Basic working principle of material extrusion printing

Basic working principle of material extrusion printing

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Since the advent of 3D printing in the mid-1980s, additive manufacturing has grown steadily and found numerous applications across all types of industries. More recently, the industry has seen a spur of growth as the terms of the original patents expired and new companies entered the market. While there exist several different methods of additive m...

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During 1960’s and not until the mid-1980’s when pioneers such as Charles Hull (founder of 3D- Systems) and Scott Crump (founder of Stratasys) developed a range of technologies now known as 3D printing. Their work was based on additive processes that created solid objects layer by layer. That evolved to be known as Additive Manufacturing Technology....
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In this study, filaments for FDM 3D printers were produced by extrusion method by mixing 95% polylactic acid (PLA), 1%hydroxyapatite (HA) and 4% titanium dioxide (TiO2). The extruder temperature, raster angle and layer thickness parameters, and printing defects of the prints made with the FDM 3Dprinter were examined. According to the dimensional an...
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In considering three-dimensional (3D) printing of food materials, fundamental understanding of the “printability” characteristics of different food materials is of vital importance to successfully meet user needs. In this study, a processed cheese formulation was 3D-printed with a modified 3D printer. Both intrinsic factors (i.e., pH and intact cas...
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This paper introduces novel three‐dimensional (3D) zero Poisson’s ratio (ZPR) metamaterials for reversible energy absorption applications fabricated by 4D printing technology. The designs are introduced based on piecemeal energy absorption (PEA) and conventional energy absorption (CEA) approaches. Topologically, the design of the 3D metamaterials i...
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The aims of this study are to investigate the tensile strength of polylactic acid (PLA) material using Taguchi Method and to evaluate the best parameters which have the highest significant impact on the tensile properties of PLA. Three parameters are used to investigate the tensile properties of PLA which include printing speed, infill pattern, and...

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... Support structure minimization can be carried out with the adaptation of the design to reduce overhang features considering a specific orientation of the component on the build platform. The topic of design for AM (DfAM) has gained significant interest in the last few years, and several studies have been done on this topic [17][18][19]. Due to the design freedom provided by AM, it is attractive to manufacture complex textured surfaces. A recently published study by Armillotta et al. [20] extended a 2D solid texturing method to generate 3D textured models and then manufactured them using various AM technologies to test build speed and quality. ...
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Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have been recognized for their capability to build complex components and hence have offered more freedom to designers for a long time. The ability to directly use a computer-aided design (CAD) model has allowed for fabricating and realizing complicated components, monolithic design, reducing the number of components in an assembly, decreasing time to market, and adding performance or comfort-enhancing functionalities. One of the features that can be introduced for boosting a component functionality using AM is the inclusion of surface texture on a given component. This inclusion is usually a difficult task as creating a CAD model resolving fine details of a given texture is difficult even using commercial software packages. This paper develops a methodology to include texture directly on the CAD model of a target surface using a patch-based sampling texture synthesis algorithm, which can be manufactured using AM. Input for the texture generation algorithm can be either a physical sample or an image with heightmap information. The heightmap information from a physical sample can be obtained by 3D scanning the sample and using the information from the acquired point cloud. After obtaining the required inputs, the patches are sampled for texture generation according to non-parametric estimation of the local conditional Markov random field (MRF) density function, which helps avoid mismatched features across the patch boundaries. While generating the texture, a design constraint to ensure AM producibility is considered, which is essential when manufacturing a component using, e.g., Fused Deposition Melting (FDM) or Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF). The generated texture is then mapped onto the surface using the developed distance and angle preserving mapping algorithms. The implemented algorithms can be used to map the generated texture onto a mathematically defined surface. This paper maps the textures onto flat, curved, and sinusoidal surfaces for illustration. After the texture mapping, a stereolithography (STL) model is generated with the desired texture on the target surface. The generated STL model is printed using FDM technology as a final step.
