Box plots of plastic item mass by lake for: (a) 1.0–5.0 mm, (b) 5.0–25 mm, (c) >25 mm, and (d) all size fractions. Green bars are means; blue bars are standard deviation. Adapted from Arturo (2021). CC BY 4.0.

Box plots of plastic item mass by lake for: (a) 1.0–5.0 mm, (b) 5.0–25 mm, (c) >25 mm, and (d) all size fractions. Green bars are means; blue bars are standard deviation. Adapted from Arturo (2021). CC BY 4.0.

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The Laurentian Great Lakes system is a major global sink for plastic debris. An area of 10m2 on each of sixty-six Great Lakes beaches was sampled for large micro-, meso- and macroplastic items. A total of 21,592 plastic items were collected and categorized. Pre-production plastic pellets were the most abundant debris type, accounting for 58.3% of t...

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... The highest number of sampled lakes has glacial origin (38%), followed by tectonic (24%), anthropogenic (10%), and floodplain and reservoir (both 5%) (Figure 4b). The listed group of glacial lakes is mostly comprised by the American Great Lakes [37]. Each of the American Great Lakes is considered singularly for this metric. ...
... The highest number of sampled lakes has origin (38%), followed by tectonic (24%), anthropogenic (10%), and floodplain an voir (both 5%) (Figure 4b). The listed group of glacial lakes is mostly comprised American Great Lakes [37]. Each of the American Great Lakes is considered singu this metric. ...
... The highest number of sampled lakes has glacial origin (38%), glacial origin (38%), not reported (24%), reservoir (19%), anthropogenic (10%), floodplain and tectonic (both 5%) (Figure 4b). The listed group of glacial lakes is mostly comprised by the American Great Lakes [37]. Each of the American Great Lakes is considered singularly for this metric. ...
Article
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Lakes are the greatest reserve of available superficial inland fresh water and concurrently one of the most threatened ecosystems. Among the many pollutants, plastics contaminate lakes worldwide; notwithstanding, little is known on the impacts of macroplastics. The aim of this work is to provide the first global overview of scientific articles researching macroplastic pollution in lakes. Articles were selected from Web of Science and Scopus databases. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the results on the publication trend, geographical distribution of study areas, investigated matrix (i.e., water, sediment, biota), as well as abundance and type (i.e., shape, litter category, polymer) of lacustrine macroplastics. We also compared the articles’ methodologies. Fourteen articles were collected (the publication trend is increasing in recent years), showing a diffuse contamination by macroplastics. Research efforts are mostly focused on shoreline assessments. There is a lack of information and methodological standardisation (i.e., macroplastic size definition, sampling protocol, shape, litter categories), which limits the comparison of article outputs. We propose the definition of lacustrine macroplastics as plastics >5 mm and the adoption of the UNEP/IOC protocol to sample lake shoreline. We suggest focusing future investigations on (1) testing the methodological standardisation, (2) understanding the factors influencing macroplastic dispersal, and (3) assessing the impacts on biota.
... Observations of interactions between environmental factors and pyroplastic are also lacking (De-la-Torre et al., 2021), yet such observations are urgently needed to identify environmental drivers of pyroplastic dynamics. Although there are several visual plastiglomerate records (Corcoran et al., 2014;Zalasiewicz et al., 2016;Robertson, 2017;Corcoran et al., 2018;Turner et al., 2019;Corcoran and Jazvac, 2020;De-la-Torre et al., 2021;Furukuma, 2021;Arturo and Corcoran, 2022;De-la-Torre et al., 2022;Ellrich and Ehlers, 2022), very few of them have been verified to actually contain plastic by spectroscopic analyses (Turner et al., 2019;De-la-Torre et al., 2022;Ellrich and Ehlers, 2022). From the methodological and the scientific perspective, the lack of spectroscopic analyses is unfortunate because spectroscopically verified visual records could facilitate plastiglomerate detection during field surveys and clean-ups, improve the quality of the records, enable more detailed comparisons between studies and allow conclusions regarding the plastic sources from which the plastiglomerates derived. ...
... Through the pilot study (Furukuma, 2021) for this study, our frequent field surveys and our subsequent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses, we detected and verified 37 pyroplastics and seven plastiglomerates along the Ariho River estuary shoreline between 14 March 2020 and 17 November 2021. Since previous studies exclusively reported pyroplastics and plastiglomerates from marine coastal habitats (Corcoran et al., 2014;Turner et al., 2019;Ehlers and Ellrich, 2020;De-la-Torre et al., 2021;Dela-Torre et al., 2022;de Vos et al., 2022;Ellrich and Ehlers, 2022;Lozoya et al., 2022), freshwater lake shores (Arturo and Corcoran, 2022) and soil (Cyvin et al., 2021), our findings are the first FTIR-verified pyroplastic and plastiglomerate records from estuarine habitats worldwide. ...
... 3F, S10). Since plastiglomerate featuring clastic and in-situ characteristics was not described in previous works (Corcoran et al., 2014;Zalasiewicz et al., 2016;Robertson, 2017;Corcoran et al., 2018;Turner et al., 2019;Corcoran and Jazvac, 2020;De-la-Torre et al., 2021;Furukuma, 2021;Arturo and Corcoran, 2022;De-la-Torre et al., 2022;Ellrich and Ehlers, 2022), plastiglomerate 7 constitutes the first record of a novel plastiglomerate subtype that we term "clastic/in-situ plastiglomerate". ...
Article
Pyroplastic and plastiglomerate are novel plastic forms that are currently being reported from coastal beaches worldwide. Pyroplastic is burned plastic with a rock-like appearance. Plastiglomerate is a solid bond consisting of either melted plastic attached to rock (in-situ plastiglomerate) or a melted plastic matrix containing (in)organic material (clastic plastiglomerate). Both plastic forms have been related to the (un)intentional burning of plastic. Yet, information on pyroplastic and plastiglomerate from estuarine habitats is limited to a pilot study (for this study) and knowledge of pyroplastic and plastiglomerate dynamics as well as the underlying drivers is missing. To address these knowledge gaps, we frequently surveyed stranded pyroplastics and plastiglomerates in the Ariho River estuary (Honshu, Japan) over seven months and studied the collected samples at the lab. In total, 37 pyroplastics (consisting of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, alkyd resin, polyacrylate styrene and polyvinyl chloride) and seven plastiglomerates (consisting of polyethylene and polypropylene) occurred. While pyroplastics occurred frequently, plastiglomerates occurred occasionally which indicates that both forms are common. Pyroplastic (but not plastiglomerate) occurrence and density (items/m²) were related to intertidal elevation. Strandline pyroplastic density, that contributed heavily to the pyroplastic and plastiglomerate entirety, increased under prevailing onshore winds which shows that such winds are environmental drivers of pyroplastic density. Floating tests revealed that clastic plastiglomerate can float. Macro-, micro- and spectroscopic examinations indicated only slight pyroplastic and plastiglomerate weathering which suggests the regional and/or recent formation of both plastic forms. Additionally, we detected the first plastiglomerate with clastic and in-situ features (a plastic matrix containing (in)organic material firmly melted to a rock) which constituted a novel plastiglomerate subtype that we termed “clastic/in-situ plastiglomerate”. Overall, our study initiates the development of the fundamental understandings of pyroplastic and plastiglomerate dynamics and the underlying drivers in estuaries.