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0: 'Boeuf à la mode'-one of Paris's First Restaurants Source: (Blake and Crewe 1978:22) 

0: 'Boeuf à la mode'-one of Paris's First Restaurants Source: (Blake and Crewe 1978:22) 

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The words Dublin or Ireland do not immediately come to mind when haute cuisine is mentioned. However, two leading French chefs, the brothers Francois and Michel Jammet, opened a restaurant in Dublin in 1901 which, up until its closure in 1967, remained one of the best restaurants serving haute cuisine in the world (Mac Con Iomaire 2005a; Mac Con Io...

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... programme and explored Irish food-related subjects for their theses. 2009 witnessed the first PhD on Irish food history, 14 with a number of Irish food-related doctoral projects completed in the subsequent decade, both in Ireland and abroad. 15 In 2017, the MA Gastronomy and Food Studies in TU Dublin enrolled its first cohort of students who graduated in 2019. ...
... The 1980s saw restaurant criticism appearing more regularly in Irish newspapers and Mac Con Iomaire notes the sharp growth from 1985 onwards in column inches dedicated to food in this popular format. 9 In choosing to examine newspaper restaurant criticism over any other form of food writing, this research also highlights the severe competition print media faces from digital media. ...
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The perception and practice of eating out are linked to larger socioeconomic patterns. Newspaper restaurant reviews provide evidence of these trends which can be traced along a specific timeline. The early 1980s in Ireland were a difficult time for restaurants due to high taxes on food, a national recession and a lack of positive restaurant reviews. The economic upturn in the following decade contributed to unprecedented developments in the restaurant industry. Dining out became a regular activity – fuelled in part by restaurant criticism by Irish food journalists, which joined pre-existing theatre, music and book reviews as regular features in national newspapers. The restaurant scene was burgeoning as Irish society experienced a new self-confidence bolstered by the growing economy. Data from restaurant reviews published from 1988–2008 in three national newspapers reveals the Dublin-centric middle-class nature of dining reflected in critics’ reviews, alongside changes in Irish society.
... Despite the pioneering work of some individual scholars, 7 the history of Irish food has only recently been embraced by mainstream historiography and cultural studies, with the emergence of edited volumes, 8 special issues of academic journals 9 and doctoral theses. 10 A food studies lens has also recently been applied to Irish literature, 11 most recently in the form of gastrocriticism. 12 This special volume of Folk Life highlights the interdisciplinary nature of food studies, with papers on the history of the recipe 13 ; food in poetry 14 ; cookbooks as historic sources 15 ; newspaper restaurant reviews; and indeed, food and folklore. ...
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This study explores the food traditions of Imbolg or St. Brigid’s Day (1st February), one of the quarter days of the Irish calendar year, which heralds the awakening of spring. Imbolg is comparable to Christmas eve, in that celebratory potato dishes such as colcannon or ‘poundies’ and boxty are consumed. Throughout the Schools’ Collection (6,000 copybooks filled with folklore collected by over 50,000 children), a rich food history where customs, superstitions, divinations and a mixing of the pagan and Christian traditions is evident. Four main themes: ‘Dishes’, ‘Brigid’s Crosses’, ‘Biddy Boys and Brídeogs’ and ‘Brigid, miracles and religion’ were identified, which share an affinity with the extant folklore literature. However, certain nuances are also highlighted in the Schools’ Folklore Collection (SFC) revealing a rich and oftentimes neglected food culture. This paper aims to address the current lacuna within the Folklore literature concerning foodways, whilst also highlighting opportunities for further research.
... En este artículo se sugiere que la organización y jerarquía estaban asentadas principalmente en la construcción social de los saberes y cualificaciones requeridos para el trabajo. La calificación, entonces, se trataba de una relación y, por tanto, dependía de las interacciones sociales 36 . ¿Cómo se articulaban género, habilidad y cualificación? ...