... These issues are more problematic when wood filaments are incorporated with biomass-based filler due to the lack of polymer entanglement and heterogenous dispersion of the filler. In order to tackle these issues, large-scale extrusion-based 3D printers can be made to incorporate tuneable screws, environment control and dual-printing heads so that better control of bonding conditions and temperature gradients can be achieved [276]. ...
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Extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) has recently become widespread for the layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional prototypes and components even with highly complex shapes. This technology involves extrusion through a nozzle by means of a plunger-, filament- or screw-based mechanism; where necessary, this is preceded by heating of the feedstock material to reduce its viscosity sufficiently to facilitate extrusion. Extrusion-based AM offers greater design freedom, larger building volumes and more cost-efficient production than liquid- and powder-based AM processes. Although this technology was originally developed for polymeric filament materials, it is now increasingly applied to a wide variety of material classes, including metallic, edible and construction materials. This is in part thanks to the recent development of AM-specific feedstock materials (AM materials), in which materials that are not intrinsically suited to extrusion, for example because of high melting points or brittleness, are combined with other, usually polymeric materials that can be more readily extruded. This paper comprehensively and systematically reviews the state of the art in the field of extrusion-based AM, including the techniques applied and the individual challenges and developments in each materials class for which the technology is being developed. The paper includes material- and process-centred suitability analysis of extrusion-based AM, and a comparison of this technology with liquid- and powder-based AM processes. Prospective applications of this technology are also briefly discussed.
... While scaling up enables extrusion-based additive manufacturing to produce larger parts at faster speed and reduced costs, it also introduces a new set of challenges to extrusionbased additive manufacturing. Shah et al. [11] highlighted the challenges of designing large stiff frames, controlling the temperature of the surrounding environment, maintaining an effective melt pool of the printing material for extrusion, and supplying mass of material for print. Roschli et al. [12] discussed the design problems encountered in large-format additive manufacturing including challenges during the preparation of a print, bead width constraints, layer time limitations, and the challenge of maximizing throughput. ...
... Consequently, the viscosity of the layers that are deposited later remains higher for an extended period of time, resulting in higher viscous deformation. Figure 13a number of elements 10 4 Fig. 11 Histograms of strains in the z-direction for all elements at different test printing conditions in the additively manufactured part. The trend can be seen more clearly with the higher layer having greater viscous strain in the z-direction. ...
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The collapse of deposited thermoplastic composite material under self-weight presents a risk in large-format extrusion-based additive manufacturing. Two critical processing parameters, extrusion temperature and deposition rate, govern whether a deposited layer is stable and bonds properly with the previously deposited layer. Currently, the critical parameters are determined via a trial-and-error approach. This research work uses a simplified physics-based numerical simulation to determine a suitable combination of the parameters that will avoid the collapse of the deposited layer under self-weight. The suitability of the processing parameters is determined based on the maximum plastic viscous strains computed using a sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical numerical model. This computational tool can efficiently check if a combination of temperature and extrusion rate causes layer collapse due to self-weight, and hence minimize the manufacturing risk of large-format 3D-printed parts.
... Another research presented a prototype of a large-scale material extrusion 3D printer that has been designed using thermoplastic polymers. The authors also suggested certain key design elements and their influence on improving large-scale 3D printing [10]. Podium support was created with PLA composites using a large-scale 3D printer. ...
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This study focuses on the development of a large-dimensional 3D printer and its challenges in general. The major Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printers focus on printing small-scale parts due to their challenges in printing large-scale objects using thermoplastic polymer filaments. A novel large-dimensional multi-extrusion FDM printer is developed at the workshop and printed several large-dimensional objects to emphasize its prospects in developing large-scale products. The printer has a print bed with a dimension of 900 x 1100 x 770 mm with respect to the length-width height (L-W-H), respectively. There are many challenges to successfully printing large-dimensional objects using FDM technology. The experimental design elaborates on the challenges experienced during printing various large-dimensional objects. In addition, the paper focuses on the qualitative analysis of the optimal process parameters in section 4.5. Based on the experimental results, the key challenges are found to be uneven bed temperature, bending of print bed due to thermal effect, surface unsticks due to lack of adhesive force, surrounding temperature, and irregular filament feed. Experimental results also validate the key design specifications and their impact on enhancing large-scale 3D printing. The developed printer is capable of printing large-scale objects with five different thermoplastic materials using five individual extruders simultaneously. It adds a new dimension of flexible automation in additive manufacturing (AM).
