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Biological activity of turmeric compounds and extracts

Biological activity of turmeric compounds and extracts

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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is used as spice, preservative, colouring matter and has wide range of medicinal and pharmacological applications. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, nematocidal, antiparasitic, antispasmodic and anticarcinogenic activities. It is a potent scavenger of a variety of reactive oxygen species...

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... exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antic arcinogenic and gastrointestinal effects in vitro whereas it has shown anti- parasitic and anti-inflammatory activity through oral application in animal models (Araujo and Leon 2001, Davis et al 2007, Thangapazham et al 2007. The variou pharmacological activities of turmeric/ compounds/extracts are shown in Table 1. ...

Citations

... Turmeric (Curcuma longa) belongs to Zingiberaceae, which is extensively cultivated for its rhizomes. It is used as spice, preservative and coloring agent in addition to possessing many medicinal applications such as anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial activities (104,105). Turmeric is known to contain poluphenolic compounds known as curcuminoids, including curcumin (Figure 4), demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin (104,105). ...
... It is used as spice, preservative and coloring agent in addition to possessing many medicinal applications such as anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial activities (104,105). Turmeric is known to contain poluphenolic compounds known as curcuminoids, including curcumin (Figure 4), demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin (104,105). ...
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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with almost 10 million cancer-related deaths worldwide in 2020, so any investigation to prevent or cure this disease is very important. Spices have been studied widely in several countries to treat different diseases. However, studies that summarize the potential anticancer effect of spices used in Mediterranean diet are very limited. This review highlighted chemo-therapeutic and chemo-preventive effect of ginger, pepper, rosemary, turmeric, black cumin and clove. Moreover, the mechanisms of action for each one of them were figured out such as anti-angiogenesis, antioxidant, altering signaling pathways, induction of cell apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest, for several types of cancer. The most widely used spice in Mediterranean diet is black pepper (Piper nigrum L). Ginger and black cumin have the highest anticancer activity by targeting multiple cancer hallmarks. Apoptosis induction is the most common pathway activated by different spices in Mediterranean diet to inhibit cancer. Studies discussed in this review may help researchers to design and test new anticancer diets enriched with selected spices that have high activities.
... Lokhande et al. [6] explained numerous benefits of curcumin on preventing and treating some diseases. Niranjan et al. [9] described lots of pharmacological activities of turmeric that have been identified by different research. These pharmacological activities are due to the high content of curcumin. ...
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is an underground rhizome that is an essential ingredient in day-today life. India is the major turmeric production and exportation country in the world. However, since December 2019, Sri Lanka has banned the importation of turmeric from other countries like India. Curing is a significant step during the processing of turmeric, which can be described as cooking fresh turmeric rhizomes before going to the drying step. Curing helps to avoid the raw odor, to reduce the drying time, to distribute the pigment product uniformly, and facilitate uniform drying. This study was conducted to identify the best protocol for turmeric processing and compare the quality of local turmeric samples prepared by using different processing steps such as, uncured and dried as slices, water boiled and dried as slices, steamed and dried as slices with imported turmeric from India. All the samples were separately analyzed for phytochemical properties (moisture content, volatile oil content, curcumin content, oleoresin content, etc.). Curcumin is an important attribute when considering the quality of turmeric. Curcumin content is varied with the curing step. The lowest curcumin content was shown by the uncured and sliced sample (2.86 ± 0.13 %). Steamed and dried as slices sample showed the highest curcumin content (4.51 ± 0.02 %). Curing and Slicing also decreased the drying time. However, water boiled and sliced sample (T-2) showed a high yield (wet to dry ratio 5.41:1), volatile oil content 4.40 ± 0.00 %, and oleoresin content 14.81 ± 2.36 %. According to the results, among the locally produced turmeric, steamed and dried as slices sample (T-3) showed good quality especially for curcumin content.
... Administering the compounds extracts to diabetic rats such as curcumin, turmeric or tetrahydrocurcumin decreased the glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin level. Curcumin can also decrease the oxidative stress by increasing the ratio of NADPH to NADP, increasing the activity of antioxidant enzyme [85]. A careful examination was done on the animal models and during experimentation different doses of curcumin at different time interval were administered for 8 weeks. ...
