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Basic DNA structure proposed by Watson and Crick. DNA is made up of two kinds of nitrogenous bases, purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine). Purine bases bind only to their respective pyrimidine bases, i.e., adenine always pairs with thymine, while guanine binds to cytosine 3.

Basic DNA structure proposed by Watson and Crick. DNA is made up of two kinds of nitrogenous bases, purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine). Purine bases bind only to their respective pyrimidine bases, i.e., adenine always pairs with thymine, while guanine binds to cytosine 3.

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In addition to its genetic function, DNA is one of the most distinct and smart self-assembling nanomaterials. DNA nanotechnology exploits the predictable self-assembly of DNA oligonucleotides to design and assemble innovative and highly discrete nanostructures. Highly ordered DNA motifs are capable of providing an ultra-fine framework for the next...

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... With the vastness of its potential in biomedical applications [38][39][40][41][42] , the tuneability offered by DNA nanotechnology makes it an exciting platform for understanding and controlling the interactions of biomaterials with cellular lipid membranes. ...
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Nucleic acids and lipids function in close proximity in biological processes, as well as in nanoengineered constructs for therapeutic applications. As both molecules carry a rich charge profile, and frequently coexist in complex ionic solutions, the electrostatics surely play a pivotal role in interactions between them. Here we discuss how each component of a DNA/ion/lipid system determines its electrostatic attachment. We examine membrane binding of a library of DNA molecules varying from nanoengineered DNA origami through plasmids to short DNA domains, demonstrating the interplay between the molecular structure of the nucleic acid and the phase of lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the magnitude of DNA/lipid interactions is tuned by varying the concentration of magnesium ions in the physiologically relevant range. Notably, we observe that the structural and mechanical properties of DNA are critical in determining its attachment to lipid bilayers and demonstrate that binding is correlated positively with the size, and negatively with the flexibility of the nucleic acid. The findings are utilized in a proof-of-concept comparison of membrane interactions of two DNA origami designs - potential nanotherapeutic platforms - showing how the results can have a direct impact on the choice of DNA geometry for biotechnological applications.
... However, side effects and chemoresistance encourage scientists to continue the search for new rational approaches for cancer treatment [2]. An alternative to the aforementioned treatments is gene therapy (GT) agents [3][4][5][6]. The US Food and Drug Administration defined main mechanisms of GT agents' action: (1) gene repairing, (2) disease-causing gene replacement or swapping, (3) introduction of a new or modified gene with treatment properties, and (4) modification or manipulation of the gene expression [7][8][9]. ...
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Antisense oligonucleotide technology is one of the most successful gene therapy (GT) approaches. However, low selectivity of antisense agents limits their application as anticancer drugs. To achieve activation of antisense agent selectively in cancer cells, herein, we propose the concept of binary antisense oligonucleotide (biASO) agent. biASO recognizes an RNA sequence of a gene associated with cancer development (marker) and then activates RNase H-dependent cleavage of a targeted messenger RNA. biASO was optimized to produce only the background cleavage of the targeted RNA in the absence of the activator. The approach lays the foundation for the development of highly selective and efficient GT agents.
... DNA nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in connection with the required miniaturization of devices and an increase in information processing speed. Materials are created that can be elements of electronic devices, such as nanowires and transistors (Bachtold et al., 2001;DeHon, 2003;Patwardhan et al., 2004;Zahid et al., 2013). The advantage of such devices is related to the property that the DNA density can be significantly increased compared to a typical circuit in a conventional electrical system. ...
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The possibility of using a conducting double DNA-like helix as the basis of an electromagnetic wave polarizer, which converts an incident linearly polarized wave into a reflected wave with circular polarization, has been shown. A high-frequency resonance is studied, at which the wavelength of the incident radiation is approximately equal to the length of a helical turn. The simulation of a double DNA-like helix has been carried out. The electric currents arising in the helical strands under waves with circular polarization at high-frequency resonance have been analyzed. Fundamentally different behavior of the double DNA-like helix concerning waves with right-hand or left-hand circular polarization has been established, which can be called the effect of polarization selectivity. This effect is manifested in the fact that a double DNA-like helix at high-frequency resonance can create a reflected wave having only one sign of circular polarization. The electric vector of the reflected wave produces a turn in space with the opposite winding direction compared to the double helix. These studies also highlight the electromagnetic forces of interaction between helical strands. The equilibrium of the double DNA-like helix has been studied, including as an element of metamaterials and as an object with a high potential for use in nanotechnology.
... But nano-dispersion and nano-suspension are more applicable than micro emulsions that they may contain less active ingredients or lower surfactants. These nanosensors are easily penetrating into host cell and act as a nano-carrier [107]. ...
