context. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the possibilities of the flipped learning methodology to foster and improve English-medium instruction (EMI) at a higher education level. The design principles of EMI and flipped learning, and the most relevant theoretical frameworks for each of the fields are discussed. Moreover, factors to be considered when implementing the flipped learning model in EMI contexts are presented. Blended learning environments such as the flipped learning model may become a support during EMI, facilitating the development of interaction and collaborative work, and giving rise to a task-based communicative-oriented environment. At the same time, the flipped model may help overcome some of the challenges presented in the EMI literature.