Figure 2 - uploaded by Frank Coopman
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Bony structure of the pelvic region in cattle.

Bony structure of the pelvic region in cattle.

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... for decreased CS in the current DM-BBB breed can only be done indirectly, using internal pelvic sizes of the dam (see Figures 2 and 3) and birth traits (broadest points = width of the hind quarters -BcW-or shoulder width -SW-; see Figure 4) of the calf as basic data. This is because of the fact that, according to Hanset (2002) natural calving is no longer possible in the DM-BBB breed, despite the assumption of some that CS is only done out of performance. ...
Context 2
... is clear from these graphs that the region of interest (100 -600 days, on the logarithmic scale 4.6-6.4) is contained in the linear part of the logistic function. Figure 2 shows the relationship of the four body measurements on the logarithmic scale with ln(LW) between the age of 100 to 600 days for bulls. Similar relationships were found for cows. ...
Context 3
... 95% prediction intervals of the models 1 to 6 at 13 months (a) and 18 months (b) are shown in Figure 3, using the average values of the covariates WH (=112 -123 cm), SW (=54 Figure 2. Linear relationship between the logarithmic scale of live weight and the logarithmic scale of the four body measurements withers height (WH), shoulder width (SW), heart girth (HG) and width of the hind quarters (BcW) for the male population between the ages of 100 to 600 days. ...