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Background The field of nano-sensors has been gaining a lot of attention due to its properties such as mechanical and electrical ever since its first discovery by Dr.Wolter and first mechanical sensor in 1994. Motivation The rapidly growing demand of Nanosensors has become profitable for a multidisciplinary approach in designing and fabrication of materials and strategies for potential applications. Frequent stimulating advancements are being suggested and established in recent years and thus heading towards multiple applications including food safety, healthcare, environmental monitoring, and biomedical research. Methods Nano-fabrication being an efficient method has been used in different industries like medical pharmaceutical for their complex functional geometry at a lower scale. These Nano-fabrications apply through different methods. There are five most commonly known methods which are frequently used, including top-down lithography, molecular self-assembly, bottom-up assembly, heat and pull method for fabrication of biosensors, etching for fabrication of nanosensors etc. Conclusion. Nano-fabrication help at the nanoscale to design and work with small models. But these models due to their small size and being sensitive need more care for use as well as more training and experience to do work with. Future Perspective. All methods used for Nano-fabrication are good and helpful. But more preferred is molecular self-assembly as it is helpful in mass production. Nano-fabrication has become an emerging and developing field and it assumed that in near future our world is known by the new devices of nano-fabrication.
... Application of different nanostructures (nanocages, magnetic nanochains, nanocomposites, nanofabrics, nanofibers, nanoflowers, nanofoams, nanoholes, nanomesh, nanopillars, nanopin film, nanoplatelet, nanoribbon, nanoring, nanorod, nanosheet, nanoshell, nanotip, nanowires, nanostructured film, quantum dot, lipid nanostructures, and etc.) has been developed in different fields over the past years, especially in medicine (Zahid et al., 2013;Zare-Zardini et al., 2013;2018a;2018b;. Carbon nanostructures with various shapes (graphene and its derivatives, SWCNTs, MWCNTS, and fullerene) have amazing physical and chemical properties including thermal and electrical conductivity, vibroelectronic properties, high aspect ratio, strength and elasticity, electron emission, high tensile strength, high flexibility, and etc. so, due to these properties, carbon nanostructures can be used in the field of medicine (Jeevanandam et al., 2018;Mukhin et al., 2015;Patel et al., 2020). ...
Article
Carbon nanostructures are important nanomaterial with interesting physical and chemical properties. These nanostructures have been assessed for application in different fields of medicine, such as cancer detection and treatment, Parkinson disease, reproductive medicine, etc. This nanomaterial can be used in reproductive medicine as a drug delivery system, antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial agent, condom-coating agent, enhancer of sperm fertilizing ability, ectopic pregnancy treatment, trophoblastic diseases, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART) improvement. The other side of this coin involves various side effects of carbon nanostructures, especially negative effects on reproductive systems. All carbon nanostructures showed toxicity on the reproductive system by producing reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Less attention has been given to the unique properties of carbon nanostructures, except for their practical attractiveness, the other side of this coin, namely the risks and side effects of these compounds - especially in the case of a reproductive system that supports the survival and health of future generations. Therefore, we suggest paying particular attention to the negative aspects of the increasing use of carbon nanostructures.
... Nanoparticles (1), quantum dots (2,3), fluorophores (4), biomolecules (5,6), and combinations thereof can be positioned with single-nanometer precision and accuracy (7,8) on DNA platforms. Recent work has demonstrated production at scale (9,10), facilitating the manufacture of drug delivery vehicles (11), calibration artefacts (12), and large area, functional surfaces (4,13) at low cost. However, while raw mate-rial scale-up is necessary for the industrial implementation of DNA nanofabrication technology, it is not sufficient. ...
Article
Structural DNA nanotechnology, as exemplified by DNA origami, has enabled the design and construction of molecularly-precise objects for a myriad of applications. However, limitations in imaging, and other characterization approaches, make a quantitative understanding of the folding process challenging. Such an understanding is necessary to determine the origins of structural defects, which constrain the practical use of these nanostructures. Here, we combine careful fluorescent reporter design with a novel affine transformation technique that, together, permit the rigorous measurement of folding thermodynamics. This method removes sources of systematic uncertainty and resolves problems with typical background-correction schemes. This in turn allows us to examine entropic corrections associated with folding and potential secondary and tertiary structure of the scaffold. Our approach also highlights the importance of heat-capacity changes during DNA melting. In addition to yielding insight into DNA origami folding, it is well-suited to probing fundamental processes in related self-assembling systems.
... Advantages include self-assembly, stability of DNA molecules, predictability of structures, and precision programmability at a low price [125]. Therefore, DNA nanotechnology may potentially be used even in oncology as structures for targeted drug-delivery and for biosensors with diagnostic capabilities [126,127]. Additionally, energy transfer systems and photonics, an emerging field for controlling electromagnetic waves at the molecular scale, can benefit from DNA nanometer-scale for energy production and harvesting [9,[128][129][130]. However, there are limiting factors to the advances of DNA nanotechnology, including the availability of software designing tools that can increase the complexity and stability of nanostructures [113]. ...