... This is particularly true for consumers. Furthermore, they have a lengthy shelf life, are detrimental to the environment, and are non-biodegradable in nature [93]. Plastics have been extensively used throughout the last 50 years due to their durability, versatility, and low production costs, among other factors [56]. ...
... Plastics may be recycled in various ways, including chemical, mechanical, energy, and re-extrusion recycling. Palletisation and extrusion are two of the most effective methods [93]. The market impacts the need for plastic recycling [80]. ...
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According to research findings of many peer-reviewed studies, up to 90% of household items may be made of plastic. But nowadays, just a small portion of plastic waste is recycled. Plastic pyrolysis and polymer breakdown are environmentally hazardous. Processing is, therefore, necessary for recycling. Plastics are constantly being manufactured and require minimal processing, necessitating innovation. Plastic recycling is becoming a major issue for environmentalists and waste management professionals. Fused deposition modelling, or FDM, is one of the most popular types of additive manufacturing. It uses the melt extrusion process to deposit filaments of thermal polymers in a predetermined pattern. Using a computer-generated design, 3D printing, sometimes referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technique for building three-dimensional objects layer by layer. A 3D item is produced by the additive method of 3D printing, which involves building up layers of material. To make a three-dimensional object, FDM printers eject a thermoplastic filament that has been heated to its melting point layer by layer. 3D printing is a rapidly expanding industry and the market in this field has grown up to 23% by 2021. Several experiments on new 3D printing materials have been carried out to reduce pollution and the supply of plastic. Various additives have been investigated to increase recycled polymers’ molecular weight and mechanical properties. The most frequent type of fibre found in that is thermoplastic fibre. In this instance, waste ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) plastic from industrial FDM printers was gathered and examined in a bustling open shop. In this review, we discussed the use of recyclable polymers in 3D printing for waste material management. Graphical abstract
... Extruder(Shah et al., 2019). ...
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3D printers are the most common and popular method of additive manufacturing technology and provide fusion of materials using thermal effects. This phenomenon makes that temperature the most important factor affecting printing quality. The temperature is provided by the Aluminium Extruder Heat Block in the extruder and the temperature regime must be constant according to the type of printing material. The objective of this study is to make aluminium Extruder Heat Block designs with high thermal efficiency to keep the temperature regime constant and to analyse the thermal behaviour of new designs with a commercial product block design using ANSYS simulation. The materials of the blocks were chosen the same and the temperature distribution of the blocks and the average heat flux were calculated by determining the boundary conditions. The results obtained from the simulation are satisfactory when compared with the thermal behaviour of a commercial product block.
... The density measurements of the printed phantoms were carried out via a scale with 0.01 g resolution, using the buoyancy method for high-density objects, and by measuring the dimensions of the step-wedge objects with a Vernier caliper and a micrometer with 0.01 mm and 0.001 mm resolution, respectively, for lighter objects. Soon after manufacturing, the 3D printed objects start cooling down on the glass build plate, and this potentially introduces geometrical deformations (warping) of the object with respect to the design model, to an extent dependent on the filament material thermal properties, on the printing setting and on the size, the shape and volume of the object, particularly for ABS due to its thermomechanical properties (Ehler et al 2014, Shah et al 2019. Hence, we carried out geometrical measurements via a caliper to determine the final volume of the objects several hours after they were printed, when the objects were completely cooled . ...
