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Boxplots of body ratios of 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi A hind wing length to mid-femur length, the ratio selected by the LDA ratio extractor as the best ratio for separating the morphs B hind wing length to tegmen length, the standard ratio used for discrimination C tegmen length to hind femur length, the second best ratio found by the LDA ratio extractor (actually the best ratio when hind wing length is omitted). Means in all plots significantly different (ANOVA, p < 0.001).

Boxplots of body ratios of 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi A hind wing length to mid-femur length, the ratio selected by the LDA ratio extractor as the best ratio for separating the morphs B hind wing length to tegmen length, the standard ratio used for discrimination C tegmen length to hind femur length, the second best ratio found by the LDA ratio extractor (actually the best ratio when hind wing length is omitted). Means in all plots significantly different (ANOVA, p < 0.001).

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Today, integrative taxonomy is often considered the gold standard when it comes to species recognition and delimitation. Using the Tetrix bipunctata complex, we here present a case where even integrative tax-onomy may reach its limits. The Tetrix bipunctata complex consists of two morphs, bipunctata and kraussi, which are easily distinguished by a...

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... standard ratio (compare Fig. 4A, B). In contrast, the second-best ratio found by the ratio extractor, tegmen length to hind femur length, separated the morphs much less well (Fig. 4C). However, once hind wing length was omitted, this ratio had the best discrimination power. It was also more weakly correlated with the other two ratios and thus stood for another direction ...
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... standard ratio (compare Fig. 4A, B). In contrast, the second-best ratio found by the ratio extractor, tegmen length to hind femur length, separated the morphs much less well (Fig. 4C). However, once hind wing length was omitted, this ratio had the best discrimination power. It was also more weakly correlated with the other two ratios and thus stood for another direction in the data. This direction only revealed differences in mean (ANOVA: F 1,271 = 795, p < 0.001), but otherwise the morphs were largely ...
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... of isosize against body ratios of 273 females of Tetrix bipunctata and kraussi, showing the position of intermediate specimens A isosize against ratio of hind wing length to mid-femur length, the best ratio for separation of morphs B isosize against ratio of hind wing length to tegmen length, the standard ratio for discrimination (see Fig. 4). The 11 specimens considered by Nadig (1991) as "Zwischenformen" marked by black ...
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... morphometric analyses revealed that the morphs are merely separated by hind wing length or hind wing length in combination with any other character as a shape ratio. It was thus, by far, the most important character (Figs 2A, B, 4A, B). The first shape PC explaining 80% of the total variance supports this suggestion, while all other shape axes explain just a marginal portion of variation. ...
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... suggestion, while all other shape axes explain just a marginal portion of variation. The best ratio is hind wing length to length of the mid-femur, which almost perfectly distinguishes between bipunctata and kraussi. The traditionally used standard ratio of tegmen length to hind wing length ( Lehmann 2004;Baur et al. 2006), is much less reliable (Fig. 4B). The differences between the morphs vanish when the importance of hind wing length is suppressed, as in the second shape PC (see Fig. 2A, ...