... Thus, biosensors must consist of a sensor component, a signal transducer, and a signal processor [143][144][145]. In addition, biosensors must have adjustable properties and a high ratio of surface area to volume [126]. The following subsections highlight the latest demonstrations of such DNA-based devices in design and/or in practice. ...
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Researchers are continuously making progress towards diagnosis and treatment of numerous diseases. However, there are still major issues that are presenting many challenges for current medical diagnosis. On the other hand, DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly over the last three decades and is highly interdisciplinary. With many potential technologies derived from the field, it is natural to begin exploring and incorporating its knowledge to develop DNA microsystems for biodiagnosis in order to help address current obstacles, such as disease detection and drug resistance. Here, current challenges in disease detection are presented along with standard methods for diagnosis. Then, a brief overview of DNA nanotechnology is introduced along with its main attractive features for constructing biodiagnostic microsystems. Lastly, suggested DNA-based microsystems are discussed through proof-of-concept demonstrations with improvement strategies for standard diagnostic approaches.
... Several diseases can be currently diagnosed with a drop of blood-based on laser systems in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet frequency ranges. New approaches for producing DNA-based nanoscale tools also show the advancement of nanotechnology in life sciences and medicine [28], [29]. The use of these new therapies makes many diseases detectable and treatable at the onset. ...
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Nanotechnology has been widely exploited in recent years in various applications. Different sectors of medicine and treatment have also focused on the use of nanoproducts. One of the areas of interest in the treatment measures is the interaction between nanomaterials and immune system components. Engineered nanomaterials can stimulate the inhibition or enhancement of immune responses and prevent the detection ability of the immune system. Changes in immune function, in addition to the benefits, may also lead to some damage. Therefore, adequate assessment of the novel nanomaterials seems to be necessary before practical use in treatment. However, there is little information on the toxicological and biological effects of nanomaterials, especially on the potential ways of contacting and handling nanomaterials in the body and the body response to these materials. Extensive variation and different properties of nanomaterials have made it much more difficult to access their toxicological effects to the present. The present study aims to raise knowledge about the potential benefits and risks of using the nanomaterials on the immune system to design and safely employ these compounds in therapeutic purposes.
... Since then, DNA has been utilized as chemical materials and scientists have been trying to endue DNA more new properties by modifying DNA with a variety of functional molecules [4]. The DNA molecule has extraordinary characteristics which include precise recognition and the DNA sequences can be easily programed and designed into different kinds of nanostructures such as DNA origami [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. We have already found that DNA origami can be applied to enhance protein crystallization [14]. ...
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This study reports the first experimental evidence of using DNA as a polymeric additive to enhance protein crystallization. Using three kinds of DNA with different molecular weights—calf DNA, salmon DNA, and herring DNA—this study showed an improvement in the success rate of lysozyme crystallization, as compared to control experiments, especially at low lysozyme concentration. The improvement of crystallization is particularly significant in the presence of calf DNA with the highest molecular weight. Calf DNA also speeds up the induction time of lysozyme crystallization and increases the number of crystals per drop. We hypothesized the effect of DNA on protein crystallization may be due to the combination of excluded volume effect, change of water’s surface tension, and the water competition effect. This work confirms predications of the potential use of DNA as a polymeric additive to enhance protein crystallization, potentially applied to systems with limited protein available or difficult to crystallize.
... [1] High programmability and predictability of oligonucleotides have instigated the rapid development in the field of 2D and 3D DNA self-assembly for potential applications in materials science, biology, physics, and engineering. [2][3][4][5] In fact, the base sequences of oligonucleotide, for example, cytosine-rich DNA, guanosine-rich DNA, and aptamers encode valuable functional and structural information, being favorable for the rational design of stimuli-responsive DNA nanomaterials. [6][7][8] In the past years, a large number of static and dynamic self-assembled DNA nanostructures have been successfully designed and synthesized via different self-assembly strategies. ...
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Photoresponsive DNA nanomaterials represent a new class of remarkable functional materials. By adjusting the irradiation wavelength, light intensity, and exposure time, various photocontrolled DNA‐based systems can be reversibly or irreversibly regulated in respect of their size, shape, conformation, movement, and dissociation/association. This Review introduces the most updated progress in the development of photoresponsive DNA‐based system and emphasizes their advantages over other stimuli‐responsive systems. Their design and mechanisms to trigger the photoresponses are shown and discussed. The potential application of these photon‐responsive DNA nanomaterials in biology, biomedicine, materials science, nanophotonic and nanoelectronic are also covered and described. The challenges faced and further directions of the development of photocontrolled DNA‐based systems are also highlighted.