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Blanching and Drying Times for Selected Fruits

Blanching and Drying Times for Selected Fruits

Context in source publication

Context 1
... Simmer 10 minutes (Table 3). ...

Citations

... Fruit spoilage can be prevented using physical (Boyer et al., 2009) and chemical methods (Msaghati, 2012) but no efficient strategy has been proposed so far to reduce the microbial growth ensuring public health safety. Lactic acid Bacteria (LAB) can play a vital role as natural preservatives mainly because of the production of antifungal compounds such as carboxylic acids, fatty acids, ethanol, carbondioxide, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins (Pawlowska et al., 2012). ...
Experiment Findings
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Nacl tolerance
... Waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mengeringkan buah -buahan cukup dengan waktu 8 jam sedangkan untuk mengeringkan sayur -sayuran hanya membutuhkan waktu 2 jam dengan menggunakan panas matahari. (Boyer & Huff, 2009 ;Vega-Mercado et al., 2001). Menurut Johanes et al., (2020) alat pengering tipe tray membutuhkan waktu 20 jam untuk mengeringkan 30 kg biji kakao dan 4 jam 20 menit untuk mengeringkan cengkeh. ...
Article
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Untuk menghindari kerusakan hasil pertanian pasca panen dianggap perlu penangan hasil pertanian dengan cara pengeringan. Waktu dan suhu pengeringan olahan pangan sangat berpengaruh terhadap mutu olahan pangan, guna meningkatkan nilai tambah dan memperpanjang daya simpan hasil pertanian komoditas hortikultura yang bersifat musiman dan tergolong perishable (mudah rusak). Adapun tipe – tipe pengeringan hasil pertanian seperti tipe cabinet, tray berputar, tipe putaran drum bervariasi dan tipe rak model teta’17. Rata – rata Suhu ruang pengeringan 400C - 600C dan waktu pengeringan rata – rata 8 – 12 jam sesuai dengan produk yang dikeringkan. Sumber panas yang dapat dipergunakan untuk mengeringkan hasil pertanian antara lain energi matahari, panas bumi, limbah kayu dan lampu inframerah. Biji kakao dikeringkan selama 20 jam dengan berat awal 30 kg dan berat akhir 12,6 kg, cengkeh dengan berat awal 15 kg dan berat akhir 8,04 kg dikeringkan selama 4 jam 20 menit. Lada dikeringkan selama 8 jam pada suhu 400C dengan kadar air akhir 11,99%. Buah pala memiliki kadar air awal sebesar 38,75%, setelah dikeringkan selama 12 jam pada suhu 520C kadar air akhir 9,70%. Dan kadar air chips mocaf semi kering setelah dikeringkan dengan menggunakan cabinet dryer pada suhu 700C sesuai dengan SNI tepung mocaf No 7622-2011 yaitu ≤ 13%.
... The primary objective of drying is the removal of water from foods, which microorganisms require for growth,resulting in a more shelf stable, smaller and lighter food. Reduction in moisture discourages growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms (Boyer and Huff, 2008). Furthermore, drying of herbs and spices is also used generally to extend the shelf-life of the resulting dried products.There are several methods of drying including sun or solar, onventional, microwave oven and the use of food dehydrator. ...
... The primary objective of drying is the removal of water from foods, which microorganisms require for growth,resulting in a more shelf stable, smaller and lighter food. Reduction in moisture discourages growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms (Boyer and Huff, 2008). Furthermore, drying of herbs and spices is also used generally to extend the shelf-life of the resulting dried products.There are several methods of drying including sun or solar, onventional, microwave oven and the use of food dehydrator. ...
Article
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Spices is an important condiment in food preparation as increases the aroma and palatability of food. Medicinal and antimicrobial properties of spices have been widely researched. However, the microbial profile and most appropriate method of spices preservation and storage are rarely known. In this study 5 spices samples namely Nutmeg, Uda, (Ngero pepper) Uziza seed (Ashanti pepper),Ginger, Garlic were analysed microbiologically after 7 day of storage at different condition (refrigerator, exposed, covered and stored at room temperature and sundried. For total heterotrophic count, coliform count, Staphylococuss count and fungi count. The ranged from 1.0x10cfu/g for sundried uda to 1.68x107 cfu/g for refrigerated nutmeg. A total of 104 bacteria isolates which include Bacillus40(3.48), Micrococcus25(24.0%) Staphylococcus 24(23.07%), Citrobcater4(3.84%), Ecoli2(1.9%), Serretia(4,(3.8%), Proteus3(2.8%) were recovered .Staphylococcus count was sundried samples, while fungi count ranged from 1.9x104 cfu/g for fresh uziza to 6.2x104cfu/ml for covered ginger stored at room temperature from which a total of 77 fungi isolates comprising of Aspergillus, Sacchromyces, Rhizopus, Penicillum and Fusarium were recovered from all spices samples Because of the widespread use of spices There is a need to stress the importance of correct handling of food which incorporate spices both at a domestic and commercial level. A Need is evident to establish standards of compliance for Spices to give the user a reliable safe product.
... Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer (Zahra 2016). Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of Vitamin C, as well as several other antioxidant compounds (Boyer 2009). The fibre content, while less than in most other fruits, helps to regulate bowel movements, and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. ...
... Microbes need enough moisture to grow and cause spoilage. Dehydration or drying is the method of removing moisture from fruits and vegetables which in turn prevents the microbial growth and enzyme activities, minimizing many moisture mediated deterioration reactions (Boyer and Huff, 2008;Krokida and Marinos-Kouris, 2003). Different drying techniques like osmo-air drying, direct sun drying, indirect solar drying, and oven drying are used in present times to preserve the fruit and prolong its shelf-life. ...
Article
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This review describes different postharvest fungal diseases like blue mold, Anthracnose and fruit rot of Indian gooseberry along with its management strategies that covers physical, chemical and biological methods. The physical methods of management include osmo-drying, hot water treatment, UV-C treatment, application of high electric field current, efficient packaging in low and high density polythene pouches.Chemical methods involve treatment with different synthetic fungicides like Bavistin, Mancozeb, Gibberellic acid, Carbendazim, Calcium nitrate and Calcium sulphate. Lastly, the biological control methods have been mentioned, which includes application of microbial antagonists and naturally occurring antifungal compounds.
... [3] In this process, water or moisture is removed from a food product, which makes it lighter. [4] Heat treatment is often used for drying of food products and conventional heating is the most common method in the heating of foodstuffs. Innovative technologies such as dielectric heating(DH), inductive heating, ohmic heating, and many more have evolved as alternatives to traditional thermal processing. ...
Article
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Dielectric heating (DH) is an alternative to traditional conductive heating. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on DH is faster than conventional heating systems, needing less processing time, and delivering a better dehydrated product as well as reduced treatment costs. Dielectric properties (DPs) are significant physical qualities that are affected by microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) heating systems; these attributes directly affect the electromagnetic arrangement and currents surrounding the materials. In other words, DPs define the response of materials in electric fields at the desired frequency and temperature. Thus, DPs of materials are of increasing interest in the agricultural and food-processing fields. The principles of the DPs of fruits and vegetables according to frequency, temperature, and composition are crucial in the designing and handling of MW and RF heating operations. A consideration of DPs is required to ensure the quality of fruits and vegetables is enhanced throughout the drying process for better quality final products. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive update on the prospects of DH for drying of fruits and vegetables. The factors that affect the DPs during the dehydration process of fruits and vegetables and discussions about the correlation among these factors were also provided. In addition, the fundamentals of DPs and their measurement techniques were also discussed. This study is an update on the state-of-the-art DH system and illustrates the important influence of DPs on the radiative heating of fruits and vegetables.
... Sliced fruit pieces should be dipped in fruit juice for 3-5 minutes then fruits were removed from juice and placed on dryer trays. [22] ...
Chapter