Article
Objective To measure the monoenergetic x-ray linear attenuation coefficient,μ, of fused deposition modeling (FDM) colored 3D printing materials (ABS, PLAwhite, PLAorange, PET and NYLON), used as adipose, glandular or skin tissue substitutes for manufacturing physical breast phantoms.ApproachAttenuation data (at 14, 18, 20, 24, 28, 30 and 36 keV) were acquired at Elettra synchrotron radiation facility, with step-wedge objects, using the Lambert-Beer law and a CCD imaging detector. Test objects were 3D printed using the Ultimaker 3 FDM printer. PMMA, Nylon-6 and high-density polyethylene step objects were also investigated for the validation of the proposed methodology. Printing uniformity was assessed via monoenergetic and polyenergetic imaging (32 kV, W/Rh).Main resultsMaximum absolute deviation ofμfor PMMA, Nylon-6 and HD-PE was 5.0%, with reference to literature data. For ABS and NYLON,μdiffered by less than 6.1% and 7.1% from that of adipose tissue, respectively; for PET and PLAorange the difference was less than 11.3% and 6.3% from glandular tissue, respectively. PLAorange is a good substitute of skin (differences from -9.4% to +1.2%). Hence, ABS and NYLON filaments are suitable adipose tissue substitutes, while PET and PLAorange mimick the glandular tissue. PLAwhite could be printed at less than 100% infill density for matching the attenuation of glandular tissue, using the measured density calibration curve. The printing mesh was observed for sample thicknesses less than 60 mm, imaged in the direction normal to the printing layers. Printing dimensional repeatability and reproducibility was less 1%.SignificanceFor the first time was provided a first experimental determination of common 3D printing filament material for estimatingμat all energies in the range 14-36 keV, for their use in mammography, breast tomosynthesis and breast computed tomography investigations.
... PLA begins to soften at 150°C, while at 210°C, it becomes liquid (maximum 220°C according to Wanhao recommendations) and at the end of the process, the model cools down. 18 In the case of high temperatures settings (above the defined ones), the previously formed layer may dissolve, which eventually, in the end, leads to inaccuracies in the dimensions of the specimen. Also, there is a risk of cooling the molten material in layers, that is in the end, a model of incorrect dimensions and irregular shape is obtained. ...
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Five series of specimens with two different print orientations (−45/45 and 0/90) and two print layer thicknesses (0.1 and 0.2 mm) were made. In total 60 specimens with 100% filament infill were made. One specimen series (20 pieces) was isolated as a reference or thermally untreated. Before the thermal treatment (annealing), two specimen moulding methods were used: NaCl powder (granulation 63 mm: 20 pieces) and Calcium Sulphate (Gypsum: 20 pieces). During the annealing, specimens immersed in NaCl powder were heated in a drying oven to the filament melting point (for PLA: 200°C, with a duration interval of 30 min), while the treatment of the heated specimens in gypsum was performed at a temperature of around 190°C, with duration interval of 3 h with the observed temperature inside the mould of about 100°C. An ultrasonic bath and a drying oven were used in the gypsum treatment. Temperature measurement and control during both annealing treatments were performed using a thermal imaging camera, while the temperature control inside the drying oven was performed using a digital thermometer. After treatment, the specimens in the moulds were cooled at room temperature, and the dimensions of annealing and untreated specimens were controlled. Surface morphology was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis reveals improved internal structure after heat treatment of the PLA specimens. These results show that the investigated specimens after heat treatments had better structural properties than the referent specimens. Tensile testing on a universal testing machine in compliance with the ASTM D638 standard was also performed. The referent PLA specimen with −45/45 and layer thickness of 0.1 mm had the highest tensile stress value (64.08 MPa) while the specimen with minimal tensile stress value before fracture was 0/90, 0.2 mm (54.81 MPa). Heat treatment in gypsum showed the most significant increase in strength with −45/45 (0.1 mm) being the strongest (71.66 MPa) while the strongest specimen treated in sodium chloride was −45/45 (0.1 mm) with maximum tensile stress of 70.08 MPa. The mechanical characteristics of the PLA were characterised using the Vickers microhardness tester. The PLA microhardness value was calculated according to standards ASTM E384 and ISO 6507. The referent PLA specimen with −45/45 (0.2 mm) orientation shows the maximal microhardness value (125 MPa), and the minimal microhardness value was observed for the 0/90 (0.1 mm) orientation specimens (108 MPa). The heat treatment specimens in gypsum have a better hardness (185 MPa) than those treated in gypsum (165 MPa), with microhardness increasing by about 12%. The essence of the work is reflected in the additional filament processing to achieve a better structural and mechanical performance of the materials and reduce the anisotropy that is characteristic of 3D printing.
