FIG 1 - uploaded by Alexander N Kruglov
Content may be subject to copyright.
Bald’s eyesalve. A facsimile of the recipe, taken from the manuscript known as Bald’s Leechbook (London, British Library, Royal 12, D xvii). The original text reads as follows. “ Ƿ yrc ea sealf ƿ iþ ƿ ænne: enim cropleac ⁊ arleac be ea emfela, ecnu ƿ e ƿ el tosomne, enim ƿ in ⁊ fearres eallen be ean emfela emen ƿ iþ þy leaces, do þonne on arfæt læt standan ni on niht on þæm arfæt a ƿ rin þurh claþ ⁊ hlyttre ƿ el, do on horn ⁊ ymb niht do mid feþre on ea e; se betsta læcedom.” This is translated into modern English as follows. “Make an eyesalve against a wen: take equal amounts of cropleac [an Allium species] and garlic, pound well together, take equal amounts of wine and oxgall, mix with the alliums, put this in a brass vessel, let [the mixture] stand for nine nights in the brass vessel, wring through a cloth and clarify well, put in a horn and at night apply to the eye with a feather; the best medicine.” © The British Library Board, Royal 12 D Xll xvii. Reproduced with permission. 

Bald’s eyesalve. A facsimile of the recipe, taken from the manuscript known as Bald’s Leechbook (London, British Library, Royal 12, D xvii). The original text reads as follows. “ Ƿ yrc ea sealf ƿ iþ ƿ ænne: enim cropleac ⁊ arleac be ea emfela, ecnu ƿ e ƿ el tosomne, enim ƿ in ⁊ fearres eallen be ean emfela emen ƿ iþ þy leaces, do þonne on arfæt læt standan ni on niht on þæm arfæt a ƿ rin þurh claþ ⁊ hlyttre ƿ el, do on horn ⁊ ymb niht do mid feþre on ea e; se betsta læcedom.” This is translated into modern English as follows. “Make an eyesalve against a wen: take equal amounts of cropleac [an Allium species] and garlic, pound well together, take equal amounts of wine and oxgall, mix with the alliums, put this in a brass vessel, let [the mixture] stand for nine nights in the brass vessel, wring through a cloth and clarify well, put in a horn and at night apply to the eye with a feather; the best medicine.” © The British Library Board, Royal 12 D Xll xvii. Reproduced with permission. 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The results of the multicentre trial on estimation of MRSA antibiotic susceptibility to 17 antibiotics are presented. 474 nonrepeting isolates of MRSA (mecA+), collected in 2011-2014 in 10 cities of the Russian Federation were used in the trial. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the method of serial microdilutions in broth with estima...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... a signifi- cant interaction between batch and treatment ( 2 7 2.0e9, P 0.001); this was because the full recipes of batch B were slightly more bactericidal than those of batch A, and the effects of the individual ingredient preparations differed between batches. The full recipes retained bactericidal activity after 30 days of storage at 4°C (see Fig. S1 in the supplemental ...
Context 2
... eyesalve. The recipe (Fig. 1) calls for equal amounts ("begea emfela") of the Allium species and equal amounts of wine and oxgall, but it is not clear whether these two pairs of quantities are equal to each other, nor whether ingredients were measured by weight or volume. We decided to combine equal amounts by volume of all of the recipe ingredients. For the ...
Context 3
... Set S1, PDF file, 0.1 MB. Figure S1, PDF file, 0.1 MB. Figure S2, PDF file, 1 MB. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
A synbiotic containing Lactiplantibacillus plantarum [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strain identifier 202195] and fructooligosaccharide was reported to reduce the risk of sepsis in young infants in rural India. Here, the whole genome of two isolates of L. plantarum ATCC 202195, which were deposited to the ATCC approximately 20 years apart...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Septicemia in neonates is one of the leading causes of mortality. The increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogens is a serious concern. With this background, this study was done to evaluate the risk factors of late-onset sepsis (LOS) (community- and hospital-acquired infections) in newborns and to determine the antibiotic resista...
Article
Full-text available
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are part of the normal microbial flora of the skin and mucous membranes. Nasal colonization with antibiotic-resistant CoNS represents both a risk factor for the colonized individual and their immediate contacts. This study determines the antibiotics susceptibility pattern and resistance phenotypes to a specif...
Article
Full-text available
Two‐stage revision arthroplasty is the treatment of choice for periprosthetic infection, a serious complication after knee or hip arthroplasty. Our prospective clinical trial aimed to investigate the concentrations of gentamicin and vancomycin in wound exudate and tissue in two‐stage revision arthroplasty. Wound exudate and periprosthetic membrane...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Periprosthetic infection is one of the most severe complications following implant-based breast reconstruction affecting 5%–10% of the women. Currently, many surgeons apply antibiotics locally on the breast implant to reduce the risk of postoperative infection, but no randomised, placebo-controlled trials have tested the treatment’s ef...