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Objetivo/contexto: El artículo aborda las formas en que se articularon cocina, espacio público y género, a partir del análisis del trabajo en la cocina del sector hotelero en la ciudad de Mar del Plata (Argentina) en la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Originalidad: En Argentina, usualmente los estudios históricos se han enfocado en las cocinas domésticas y en las experiencias de trabajo que se daban en ellas asociadas a las figuras tanto del ama de casa como del servicio doméstico. Sin embargo, en este artículo el interés se ha centrado en el trabajo realizado en cocinas pertenecientes a hoteles de distintas categorías, lo cual permite visibilizar las tensiones que se generan cuando una actividad tradicionalmente asociada al mundo doméstico se efectúa en la esfera pública y “productiva”. En ese sentido, permite dar cuenta de las jerarquías establecidas dentro de la actividad, ancladas en el género de quien la ejecutaba y una “fragmentación” del saber culinario entre la gran o alta cocina y las cocinas domésticas o cotidianas. Metodología: La investigación siguió una metodología de tipo cualitativo. Se articularon datos provenientes de un fragmentado y heterogéneo conjunto de fuentes: entrevistas, Convenios Colectivos de Trabajo (CCT), manuales de hotelería, sentencias judiciales de tribunales de trabajo y avisos clasificados. Conclusiones: Se arribó a la conclusión de que en la hotelería marplatense se ponía de manifiesto, aun en una misma área, una división sexual del trabajo que reactualizaba la oposición domesticidad femenina versus productividad masculina, propia de la modernidad. En el espacio público las mujeres podían estar a cargo de una cocina cuando la actividad no distaba demasiado de la escala doméstica, mientras que cuando la actividad alcanzaba volúmenes “industriales” era exclusiva de los varones. Cocinar era un trabajo femenino, a la vez que una profesión masculina.
... Until relatively recently, French haute cuisine was the hegemonic model favoured by a pan-European élite, and evidence of this cuisine is found in both Irish and other European literature. 31 Irish missionaries began a long and steady connection between Ireland and France, and indeed throughout Europe based on religion, education and trade. 32 The appearance of three recipes specifically 'in the Irish style,' 33 included in Lancelot de Casteau's (1604) cookbook Ouverture de cuisine, published in Liège, may be explained by noting the author had previously served as master cook to three 16th century prince-bishops and their possible relationships with Irish missionaries. ...
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Drawing on evidence from across a range of disciplines (literature, folklore, history, sociology, etc.), this paper explores the lack of an iconic link between Ireland and food, explaining the reasons why Ireland and food are not immediately linked in the popular imagination. It argues for recognition of foodways as a significant element in Ireland’s intangible cultural heritage. It highlights and interrogates constructs, such as ‘national’ and ‘regional’ cuisines, charting the growing scholarship around Irish food history from the ground breaking work of A.T. Lucas and Louis Cullen to a recent emerging cluster of doctoral researchers. The paper identifies the potential in ideas of the Annales School for the study of Irish food history. Finally, it argues for a serious engagement with Irish language sources claiming that this Gaelic heritage can provide a competitive advantage in a new age of innovation and creativity.
... However, individuals who can overcome the perceived difficulties mentioned above and thrive in such an environment merit special attention and examination. Oral histories with a number of Irish chefs highlight how they faced these challenges to succeed against the odds in the past (Mac Con Iomaire, 2009), yet this research is focused in the present, in a much-transformed culinary landscape. ...
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This study based on a survey of 170 head chefs provides the first comprehensive empirical data on the profile of head chefs in the Republic of Ireland. Eighty-four percent of head chefs were male and the majority (48.8%) were in their thirties. There is an increased rise in the attainment of degrees (currently at 35%), but findings showed that it takes years to advance in the industry, where there is a high rate of turnover. This article both reviews and adds to the international literature on the occupation of chef and raises questions for further research such as: Why are there so few female head chefs in Ireland? What is the best way to manage talent and improve retention of head chefs? Why are there more migrant head chefs working in restaurants rather than hotels? Findings from this may benefit industry stakeholders, employers, educators, and prospective culinary students.
... The history of commercial hospitality has been identified as an under-researched area that has practical value to the contemporary hospitality industry (O'Gorman, 2009). This paper, drawing on the author's doctoral research on Dublin restaurants 1900-2000: an oral history (Mac Con Iomaire, 2009a), seeks to redress this gap by presenting a review of commercial hospitality locations in Dublin between 1700 and 1900. By 1710, Dublin was the fourth largest city in Europe (Gibney, 2006, p. 17). ...
... The use of the term Grill Room seems to replace the advertising of Gridirons towards the end of the century. Analysis of advertisements in The Irish Times archives shows the presence of a "London Silver Gridiron" in at least five restaurants in Dublin (Mac Con Iomaire, 2009a). Two establishments linked with these trends, The Red Bank Restaurant and The Burlington Restaurant, survived into the twentieth century, and became the leading restaurants in Dublin for over two-thirds of the twentieth century. ...
... This is evident particularly from the case studies of both Burton Bindons Tavern which developed on the site of an old hostelry, renamed The Red Bank Restaurant to become considered "the Delmonico's of Dublin" by the turn of the twentieth century; and The Burlington, which from 1864 to 1901 continuously stayed abreast of the fashions of the day, and regularly re-branded and redefined its core offering. The fortunes of both establishment for two-thirds of the following century can be traced in (Mac Con Iomaire, 2009a). The various case studies presented in the paper chart innovations in the commercial hospitality industry from the development of oyster bars, grill rooms, ladies dining rooms, American "cocktail" bars to the emergence of a vegetarian restaurant in 1899. ...