... Out of the many technologies for AM, 3D printing, in particular, has seen an explosive growth in recent decades, also due to the expiration of early patents [7,9,10] that restricted the development of core technologies; recent analyses report a 320% market growth in the 2015-2020 period [11], while 3D printing has also been proposed for very large elements, including entire buildings. We focus here on desktop devices: these commonly employ thermoplastics, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyamide (PA), and Nylon [8,12,13]. ...
... We focus here on desktop devices: these commonly employ thermoplastics, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyamide (PA), and Nylon [8,12,13]. The plastic is heated slightly above its melting point (FDM), is currently used in ∼48% of 3D printers [8,11], as it is robust, simple, intrinsically scalable and highly versatile in terms of the materials that can be employed [10,14]. Commonly, FDM printers use a plastic filament fed through a heated nozzle ( Fig. 1(a)): this method, called Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), is predominant in FDM applications [12], to the point that FDM and FFF are often used as equivalent definitions. ...
... Usually, the build platform has one DoF along one axis, while the nozzle has two DoFs along the other two axes. This is the most common architecture in desktop FDM printers [3,9,10,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. (b) Delta printers use the parallel kinematic architecture of the Delta robot, proposed by R. Clavel; in particular, the linear version of the Delta is used, where prismatic pairs actuate the mechanism [22]. ...
Article
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In 3D printer design, special care must be taken when choosing the print head positioning mechanism. Indeed, this choice has a significant influence on the manufacturing accuracy, printing speed, workspace characteristics, and total cost of the printer. Considering 3D printers with layer-based processes, many designs include two stages: a planar mechanism for positioning the nozzle on a horizontal plane and a linear mechanism for the vertical build–plate motion. From the literature, two designs are usually applied for horizontal motion, commercially known as “CoreXY” and “H-bot”. Their load distribution characteristics are compared here: it is found that both have significant drawbacks. Therefore, an alternative architecture, called “CoreH-bot,” is introduced to overcome such limitations; this mechanism is both fully planar, which greatly simplifies its design and assembly phases while increasing part life, and has low unbalanced torques during motion, which increases the maximum speed for the given accuracy. The CoreH-bot kinematic equations are analyzed to define the Jacobian matrix and the corresponding workspace. The static and dynamic analyses are also performed. A prototype with this architecture has been designed that shows interesting capabilities in terms of print speed, while being both simple and cost-effective to assemble.
... The print speed and print resolution are considerably increased by an optimized prototype extrusion system. [2] The significance of various design methods like Filamentrics and MicroStrata are discussed here. These design methods reduce the differences in results between the simulation and fabrication process. ...
Article
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Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) is one of the fabricating methods because it permits outrageous customization, quick prototyping of wanted designs and low volume creation of items. FDM printer goes under the material expulsion class. The filament is constrained into the hot extruder. The filament is warmed first and afterward stored, through the spout, onto a form stage layer-by-layer to frame the total 3D structure. A printer equipped for printing a 1.5-meter cubic-sized object was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD software and manufactured into a functioning model. The Frame, Linear guide rail, and Z-axis rails were subjected to static structural, modal and harmonic response analysis with ANSYS Workbench. The designed parts were investigated by modal analysis to get the natural frequency. The effect on the guide rails and frame due to external forces, stepper motor, and extruder were examined with harmonic response analysis. The frequency at which the amplitude rises drastically from a phase angle of 0 degrees to 180 degrees was obtained using harmonic response analysis as well. The model was further subjected to motion analysis using ADAMS dynamic software.