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Basic, Performance and Excitement Factors 

Basic, Performance and Excitement Factors 

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The paper presents important measurement approaches in the field of costumer satisfaction with services and applies those empirically for service bundles at the level of the tourism destination. After working out the most prominent characteristics of existing satisfaction concepts according to the American and the Scandinavian school of thought, th...

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... a partial correlation analysis was used to measure this relationship. The emerged results are depicted in Figure 5. Consistent with typi- cal tourism behaviour in alpine summer re- sorts is the observation that friendliness of personnel (16), hospitality of local people (15) and landscape (4) are classified as high- ly important performance factors (Fuchs, 2002, p. 306;Fuchs & Weiermair, 2003a; Figure 4). ...
Context 2
... 4: The Importance-Grid ( Vavra 1997, p. 385 (14) and access to the in- ternet (18) (Figure 5). ...

Citations

... In marketing research, a tourism destination is defined as a collection of tourism products and services consumed by visitors at the same time (Buhalis, 2000;Fuchs & Weiermair, 2003;Zabkar et al., 2010). It is also often defined as a collection of facilities and services designed to fulfill the wants of tourists (Cooper et al., 2005). ...
Article
This study aims to contribute to the academic and practitionerfestival tourism literatures by suggesting the segmentation of thefestival participants’ motivations and perceived destinationservice quality. To meet the study’s aims exploratory factoranalysis, cluster analysis, and variance analysis were used on 301surveys from Alaçatı Herb Festival, Turkey. As a result of clusteranalysis, four clusters emerged. These clusters are named asfollows, multi-purpose seekers, social escape seekers, culturalescape seekers, and apathetic attendees. Significant differencesemerged in clusters’ motivation and perceived destination servicequality. The inclusion of participants’ motivation segmentationand destination service quality perception in this study adds tothe festival tourism literature. When these two variables wereexamined together, it was discovered that different groups withcomparable goals (social escape seekers and cultural escapeseekers) rate destination service features differently.
... While there is a large variety of methods to choose from, based on various theoretical concepts, the discussion is still open as to which of them is most appropriate (in general or for a specific use case) and has the greatest validity. Although there are various empirical evaluations of different approaches in the context of Kano surveys that are described in the literature (eg, [37,38,[45][46][47]), determining which of these particular approaches is best seems to be near impossible. ...
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Background: Health apps are often used without adequately taking aspects related to their quality under consideration. This may partially be due to inadequate awareness about necessary criteria and how to prioritize them when evaluating an app. Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a method for prioritizing quality attributes in the mobile health context. To this end, physicians were asked about their assessment of nine app quality principles relevant in health contexts and their responses were used as a basis for designing a method for app prioritization. Ultimately, the goal was to aid in making better use of limited resources (eg, time) by assisting with the decision as to the specific quality principles that deserve priority in everyday medical practice and those that can be given lower priority, even in cases where the overall principles are rated similarly. Methods: A total of 9503 members of two German professional societies in the field of orthopedics were invited by email to participate in an anonymous online survey over a 1-month period. Participants were asked to rate a set of nine app quality principles using a Kano survey with functional and dysfunctional (ie, positively and negatively worded) questions. The evaluation was based on the work of Kano (baseline), supplemented by a self-designed approach. Results: Among the 9503 invited members, 382 completed relevant parts of the survey (return rate of 4.02%). These participants were equally and randomly assigned to two groups (test group and validation group, n=191 each). Demographic characteristics did not significantly differ between groups (all P>.05). Participants were predominantly male (328/382, 85.9%) and older than 40 years (290/382, 75.9%). Given similar ratings, common evaluation strategies for Kano surveys did not allow for conclusive prioritization of the principles, and the same was true when using the more elaborate approach of satisfaction and dissatisfaction indices following the work of Timko. Therefore, an extended, so-called “in-line-of-sight” method was developed and applied for this evaluation. Modified from the Timko method, this approach is based on a “point of view” (POV) metric, which generates a ranking coefficient. Although the principles were previously almost exclusively rated as must-be (with the exception of resource efficiency), which was not conducive to their prioritization, the new method applied from the must-be POV resulted in identical rankings for the test and validation groups: (1) legal conformity, (2) content validity, (3) risk adequacy, (4) practicality, (5) ethical soundness, (6) usability, (7) transparency, (8) technical adequacy, and (9) resource efficiency. Conclusions: Established survey methodologies based on the work of Kano predominantly seek to categorize the attributes to be evaluated. The methodology presented here is an interesting option for prioritization, and enables focusing on the most important criteria, thus saving valuable time when reviewing apps for use in the medical field, even with otherwise largely similar categorization results. The extent to which this approach is applicable beyond the scenario presented herein requires further investigation.