Research
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Diabetes is one of the serious metabolic disorders occurred due to the imbalance of glucose level because of damaged pancreatic β-cells and lower production of insulin in body. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TD1) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TD2) are main types of diabetes. Major portion of the world is suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs used for diabetes are insulin, biguanides, sulfonylurea and inhibitors for α-glucosidase. Traditional medicines are under trial to reduce diabetic complications with no/minimum side effects. Many antidiabetic plants are under potential research i.e., strawberry, jamun, mulberry, fenugreek, turmeric, black pepper, garlic, ginger, grapefruit, and cinnamon. All of these have antidiabetic potential. These plants have bioactive compounds present in minute amounts. These compounds act against inflammation, diabetes, bacteria, fungi, other microbial infections, and obesity. These plants have antioxidant potential as well. Through HPLC "High-performance liquid chromatography" screening, the compounds identified were caffeic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids. These compounds showed hypoglycemic activity. They are responsible for the increased uptake of glucose by the adipose and muscle tissues due to the activation of specific receptors i.e., PPARα "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α" and PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). These activate the enzymes like glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Glutathione peroxidase inhibit the α-amylase then α-glucosidase lower glucose level. Effect of phytochemicals present in antidiabetic plants were studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models by inducing diabetes in them by streptozotocin, alloxan and diet on diabetic patients. Types of phytochemical compounds and their composition vary due to environmental factors, extraction and separation techniques which can have effect on clinical analysis. Bioavailability of oral drugs was also studied synergistically with these plants. Synthetic drugs, if are used with these natural compounds, they have no harmful effect but increase effectiveness. These herbal medications are more preferable, safe to use and cost effective due to which it is easily affordable by people. This review report covers the impact of these plants on diabetes mellitus reported so far.
... There are several phenolic compounds present in turmeric such as 1-hydroxy-1, 7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-(6E)-6-heptene-3, 5-dione; 1, 7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4, 6heptatrien-3-one; 1-(4-hydroxy-3, 5d i m e t h o x y p h e n y l ) -7 -( 4 -h y d r o x y -3methoxyphenyl)-(1E, 6E)-1, 6-heptadiene-3, 4dione; 1-(4 hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-5-(4hydroxyphenyl)-penta-(1E, 4E)-1, 4-dien-3one; 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3, 4dihydroxyphenyl)-1, 6-heptadiene-3, 5-dione and 1, 5-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)penta-(1E, 4E)-1, 4-dien-3-one (Niranjan and Prakash, 2008).These phenolic compounds penetrate into the bacterial cell after destroying ...
... Whereas another polysaccharide Ukon D has different composition containing L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose, and D-mannose (1:1:12:2). Turmerin (soluble peptide part) has amino acids aspartic acid/asparagine, glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, glycine, arginine, proline, alanine, tyrosine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine in a ratio of 1:2:3:8:1:1:1:3:2:6:3:4:5:3 (Niranjan and Prakash, 2008). Ikpeama et al. (2014) reported that turmeric contains phytochemicals such as, 1.08% tannin, 0.76% alkaloid, 0.82% phytic acid, 0.45% saponin, 0.03% sterol, 0.08% phenol and 0.40% flavonoid. ...
... The curcumin can scavenge oxygen from these free radicals. This property increases when phenolic and methoxy groups are present in the ortho position of curcumin (Niranjan and Prakash, 2008). The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content either reduced or remains unaltered in Anabas testudineus fed with turmeric supplemented diet as reported by Manju et al. (2012). ...
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a functional food belonging to the Zingiberaceae family and is a spice that has been an essential part of cooking Asian cuisine and in traditional medicine like Ayurveda (Niranjan & Prakash, 2008), Unani and Chinese medicines for centuries (Niranjan & Prakash, 2008). Its bioactive compounds are basically phenols, terpenes, sterols, and alkaloids in nature (Emirik, 2020). ...
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a functional food belonging to the Zingiberaceae family and is a spice that has been an essential part of cooking Asian cuisine and in traditional medicine like Ayurveda (Niranjan & Prakash, 2008), Unani and Chinese medicines for centuries (Niranjan & Prakash, 2008). Its bioactive compounds are basically phenols, terpenes, sterols, and alkaloids in nature (Emirik, 2020). ...
... Curcumin in turmeric is a phenol that has good hopes for use in patients with COVID-19 as it has previously been effective against influenza A virus, HIV, enterovirus, 71 (EV71), herpes simplex virus and even inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV and inhibited 3 Cl protease in Vero E6 cells when tested (Babaei et al., 2020). In terms of improving post COVID-19 complications, curcumin and tetrahydro curcumin have shown to reduce blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in rats, hence proving to be antidiabetic (Niranjan & Prakash, 2008). Turmeric also reduced oxidative stress due to the decrease of glucose in the polyol pathway leading to increased NADPH/NADP ratio and increased GSH-Px activity, which is an antioxidant enzyme (Mao et al., 2019). ...