Drying is one of the oldest method to enhance storability, minimize the packaging requirement and reduce the weight of fruits and vegetables. The main feature of drying consists of decreasing he water content of fruits and vegetables in order to avoid or slow down the spoilage by microorganism. Drying is also a way of preserving seasonal fruits and vegetables for later use. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through sun or solar drying techniques produces poor quality final product and also causes product contamination. Now-a-days, every form of fruit and vegetables can be dried by using different kind of driers. Recent research on drying methods also focuses on the advancement in energy consumption, product recovery and preservation of nutrient, flavours and colours of the dried product. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, spray drying etc. have great scope for the production of quality dried products of fruits and vegetables.
... growth and development of these spoilage-causing microorganisms and slows down enzymatic reactions that take place within food. The combination of these events helps to prevent spoilage in dried food (Boyer, 2008). ...
Article
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Vegetables make up a major portion of the diet for human in various parts of the world, play a momentous ingredient in human nutrition and their postharvest losses range from 40-60% following harvest. Therefore, the development of Ready-to-cook (RTC) dehydrated vegetable mixture is one of the value additions to preserve the nutritional content of the vegetables. Accordingly, a study was conducted to develop a RTC dehydrated vegetable mixture by using five different vegetables such as carrot (Daucus carota), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), eggplant (Solanum melongena), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). The dehydrated RTC vegetable mixtures were prepared to different levels 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.4% and 1.6% (w/w) of pumpkin pulp which served as binding agent while keeping other ingredients as constant. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Total soluble solids (TSS), moisture and fiber content were raged between 5.6-5.8, 3.8-5.7˚Brix, 20.6-23.9 % and 3.86-6.89 % respectively. The TSS, moisture and fiber contents of formulated RTC dehydrated vegetable mixtures were significantly differed (p < 0.05) when the levels of added pumpkin puree in the mixture increased from 1.0 to 1.6 %. The microbiological study revealed that the prepared products were safe based on the total plate count test, yeast, mould count and coliform tests. Results of sensory evaluation showed that the product can be consumed with high preference on a 5-point hedonic scale. Based on physico-chemical and sensory properties, the treatment with 1.2% of pumpkin was selected as the best combination compared to other tested treatments. The product was of having 22% of moisture and could be kept microbiologically safe for 5 weeks at ambient temperature of 30±1 o C and 75% of RH.
... With up to 15% of the world's population still without food, there is need to prevent food spoilage (Esper and Mühlbauer, 1998). Drying is the oldest preservation method involving drying, dessication and dehydration of food (Boyer and Huff, 2009;University of California, 2014;Brian, 2002). It involves a reduction in moisture to slow down spoilage organisms and enzymes and thus preserving the food. ...
Article
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Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) is widely grown and consumed in Nigeria and parts of Africa. Mainly used fresh, it is also dried to improve shelf life. The effect of drying temperatures on the mineral composition and bacterial population of Vernonia amygdalina was studied using standard procedures. Drying temperatures (oven and sun) caused significant reduction (p<0.05) in Cu, Na, Mg, and K. However, Zn, Fe, Ca, P, and Mn were not affected by the drying temperatures. The least available nutrient was Cu (0.01±0.0-0.013±0.00%) and Zn (0.03±0.00%) and the highest was K ranging between 3.7±0.01 and 3.8±0.01%. The bacterial population was highest (p≥0.05) in fresh samples. Fresh samples had the highest mean total heterotrophic bacterial population of 4.0±0.4 × 10 4 CFU g-1 while the oven dried samples had the least of 2.075 ±0.6076 × 10 4 CFU g-1. Similarly, the coliform counts were 2.350±0.4435 CFU g-1 , 1.375±0.2986 CFU g-1 and 1.650±0.4041CFU g-1 for fresh, oven and sun dried samples respectively. A total of six (6) bacterial genera were identified. The highest occurring was Bacillus spp occurring in all treatments at varying frequencies. Others include Staphylococcus spp, E. coli, Serratia spp, Lactobacillus spp and Pseudomonas spp in order of occurrence. This study proved that drying temperatures did not alter the essential mineral content (Na and K) of the bitter leaf and can be used to prolong its shelf life. The presence of food poisoning bacteria in V. amygdalina in this study poses a public health challenge.