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Black rhino population in Hluhluwe-Imfolozi (1989-2004)  

Black rhino population in Hluhluwe-Imfolozi (1989-2004)  

Citations

... Using data for average auction prices received for rhino sold in KwaZulu-Natal from 2000 to 2005, Spenceley and Barnes (2005) found that the price for white rhino had dropped by 50% from an average of US$34,888 in 2000 to $17,393 in 2005, while the average price of black rhino had dropped by 21%. At the same time, the number of animals sold also declined. ...
Article
A proposal for addressing rhinoceros poaching is to legalise the trade in rhino horn and adopt a regulated market approach, overturning the current trade ban. This orthodox economic prescription aims to reduce incentives to poach endangered wildlife by driving down the market price of their products via auctioned stockpile releases. Biologists are clear, however, that securing a stockpile for some species needs biological success in captive breeding programmes (CBPs), which varies markedly across species and habitats. Rhinoceros herds in a CBP would need spatially extensive terrain and costly permanent security measures; this only appears feasible for the less aggressive ‘white’ rhino. We argue that the market price would actually need to be sustained at a high level to cover protection costs over the longer reproduction cycles in CBPs and that, without extensive monitoring and the correct institutional structures being in place, legalising trade may encourage, rather than prevent, poaching. Supplementary policy measures that differentiate among consumer groups would also likely prove necessary.
... Conservation organizations could work to provide some kind of exploitable recognition and publicity for landowners who include their land in conservancies . Strategies such as the Ezemvelo KZN black rhino range expansion project offer potential additional incentives to land owners to form conservancies (Spencely & Barnes, 2005 ). Ranchers who have cooperated to form conservancies large enough for black rhino reintroduction are given custody over a founder population of rhinos and are then allowed to keep a proportion of the offspring (Spencely & Barnes, 2005). ...
... Strategies such as the Ezemvelo KZN black rhino range expansion project offer potential additional incentives to land owners to form conservancies (Spencely & Barnes, 2005 ). Ranchers who have cooperated to form conservancies large enough for black rhino reintroduction are given custody over a founder population of rhinos and are then allowed to keep a proportion of the offspring (Spencely & Barnes, 2005). Success in developing incentives to increase the number of conservancies would significantly enhance the conservation value of private land in southern Africa. ...
Article
Legislative changes during recent decades resulted in a massive shift away from livestock towards game ranching in southern Africa, resulting in significant increases in the abundance and distribution of many wildlife species. However, there are problems associated with game ranching from a conservation perspective, including persecution of predators, overstocking, introductions of exotic species and genetic manipulation of ‘huntable’ species. We suggest here that most of these problems could be overcome through promoting the formation of conservancies, where adjacent ranches remove internal fencing to form larger collaborative wildlife areas. Larger areas permit the reintroduction of the full range of indigenous mammals, tending to result in a land-use shift from high-offtake, low-value consumptive utilization towards higher value forms of hunting and ecotourism. Under these land-use conditions, ranchers tend to be more tolerant of predators and often actively reintroduce them. Freedom of movement for wildlife populations increases resilience to environmental shocks. The collaborative management agreements typical of conservancies tend to align more closely with conservation objectives than on single ranches. Fortuitously, there are financial advantages associated with conservancies: land-use options in conservancies are more profitable and there are economies of scale associated with cooperative management. Land within conservancies is likely to appreciate in value and attract external investment. In addition, conservancies are more conducive to developing partnerships with indigenous communities and investors and may thus increase the political and social sustainability of game ranching. However, ranchers are fiercely independent and may be resistant to removing fences due to the perception that they may relinquish control over their land and wildlife. Strategies are required to overcome such reluctance and promote the formation of conservancies to enhance the conservation value of game ranch land.
... The camp is a joint venture between SRT and Wilderness Safaris to lead rhino-tracking safaris. The aim of the project is to use tourism directly to support the monitoring costs of rhino conservation in the area, while directly linking rhino conservation goals to regional development and economic growth (Adcock 2005;Spenceley & Barnes 2005). ...