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Citations

... The Belgian Blue (BB) breed originated in central and upper Belgium from crossbreeding between the local Belgian dairy cattle and the Durham Shorthorn that occurred in the 19th century (Coopman, 2008). At the beginning of the 20th century and until the 1950s, selection was strongly focused on dual-purpose with a considerable emphasis on milk. ...
... At the beginning of the 20th century and until the 1950s, selection was strongly focused on dual-purpose with a considerable emphasis on milk. From 1950 to 1970, irrespective of the original decision to focus on both milk and meat production, meat production gradually became more important because most farmers gave preference to muscular development (Gengler et al., 2007;Coopman, 2008). However, a small population, addressing the original breeding objective, remains and is currently referred to as Dual-Purpose Belgian Blue (DPBB) (Mota et al., 2017). ...
... The BBB and DPBB MSTN sequence contain an 11-nucleotide deletion in the third exon, characterized by a wild type "+" allele and a recessive "mh" allele, causing the double muscled phenotype in the homozygous condition (mh/mh). Breeders of BBB used homozygous sires to increase the frequency of "mh" allele; thus, it is expected that nearly all BBB animals are mh/mh (McPherron and Lee, 1997;Coopman, 2008). On the other hand, it has been showed that the wild-type allele of this gene (+) is responsible for a higher milk, protein, and fat yields in DPBB cows; thereupon, currently the DPBB animals can be divided into three genotypes (+/+, +/mh, and mh/mh) (Buske et al., 2010;Buske et al., 2011a;Buske et al., 2011b). ...
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This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and identify genomic regions associated with milk production traits during the first three parities in Dual-Purpose Belgian Blue (DPBB) cows. Edited data were 135,646 test-day milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY), fat percentage (FP), protein percentage (PP), and somatic cell count (SCC) collected from 1988 to 2020 on 20,744 lactations obtained from 10,345 cows in 128 herds. Data of 28,466 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), located on 29 Bos taurus (BTA) autosomes, for 1,699 animals (639 males and 1,060 females) were used. Random regression test-day models were used to estimate genetic parameters through the Bayesian Gibbs sampling method. The SNP solutions were estimated using a single‐step genomic best linear unbiased prediction approach. The proportion of genetic variance explained by windows of 25 adjacent SNPs (with an average size of ∼2 Mb) was calculated, and regions accounting for at least 1.0 % of the total additive genetic variance were used to search for candidate genes. Mean heritability (h²) estimated for milk yield traits (MY, FY, PY, FP, and PP) ranged from 0.32 (FP) to 0.41 (PP), 0.30 (FP) to 0.41 (PP), and 0.29 (FP) to 0.39 (PP), in the first, second, and third parity, respectively. Mean h² estimated for SCS in the first three parities ranged from 0.17 to 0.27. The highest genetic correlations were found between daily MY and PY, followed by those found between daily FY and PY. Negative genetic correlations were found between yield traits (MY, FY, PY) and SCS. In total, seven genomic regions (BTA1 (n = 2), BTA2, BTA7, BTA10, BTA22, and BTA26) were identified to be associated with the included traits. The identified genomic regions showed contrasting results between parities and among the different stages of each parity. It suggests that differential sets of candidate genes underlie the phenotypic expression of the considered traits among parities and lactation stages of each parity. The findings of this study may be used for future implementation of genomic evaluation to improve lactation performances in DPBB cows.
... The Belgian Blue (BB) breed originated in central and upper Belgium from crossbreeding between the local Belgian dairy cattle and the Durham Shorthorn that occurred in the 19th century (Coopman, 2008). From the beginning of the 20th century and until the 1950s, selection was strongly focused on dual purpose with a considerable emphasis on milk. ...
... From the beginning of the 20th century and until the 1950s, selection was strongly focused on dual purpose with a considerable emphasis on milk. From the 1950s to 1970s, irrespective of the original decision to focus on both milk and meat production, meat production gradually became more important because most breeders gave preference to muscular development (Coopman, 2008;Gengler et al., 2007). However, a small population, addressing the original breeding objective, remains and is currently referred to as Dual-Purpose Belgian Blue (DPBB) (Mota et al., 2017). ...
... The BBB and DPBB myostatin sequence contain an 11-nucleotide deletion in the third exon, characterized by a wild-type "+" allele and a recessive "mh" allele, causing the double muscled phenotype in the homozygous condition (mh/ mh). On the one hand, breeders of BBB used homozygous sires to increase the frequency of "mh" allele; thus, it is expected that nearly all BBB animals are mh/mh (Coopman, 2008;McPherron & Lee, 1997). On the other hand, it has been showed that the wild-type allele of this gene (+) is responsible for a higher milk, protein and fat yields in DPBB cows; thereupon, currently the DPBB animals can be divided into three genotypes (+/+, +/mh and mh/mh) (Buske et al., 2010. ...
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Quantifying the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD), non-random association of alleles at two or more loci, is important to determine the number of markers needed for genomic selection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of LD in Dual-Purpose Belgian Blue (DPBB) and to compare the level of LD in DPBB with that of Walloon Holstein. Data of 28,427 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), located on 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA), of 639 DPBB and 398 Holstein bulls were used. The level of LD between pairwise SNPs separated by up to 10 Mb was evaluated, separately for each breed, using the squared correlation of the alleles at two loci. The analysis of molecular variance showed that the percentage of variation within populations (85.48%) was higher than between populations (14.52%). However, permutation tests showed a significant genetic differentiation between the two studied populations (p < .01). The average LD found between adjacent SNP pairs in DPBB (0.16 (SD = 0.22)) was generally lower than in Holstein (0.23 (SD = 0.27)). The proportion of SNPs in useful LD (r² > 0.30) within a genomic distance of ≤0.10 Mb between SNPs was 18.58% and 28.23% in DPBB and Holstein bulls, respectively. In both breeds, the effective population size decreased over generations; however, the decline was greater in DPBB than that in Holstein. Based on results, it can be concluded that at least 68,000 SNPs are needed for implementing genomic selection in DPBB cattle with enough accuracy.
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Frozen-thawed Belgian Blue (BB) Embryo transfer (TE) is an effort of fulfilling meat demand in Indonesia. This research aimed at observing the correlation between estrus expressions of standing heat and the correlation of CL characteristics on the success rate of frozen-thawed BB embryo transfer. The study was conducted on 55 recipient cattle with 62 times of TE application, which were categorized into three groups, namely FTET estrus synchronization (n=14), 24-hour natural estrus detection (n=30) and twice-a-day natural estrus detection (n=18). The implemented synchronization was the combination of estradiol-progesterone and hCG with the modification of 24-hour estrus detection between day-9 and 10. The second method was a natural estrus detection, which was conducted four times for 30 minutes, and the third method was twice-aday estrus detection for 90 minutes. The CL characteristics were observed using ultrasonography (USG) in the TE application day. Pregnancy per ET (P/ET) was determined by ultrasonography on d-20, 30, and 50. This research revealed that expressions of standing heat increased P/ET (p<0.05). The pregnancy loss rate was lower of the recipient which showed the estrus expression of standing heat (18.18%) compared to recipients did not show standing heat (40%). Based on the estrus detection method, there was no significant difference between the FTET modification method and the percentage of pregnancy (p>0.05). The CL characteristics showed there was no correlation between CL diameter with the pregnancy success rate of TE (p>0.05).