... The common point of the related techniques is that they are based on the assumption that there is a linear relationship between the performance of the product attributes and customer satisfaction. However, some studies conducted in recent years (Fuchs & Weiermair, 2003;Allegre & Garau, 2011) revealed that there might be a non-linear relationship between product attributes and customer satisfaction. According to this non-linear approach, the negative performance of a product attribute has more of an impact on customer satisfaction than the positive performance of the same attribute (Albayrak & Caber, 2013). ...
Chapter
This chapter aims to identify the destination attributes and compare them based on two assumptions that form either a symmetric or an asymmetric relationship between destination attribute performance and tourist satisfaction. For this purpose, data were collected from tourists coming to Fethiye, Turkey. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on the obtained data based on the linear assumption first. The results revealed that the attitudes of staff and the attitudes of the shopkeepers are the main determinants of tourist satisfaction. Then, penalty-reward-contrast analysis was performed based on the nonlinear assumption. According to analysis results, attitudes of the staff are performance factors; and travel agency services, attitudes of the shopkeepers, security/safety, and beach/sea are classified as excitement factors. The elements that take part in the excitement factor are the attributes that contribute to satisfaction the most.
... In this context, understanding the dimensions of consumer behavior [1] and satisfaction is important [2,3]. Field research has shown that users' satisfaction quickly leads to their loyalty [4][5][6] and leads to a return to the destination [7][8][9][10][11]. In the literature, we meet three approaches to satisfaction measurement: meeting expectations, benchmarking, and direct assessment [12]. ...
Article
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The scope of this research was to identify the degree of satisfaction experienced by beneficiaries as a result of accessing and implementing a project using European funds in tourism. The whole research identified more than 1000 projects that were financed from European funds in tourism in the period 2007–2013 through the operational programs. The survey was conducted on a sample of 312 respondents, and the method used was a quantitative, research-based survey. This research aims to collect the necessary data for understanding how the process of accessing European funds in tourism is perceived. A few important objectives, such as the effect of the benefits perceived by beneficiaries as a result of accessing projects using European funds in tourism on the degree of satisfaction experienced by them as a result of their development and the effect of risks perceived by beneficiaries as a result of accessing European funded projects in tourism on the degree of satisfaction experienced by them as a result of their development, were highlighted in this research. The most important objective proposed in this research is strategic planning, which is the main way in which the beneficiaries can be fulfilled in regards to the process of accessing European Funds.
... Reference [59] defines satisfaction as a judgment that a pleasurable consumption level is provided by a product or service features. Many tourism researchers deal with various aspects of consumer satisfaction in the hospitality and tourism industry, such as satisfaction with specific destinations [60,61]. A researcher shows that satisfaction is closely linked to the choice of destination and decision-making regarding where to visit [62,63]. ...
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This research focuses on the impact of the tourist experience on the relationship among destination image, tourist motivation, and tourist satisfaction on destination loyalty by examining the theoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationship between constructs. A research model was proposed, in which nine hypotheses were developed, and the empirical data were collected from Hue city, which is a major tourist destination in Vietnam. A total of 204 questionnaires were returned, and the data were analyzed using PLS-SEM. The moderating effect of the tourist experience on the impact of the destination image, tourist motivation, and tourist satisfaction on destination loyalty is analyzed in this article. The proposed conceptual model was tested, and the results reveal a significant relationship between the two constructs to destination loyalty (destination image and tourist satisfaction). Furthermore, the findings support the proposed destination loyalty model: destination image, tourist satisfaction directly influenced destination loyalty, and tourist experience play an important role as a moderator in the relationship between tourist motivation and tourist loyalty.