Article
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COVID‐19 has become the focal point since 2019 after the outbreak of coronavirus disease. Many drugs are being tested and used to treat coronavirus infections; different kinds of vaccines are also introduced as preventive measure. Alternative therapeutics are as well incorporated into the health guidelines of some countries. This research aimed to look into the underlying mechanisms of functional foods and how they may improve the long‐term post COVID‐19 cardiovascular, diabetic, and respiratory complications through their bioactive compounds. The potentiality of nine functional foods for post COVID‐19 complications was investigated through computational approaches. A total of 266 bioactive compounds of these foods were searched via extensive literature reviewing. Three highly associated targets namely troponin I interacting kinase (TNNI3K), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP‐4), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF‐β1) were selected for cardiovascular, diabetes, and respiratory disorders, respectively, after COVID‐19 infections. Best docked compounds were further analyzed by network pharmacological tools to explore their interactions with complication‐related genes (MAPK1 and HSP90AA1 for cardiovascular, PPARG and TNF‐alpha for diabetes, and AKT‐1 for respiratory disorders). Seventy‐one suggested compounds out of one‐hundred and thirty‐nine (139) docked compounds in network pharmacology recommended 169 Gene Ontology (GO) items and 99 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathways preferably AKT signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, ACE2 receptor signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, and PPAR signaling pathway. Among the chosen functional foods, black cumin, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, turmeric, bitter melon, and Indian pennywort were found to modulate the actions. Results demonstrate that aforesaid functional foods have attenuating roles to manage post COVID‐19 complications. Practical applications Functional foods have been approaching a greater interest due to their medicinal uses other than gastronomic pleasure. Nine functional food resources have been used in this research for their traditional and ethnopharmacological uses, but their directive‐role in modulating the genes involved in the management of post COVID‐19 complications is inadequately studied and reported. Therefore, the foods types used in this research may be prioritized to be used as functional foods for ameliorating the major post COVID‐19 complications through appropriate science.
... The compounds identified as major in the aqueous extract of C. longa have been previously reported [37]. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by this plant has been generally associated with curcuminoids, specifically curcumin [38]. However, curcuminoids were not identified in our aqueous extract of C. longa; instead, turmerones (AR, α, and β) were identified as major compounds, which have not received extensive ...
... The compounds identified as major in the aqueous extract of C. longa have been previously reported [37]. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by this plant has been generally associated with curcuminoids, specifically curcumin [38]. However, curcuminoids were not identified in our aqueous extract of C. longa; instead, turmerones (AR, α, and β) were identified as major compounds, which have not received extensive investigation in regards to their anti-inflammatory activity. ...
Article
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The genus Zingiberaceae has been widely used for phytotherapeutic purposes in traditional medicine throughout the world for its anti-inflammatory activity. Experimental studies have established that inflammation caused by chronic infections represents a risk factor for different forms of cancer. The objective of this study was focused on determining the anti-inflammatory capacity and cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom) and Curcuma Longa (turmeric). The extracts were obtained by maceration and, through GC-MS/MS, a total of 11 different chemical components were determined in the aqueous extract of cardamom and 7 in the extract of turmeric. The main compounds found in cardamom and turmeric were α-terpinyl acetate (54.46%) and β-turmerone (33.45%), respectively. RT-qPCR results showed significantly lower gene expression levels of innate inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) compared to the control (LPS). Also, it was observed that the extracts do not possess cytotoxic activity against different cell lines, where E. cardamomum showed EC50 (µg/mL) of 473.84 (HeLa cells), 237.36 (J774A.1 cells), 257.51 (Vero E6 cells), and 431.16 (Balb/C peritoneal cells) and C. longa showed EC50 (µg/mL) of 351.17 (HeLa cells), 430.96 (J774A.1 cells), 396.24 (Vero E6 cells), and 362.86 (Balb/C peritoneal cells). The results of this research suggest that natural extracts of E. cardamomum and C. longa possess anti-inflammatory effects and no cytotoxic activity against HeLa, J774A.1, Vero E6, and Balb/C peritoneal cell lines, Finally, it was observed that the extracts also decreased nitric oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages.
... Many studies have reported the inhibition of inflammatory pathways in several physiological systems by Curcumin ( Figure 1), a secondary metabolite in turmeric. The primary bioactive molecule in turmeric, Curcumin has clear scientific experimental data, demonstrating its ability to modulate multiple signaling pathways [Hatcher 2008, Prasad et al 2011, Niranjan et al 2008. ...
... The recent scientific evidence on the efficacy of Curcumin/Turmeric as an antioxidant, its regulation of inflammation, its antimicrobial actions, supports many centuries of documented clinical use of turmeric in traditional medicinal preparations [Hatcher et al 2008, Prasad et al 2011. Turmeric has a long history in traditional medicine, together with a spectrum of uses in cultural practices, including its use as an ingredient (spice) in foods, ranging from the middleeast, south Asia to far-east Asia [Hatcher 2008, Prasad et al 2011, Niranjan et al 2008. Most turmeric-based traditional treatments are inexpensive and readily accessed [Hewlings 2017]. ...