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the changing food culture of Ireland focusing particularly on the evolution of commercial public dining in Dublin 1700‐1900, from taverns, coffeehouses and clubs to the proliferation of hotels and restaurants particularly during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Design/methodology/approach – Using a historical research approach, the paper draws principally on documentary and archival sources, but also uses material culture. Data are analysed using a combination of hermeneutics (Denzin and Lincoln, O'Gorman) and textual analysis (Howell and Prevenier). Findings – The paper traces the various locations of public dining in Dublin 1700‐1900 and reveals that Dublin gentlemen's clubs preceded their London counterparts in owning their own premises, but that the popularity of clubs in both cities resulted in a slower growth of restaurants than in Paris. Competition for clubs appeared in the form of good hotels. The Refreshment Houses and Wine Licences (Ireland) Act 1860 created a more congenial environment for the opening of restaurants, with separate ladies coffee or dining rooms appearing from around 1870 onwards. Originality/value – There is a dearth of research on the history of Irish food and commercial food provision in particular. This paper provides the most comprehensive discussion to date on the development of commercial dining in Dublin 1700‐1900 and suggests that the 1860 legislation might be further explored as a catalyst for the growth of restaurants in London and other British cities.
... There has been a growing interest in culinary history and gastronomy in the last three decades (Messer et al., 2000). Culinary history research at doctoral level has been gradually increasing (Barlösius, 1988;Spang, 1993;Trubek, 1995;Mac Con Iomaire, 2009;O'Gorman, 2010). In the inaugural editorial of the new Journal of Culinary Science and Technology (Vol. ...
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This article proposes that a better knowledge of culinary history enriches all culinary stakeholders. The article will discuss the origins and history of corned beef in Irish cuisine and culture. It outlines how cattle have been central to the ancient Irish way of life for centuries but were cherished more for their milk than their meat. In the early modern period, with the decline in the power of the Gaelic lords, cattle became an economic commodity that was exported to England. The Cattle Acts of 1663 and 1667 affected the export trade of live cattle and led to a growing trade in salted Irish beef, centred principally on the city of Cork. Irish corned beef provisioned the British navy fleets for over two centuries. It was also shipped to the English and French colonies. The articcle discusses the growth of the corned beef industry and how Irish immigrants popularized corned beef and cabbage in America. It also presents evidence of corned beef consumption in Ireland as a festive food. Changing meat consumption patterns in modern Ireland are discussed and the negative influence of canned South American “bully beef” on traditional Irish corned beef is highlighted. The influence of war on changing dietary habits and on accelerating food innovation is also discussed.
Conference Paper
Culinary arts is a neglected social and life science, which has historically been treated as a hands-on discipline with little academic input. Over the past decade there has been an influx of research in the discipline, specifically in culinary education across the world. Culinary arts is often relegated to the tourism sector, which fails to take into account that the culinary arts permeate through society, economy, culture and politics. It is also commandeered by the health and wellness sector, which has a singular focus and does not take into account the breadth and richness of the discipline. The late twentieth century brought about the start of a revolution in culinary education. This movement saw the advancement of culinary arts to the level of higher education in third level institutes and universities. It is crucial to draw from the cultural, political, and social context of culinary educational development, to understand the inconsistent provision of educational opportunities across the European Framework of Qualifications in some European countries. The traditional approach to training culinary professionals was limited to technical education, which focused on the narrow skills requirements for the industry. Higher education that utilises a blended liberal and vocational approach creates the opportunity for culinary practitioners to fulfill their potential beyond the traditional roles of industry operatives. Future culinarians should be critical thinkers with the opportunities and tools to contribute to the food and beverage industry through their creativity and innovation. Improving the education of culinary practitioners as well as the standing of culinary knowledge, will safeguard the food and beverage industry in these disruptive times.
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This article researches the Europeanisation of the restaurant scenes in Sofia and Belgrade, capitals of an actual EU member-state and an aspiring one. By comparing the representations of foreign cuisines in aspects such as presumed depth and breadth of customers’ knowledge, incorporation of culinary terms, use of authentic ingredients and presence of native chefs, the research establishes similarities between tastes and lifestyle aspirations in the two cities, but also differences in their realization. This comparison outlines the structural advantages provided by EU membership with its facilitation of the movement of goods and people. Considering the researched material within the debate over European integration endangering local identities, the article contradicts this and demonstrates how the influx of foreign cuisines creates pressures to modernize and reassert national cuisines, integrating them within their culinary region.