... This is particularly relevant for mature destinations that are trying to prevent the stagnation phase(Bernini & Cagnone, 2012). Given that tourist satisfaction may vary depending on the destination life-cycle, and that Opatija is a mature seaside destination facing a seasonality issue(Vodeb & Nemec Rudež, 2017), the first research hypothesis is formulated as follows:H1: There is a significant difference between the importance and the perceived quality of destination attributes on the Opatija Riviera.It should be noted that previous studies have shown that models in which destination attributes are correlated to the overall satisfaction with a destination provide more valuable management implications than models that only measure destination attributes individually(Fuchs & Weiermair, 2003). Numerous studies in tourism literature indicate that 'the overall satisfaction of tourists is determined by how they evaluate des-When it comes to tourist behaviour, demographic characteristics play a considerable role(Ragavan et al., 2014).Homburg and Giering (2001) warn, however, that research in many areas is abandoning the demographic criteria due to increased focus on the psychological aspect. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to identify critical destination attributes and examine their contribution to the overall satisfaction in relation to different age groups. Design/Methodology/Approach – The research was conducted on the Opatija Riviera in Croatia using the survey method. Importance-performance analysis was used to identify priority attributes within the context of destination choice, and the results were compared with the quality provided from the destination management perspective. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated within three age groups to determine the statistical relationship between perceived quality of destination attributes and overall satisfaction with the destination. Findings and implications – The results show negative and significant differences between the importance and the perceived quality of all destination attributes. The largest gap refers to the traffic and facilities in the destination, which represent its main weaknesses and the highest priority. Concerning the relationships between the attributes’ perceived quality and overall satisfaction with the destination, the highest correlation is found with regard to destination management attributes within all analyzed age groups. Differences relating to other attributes are evident among age groups. Furthermore, the analysis did not reveal significant differences between the perceived and the provided quality of destination attributes. Limitations – The research has certain limitations. The first of them is related to the case-based character of this particular study. Thus, the specific findings cannot be generalized to the context of other destinations. In addition, there are drawbacks relating to the sample and the applied importance-performance analysis (IPA). The demographic structure of the respondents is uneven, since most respondents are female and younger in age, with only 9.5% of them aged from 55 to 74. That IPA has critics among researchers is well known. In explaining implications for destination managers based on results from the implemented IPA, the results should be used as drivers for choosing tourist destinations, but not necessarily for creating a tourist experience. Originality – This research study contributes to the scientific literature by providing evidence on the contribution of destination attributes to the overall destination satisfaction and differences attributable to the age of tourists. This approach could greatly help destination managers to develop suitable marketing strategies for target market segments.
... The majority of emotion-related tourism studies research satisfaction as the central emotion linked to a certain place/destination or services provided (Alegre and Garau, 2010;Fuchs and Weiermair, 2003;Kozak, 2003). With the support of psychology, these je te se studije dalje usredotočuju na istraživanje turističkih motivacija za putovanje u određeno mjesto/odredište (Šimkova i Holzner, 2014;Crompton, 1979;Van Vuuren i Slabbert, 2011) koje su ponekad povezane i s emocijama. ...
Article
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SAŽETAK: Ovaj pregledni rad u potrazi je za odnosom između vizualnih podražaja i emocija u kontekstu kulturnog turizma. Svrha mu je otkriti utjecaj vizualnih podražaja na emocionalno uzbuđenje (kulturnih) turista, a što se može primijeniti u kreiranju doživljaja. Rad se fokusira na dva mehanizma izazivanja emocija: psihološke čimbenike i umjetničke vizualne podražaje. Na početku rada analiziraju se teorije različitih afektivnih stanja u kontekstu turizma. Zatim se ispituje povezanost umjetničkih vizualnih podražaja (boja, oblik, simetrija, apstrakcija, složenost itd.) i emocionalnog uzbuđenja kulturnih turista. Posebna je pozornost posvećena boji koja se analizira pregledom različitih studija primjenom transdisciplinarnog pristupa s ciljem sistematizacije postojećeg znanja. Iako istraživanje nije donijelo zaključke o jasno definiranim odnosima između vizualnih podražaja i specifičnih emocija, primjena općenitih nalaza može pružiti veće razumijevanje mehanizama izazivanja emocija vizualnim podražajima i potaknuti daljnja istraživanja. Osim turizma, nalazi su primjenjivi i u drugim područjima. KLJUČNE RIJEČI: vizualni podražaji, kreiranje doživljaja, boja, emocije, kulturni turizam ABSTRACT: This review paper is in the search for connections among visual stimuli and emotions in the context of cultural tourism. Its purpose is to detect the role of the vision-related cues in (cultural) tourists' emotional arousal which can further be applied in experience design. We focus on two mechanisms of emotion elicitation: psychological factors and artistic visual cues. First, theory of different affective states is analyzed and is put in the context of tourism. Artistic visual cues' correlation with emotional arousal of cultural tourism consumers (color, form, symmetry, abstraction, complexity, etc.) are further examined. Special focus is on color through the review of different studies taking a transdisciplinary approach. The goal is to systematize the existing knowledge. Even though the research is inconclusive of clear relationships between visual stimuli cues and specific emotions, application of the generic findings, though, may provide greater understanding of the nature of emotion elicitation by visual cues and stimulate further research. Besides tourism, findings may be applicable in other fields.