... The literature study confirmed the importance of the CBNRM programme in Namibia and its resultant conversion of large tracts of land for wildlife and tourism. Rhinos are an important catalyst in attracting donor funds to the CBNRM programme in Namibia (Spenceley & Barnes 2005). This chapter has presented the results of the testing of the second of the two research hypotheses, namely that tracking of black rhinos contributes beneficially to sustainable community-based ecotourism. ...
... Rhinos were an important catalyst in attracting donor funds to the CBNRM programme in Namibia (Spenceley & Barnes 2005). The hypothesis tested was that tracking of black rhinos contributes beneficially to sustainable community-based ecotourism. ...
Article
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research focuses on the black rhinoceros and ecotourism in three conservation areas in the Kunene region of Namibia. The reciprocal impact between black rhino and community-based ecotourism is analysed. The research is located in two communal conservancies, #Khoadi-//Hôas and Torra, and in a photographic tourism concession, the Palmwag Concession Area. The research aims to explore and describe the reciprocal impact of community-based ecotourism efforts and black rhino spatial movement patterns in three conservation areas in north-west Namibia. An in-depth literature review was undertaken on the reciprocal impact between rhino-tracking tourism and conservation. A comparison was also made between the effects of human-induced disturbance on spatial movement patterns of black rhinos and the perception of tourists about tracking black rhinos. The value of black rhinos to community-based ecotourism was also determined. Quantitative research methodology was used for this study. Explorations of objectives were conducted through direct field observation with the aid of radio-telemetry tracking and aerial surveying for data gathering. The researcher employed SRT (Save the Rhino Trust) trackers in the study areas to assist with the tracking. The sample consisted of 24 transmitter-fitted black rhino in the three conservation areas. Rhino not fitted with transmitters have been included in the sample for more accurate results. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed at four tourist lodges in the study area. The hypothesis that sustainable ecotourism does not influence black rhino spatial behaviour was rejected. Rhinos in the study were easily disturbed and did not readily return to undisturbed behaviour. Their major response to disturbance was to run away. The disturbance was influenced by their initial activity when found. The highest disturbance occurred early in observations. Rhinos illustrated similar causes of disturbance throughout the study sites. The Springbok River emerged as the area with the most severe reactions to disturbance. This was supported by home range data and ecological constraints. Analysis of tourist responses regarding rhino tracking indicated a high demand for and level of satisfaction. This was the single determining factor for tourists to return to the Kunene region to do rhino tracking again. Tourists were willing to pay close to market price to track black rhino. It is recommended that tracking of black rhino should be avoided in the Springbok River and Aub/Barab areas. Tracking protocols should stipulate that tracking should only be conducted early in the morning; that rhinos may only be approached from downwind; that observation time may not exceed 15 minutes; that groups must be kept small; and that the approach distance may not be less than 100 metres. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fokus van die navorsing is op swart renosters en ekotoerisme in drie bewaringsgebiede in die Kunene streek van Namibia. Die wedersydse wisselwerking tussen swart renosters en gemeenskaps-gebaseerde ekotoerisme is nagevors. Die navorsing het plaasgevind in twee kommunale bewaringsgebiede, #Khoadi-//Hôas en Torra asook ‘n konsessie vir fotografie in die Palmwag Konsessie Gebied. Die doel van die navorsing was om die wedersydse wisselwerking van gemeenskapsgebaseerde ekotoerisme en swart renosters se geografiese bewegingspatrone in drie bewaringsareas in noordwes Namibië te ondersoek en te omskryf. ‘n Deeglike literatuurstudie is gedoen ten opsigte van die wedersydse wisselwerking tussen toerisme met die doel om renosters waar te neem deur spoorsny en bewaring van die spesies. Die uitwerking van versteuring deur mense op die geografiese bewegingspatrone van swart renosters is vergelyk met die persepsie van toeriste ten opsigte van spoorsny van swart renosters. Die waarde van swart renosters ten opsigte van ekotoerisme is ook bepaal. Kwantitatiewe navorsingsmetodologie is gebruik in die studie. Die doelstelling van die navorsing is uitgevoer deur direkte veld waarnemings met behulp van radio-telemetriese opsporing en data insameling met behulp van lugsensusse. Die navorser het spoorsnyers van SRT (Save the Rhino Trust), wat in die studiegebied werk, in diens geneem om van hulp te wees met die spoorsny van renosters. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 24 swart renosters toegerus met seintoestelle in drie bewaringsgebiede. Renosters wat nie seintoestelle gehad het nie, is ook in die steekproef ingesluit ten einde beter dekking te verkry. Vierhonderd vraelyste is by vier toeristeoorde in die studiegebied versprei. Die hipotese dat volhoubare ekotoerisme nie ‘n invloed uitoefen op die geografiese gedrag van swart renosters nie, is verwerp. Renosters in die studie-gebied is maklik versteur en het nie geredelik teruggekeer tot onversteurde gedrag nie. Hulle reaksie op versteuring was gekenmerk deur weg te hardloop. Die mate van versteuring is bepaal deur die renosters se aanvanklike aktiwiteit by opsporing. Die meeste versteuring het gedurende vroeë waarneming plaasgevind. Dieselfde oorsake van versteuring is in al drie gebiede gevind. Die Springbokrivier was die gebied waar die sterkste reaksies ten opsigte van versteuring bespeur is. Dit word ondersteun deur die grootte van die loopgebiede van die renosters en ekologiese beperkings van die gebied. Data-analise van toeriste-vraelyste het aangetoon dat daar ‘n groot aanvraag en belangstelling is in die spoorsny van renosters. Die grootste bepalende faktor vir toeriste om na die Kunene streek terug te keer, is om renosters te sien deur middel van spoorsny. Toeriste is gewillig om die heersende markprys vir spoorsny van renosters te betaal. Navorsingsaanbevelings sluit in dat spoorsny van swart renosters in die Springbokrivier en Aub/Barab gebiede vermy word. Spoorsny-protokol moet stipuleer dat dit net in die vroeë oggend gedoen word, dat renosters slegs van onderkant die wind genader word, waarnemingstyd mag nie 15 minute oorskry nie, groepe moet klein wees en die afstand vanaf die diere mag nie nader as 100 meter wees nie. Thesis (MA (Geography and Environmental Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.
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This report was developed under the supervision of the Global Mechanism of the UNCCD, in collaboration with the OSLO consortium and the CBD Secretariat. e report provides policy- relevant information on valuation methods in the drylands context and guidance for their use. While valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services may be a complex process, involving all relevant stakeholders from the start ensures higher success rates and leads to the scaling up of sustainable land management policy and practice.
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In June and July 2015, Conservation International – on behalf of the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa (GDSA) Secretariat – conducted a desktop scoping study for the 10 GDSA countries as well as for Uganda and Madagascar on their Natural Capital Accounting initiatives. The objectives of this desktop scoping study were to gain a preliminary understanding of each country’s natural resources and important ecosystems, relevant policies and actors working in this space, as well as to understand the history of each country’s experiences with ecosystem valuation and natural capital accounting (inclusive of Central Framework and Ecosystem Accounting initiatives). This scoping focused on public sector natural capital accounting initiatives. While the accounting for natural capital was the primary focus of the scoping, information about tourism accounts was also collected as tourism in the GDSA countries is closely linked to wildlife and eco-tourism. In total, over 500 documents and websites were reviewed and incorporated into this report. Limited stakeholder engagement and ground-truthing took place until November 2015 though it was not undertaken systematically across all countries. Therefore, it should be acknowledged that the country profiles presented here may be incomplete. Future scoping studies will be undertaken to provide a more rounded picture of the work being undertaken by Gaborone signatory countries. It is hoped that this report can act as a public source of information to help share information among and between Gaborone Declaration countries.