... The major polyphenolic groups of turmeric are Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and di demethoxycurcumin which are collectively known as curcuminoids [11,12]. Among these curcumin is the most potent compound which exhibits a plethora of biological activities including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti hepatoxic, and anti-cancerous (Table 1) activity [9,10,13]. These multidimensional functional aspects of curcumin make their uses for the treatment of different diseases like cold, cough, skin infections, cuts, wounds, swelling, liver problem, diabetes, rheumatism and many others [9,10] [5,14]. ...
Article
Spices, which is key ingredient in every household products not only used for adding aroma to food but however, has health promoting and protective activity against foreign pathogens. Different spices used in day to day life boosts the immune system that leads to healthy and prosperous life. The commonly used spices not only have antimicrobial or antiviral activity, but also serve as a rich source of various vitamins, minerals, antioxidants etc. The medicinal importance of spices dates from ancient Ayurveda and many studies indicating the potential of spices as immunoboosting agent had been carried out in the recent years. Therefore, this review highlights the medicinal importance of commonly used spices in North-East India as immunobooster against the current coronavirus pandemic.
... Administering the compounds extracts to diabetic rats such as curcumin, turmeric or tetrahydrocurcumin decreased the glucose level and glycosylated haemoglobin level. Curcumin can also decrease the oxidative stress by increasing the ratio of NADPH to NADP, increasing the activity of antioxidant enzyme [80]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is one of the serious metabolic disorders occurred due to the imbalance of glucose level because of damaged pancreatic β-cells and lower production of insulin in body. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (TD1) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (TD2) are main types of diabetes. Major portion of the world is suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs used for diabetes are insulin, biguanides, sulfonylurea and inhibitors for a-glucosidase. Traditional medicines are under trial to reduce diabetic complications with no/minimum side effects. Many antidiabetic plants are under potential research i.e. strawberry, jamun, mulberry, fenugreek, turmeric, black pepper, garlic, ginger, grapefruit, and cinnamon. All of these have antidiabetic potential. These plants have bioactive compounds present in minute amounts. These compounds act against inflammation, diabetes, bacteria, fungi, other microbial infections, and obesity. These plants have antioxidant potential as well. Through HPLC “High- Performance Liquid Chromatography” screening, the compounds identified were caffeic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids. These compounds showed hypoglycemic activity. They are responsible for the increased uptake of glucose by the adipose and muscle tissues due to the activation of specific receptors i.e. PPARa “Peroxisome Proliferatoractivated Receptors a” and PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ). These activate the enzymes like glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Glutathione peroxidase inhibits the a-amylase then a-glucosidase lower glucose level. Effect of phytochemicals present in antidiabetic plants were studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models by inducing diabetes in them by streptozotocin, alloxan and diet on diabetic patients. Types of phytochemical compounds and their composition vary due to environmental factors, extraction and separation techniques which can have effect on clinical analysis. Bioavailability of oral drugs was also studied synergistically with these plants. Synthetic drugs, if are used with these natural compounds, they have no harmful effect but increase effectiveness. These herbal medications are more preferable, safe to use and cost effective due to which it is easily affordable by people. This review report covers the impact of these plants on diabetes mellitus reported so far.
... It is cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world including the Indian subcontinent (Kapoor 1990). Turmeric has several important biological activities including anthelmintic and insecticidal properties (Niranjan and Prakash 2008). Curcumin, one of major components of C. longa is considered to be one of the most promising natural products that has been studied and investigated extensively by researchers, from chemical as well as biological point of view (Priyadarsini 2014). ...
Article
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Development of acaricidal resistance and environmental pollution has driven need for eco-friendly pesticides and herbal acaricides. Rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in three different solvents (acetone, chloroform and ethanol) were used in the range of 0.625–10.0% for larval immersion test against unfed larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. HPLC-PDA chromatogram showed peak of Bis demethoxy curcumin, Demethoxy curcumin and Curcumin at 430 nm with the retention time of 14.502, 15.840 and 17.33 min, respectively, in a standard marker preparation and in the sample. Ethanolic extract showed much higher yield of Demethoxy curcumin and Curcumin in comparison to acetone and chloroform extracts. Mortality rates of larval ticks were in dose-dependent manner and 100% mortality of tick larvae was achieved at 10% concentration for acetone and chloroform extracts whereas ethanolic extract showed 100% mortality of tick larvae from 7.5% concentration onwards. Among the three extracts, the highest acaricidal activity was shown by ethanolic extract with 2.43%, 9.12%, 13.26% and 26.77% values of LC50, LC90, LC95 and LC99, respectively. Significant larvicidal activity of C. longa rhizome extracts against unfed larvae of R. microplus qualifies them as green pesticides which could be combined with other tools for integrated pest management.