... The results of the path analysis indicate that all paths linking for the constructs named physical environment, psychological environment, work performance, perceived career opportunities and employee satisfaction are statistically significant at the one percent level. Collaborating past findings (Matzler et al., 2003;Fuchs & Weiermair, 2003;Eskildsen & Nu¨ssler, 2000) physical environment and psychological environment influences work performance. Moreover, perceived career opportunity has an important effect as a mediator in the relationship between work performance and employee satisfaction. ...
Conference Paper
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Purpose: This study aims to measure the relationship between work performance and employee satisfaction and mediating effects of perceived career opportunities (PCO) of employees in the hotel industry. Design: As this study is a single cross- sectional and quantitative in nature, the method used is partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to test the proposed hypothesis. A sample of 264 hotel employees has been drawn from the three states in India, of which 96 percent rate of response has been obtained. Findings: Employee satisfaction in Indian hotel industry depends on the works that they performed with respect to physical and psychological constructs. The perceived career opportunities act as an enhancer to increase employee satisfaction among employees. Practical implications – The research provides insights into key indicators, which inspire further research work. It can act as a tool for practitioners for identifying other variables, which improve the standard satisfaction. The students can clarify their doubts while taking career as a hotelier. Originality/value – The author used the questionnaire tactfully with face-to-face feedback. This strategy was implemented, which provided insights to know about the employee reaction on the satisfaction level. The research contributes to the hotel industry by observing the dimensions and the mediating factors.
... The PRCA is a method that allows the identification of asymmetric relationships between product/service attributes and overall customer satisfaction (Brandt, 1987). This method is based on the use of dummy variables in a regression equation to quantify and classify factors of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Matzler andSauerwein, 2002 andFuchs andBIJ Weiermair, 2003). According to Albayrak and Caber (2013), the application of the PRCA allows to verify the nonlinear impact of the performance of different aspects of the service on customer satisfaction. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how to use customer spontaneous comments to identify which aspects influence the overall customer satisfaction with restaurant services from a nonlinear perspective. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 399 spontaneous comments about a chain of fast-food restaurants in Brazil. The comments are freely available on the TripAdvisor portal and were extracted and classified according to seven dimensions related to the quality of services: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, quality of the food and price. Next, the authors combine the critical incident technique (CIT) and the penalty-reward contrast analysis (PRCA) to investigate the nonlinear relationship between service quality assessment and overall customer satisfaction. Findings The method of integrating CIT with PRCA explains 64.7% of the variation in the customer's assessment of the services provided ( R Adj 2 = 0.647). This shows that spontaneous comments from customers are related to their overall satisfaction with the service provided. Besides, the findings suggest that consumers tend to comment more about positive than negative experiences regarding aspects related to food, attendants' empathy and service assurance, and more negative comments about aspects related to responsiveness and price. However, it was found that negative comments have a stronger influence on overall satisfaction than positive comments. Originality/value Using comments available for free on the Internet and evaluating how positive and negative comments can jointly influence customer satisfaction, the proposed methodology demonstrates how restaurants can use their customers' spontaneous comments to identify critical aspects to be managed and improved. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first study presenting how restaurants can use customer spontaneous comments, freely available on the internet, to identify the relevance of different aspects of the services provided from a nonlinear perspective. In addition, the present study shows that although customers spontaneously tend to share more positive than negative comments about restaurant services, events related to negative experiences have a stronger influence on overall satisfaction.
... As the quality in general, and, also, the quality of services in tourism specifically, along with the satisfaction of tourists are complex multidimensional and dynamic concepts that are, further, jointly determined by individual characteristics and values of customers, situational and market forces (Zeithaml, 2000), deciding the determinants of consumer satisfaction (e.g. tourists) becomes an extremely difficult theoretical and empirical task (Fuchs, & Weiermair, 2003). ...
Article
The continuous expansion and diversification of tourism in recent decades have led to this branch of industry to become one of the largest and fastest growing in the world. Well-planned tourism generates benefits to destinations by increased revenue from tourism and employment. In this connection, the quality of tourism services, and this is the tourists’ satisfaction with the quality of tourism services provided, as a precursor of loyalty, become crucial for the successful development of tourism. The subject of this research are satisfaction and loyalty as indicators of tourism product element quality. The aim of this study is to explore the connection between tourists’ satisfaction with the quality of catering services, accommodation services, transportation services and in terms of the specific tourism event with their age structure and region they visited, as well as the connection between satisfaction of tourists with the quality of the elements of the tourist product and loyalty. In order to achieve this objective, the sample included 381 respondents. Answers that are relevant for the analysis yielded 357 respondents. For statistical analysis, multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis were used. Research results indicated that there were significant statistical differences between the age structure and tourists’ satisfaction, that these also corresponded to the region visited, and tourist loyalty depends on their satisfaction with the quality of elements of the tourist product.