Citations

... Although results vary depending on the studied strain and its geographical localization, several recent studies suggest that the antibiotic resistance of S. aureus is on the rise, underscoring the need for new treatment strategies (Orrett, 2008;Saderi et al., 2008;Gu et al., 2013;Gostev et al., 2015;Larru et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotic treatments frequently fail due to the development of antibiotic resistance, underscoring the need for new treatment strategies. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could constitute an alternative therapy. In bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, which is commonly implicated in cutaneous and mucosal infections, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of aPDT, using the photosensitizing agents rose bengal (RB) or methylene blue (MB), alone or combined with the antibiotics mupirocin (MU) or linezolid (LN). RB or MB, at concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 10 μg/ml, were added to S. aureus ATCC 29213 suspensions containing >10⁸ cells/ml, in the absence or presence of MU or LN (1 or 10 μg/ml). Suspensions were irradiated with a white metal halide (λ 420–700 nm) or light-emitting diode lamp (λ 515 and λ 625 nm), and the number of viable bacteria quantified by counting colony-forming units (CFU) on blood agar. Addition of either antibiotic had no significant effect on the number of CFU/ml. By contrast, RB-aPDT and MB-aPDT effectively inactivated S. aureus, as evidenced by a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial growth. In the presence of MU or LN, the same 6 log10 reduction was observed in response to aPDT, but was achieved using significantly lower concentrations of the photosensitizers RB or MB. In conclusion, the combination of MU or LN and RB/MB-aPDT appears to exert a synergistic bactericidal effect against S. aureus in vitro.
... MRSA suşlarına bağlı enfeksiyonlarda teikoplanin, daptomisin, tigesiklin, linezolid ve kinupristindalfopristin kullanımı önerilen ilaçlardır 21 . Dünya genelinde farklı bölgelerden bildirilen çalışmalarda, bu antibiyotiklere direnç gelişimi olmadığı belirtilmiştir [22][23][24] . Ülkemizde yeni yapılmış MRSA suşlarında antibiyotik direncinin incelendiği çok merkezli bir çalışmada, tüm MRSA suşları vankomisin, teikoplanin, daptomisin, kinupristin-dalfopristin ve linezolide duyarlı bulunmuş, ancak tigesikline %11 oranında direnç geliştiği gösterilmiştir 25 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with significant health burden. We investigated linezolid and daptomycin resistance among VREF and MRSA in the EU/EEA between 2014 and 2018. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze 6,949 VREF and 35,131 MRSA blood isolates from patients with bloodstream infection. The population-weighted mean proportion of linezolid resistance in VREF and MRSA between 2014 and 2018 was 1.6% (95% CI 1.33–2.03%) and 0.28% (95% CI 0.32–0.38%), respectively. Daptomycin resistance in MRSA isolates was similarly low [1.1% (95% CI 0.75–1.6%)]. On the European level, there was no temporal change of daptomycin and linezolid resistance in MRSA and VREF. Multivariable regression analyses showed that there was a higher likelihood of linezolid and daptomycin resistance in MRSA (aOR: 2.74, p < 0.001; aOR: 2.25, p < 0.001) and linezolid in VREF (aOR: 1.99, p < 0.001) compared to their sensitive isolates. The low proportion of linezolid and daptomycin resistance in VREF and MRSA suggests that these last-resort antibiotics remain effective and will continue to play an important role in the clinical management of these infections in Europe. However, regional and national efforts to contain antimicrobial resistance should continue to monitor the trend through strengthened surveillance that includes genomic surveillance for early warning and action.
Article
Effective antibiotic therapy requires reliable data on the dynamics of sensitivity changes in each region. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity to antibiotics and antilysozyme activity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from the blood of patients with sepsis over the period from 2017 to 2019. An increase in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ceftriaxone, cefixime vancomycin, azithromycin, and levofloxacin was noted. Given the high incidence of resistance, the use of these drugs should be limited. Ceftazidime, tigecycline, daptomycin, and linezolid can be considered drugs of choice in empiric therapy of septic diseases of staphylococcal etiology. Most of the isolated strains exhibited antilysozyme activity (ALA). Most commonly the cultures had medium to high ALA scores.
Article
Full-text available
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria have been intensively investigated in recent times. Vesicle formation models have been proposed, some factors affecting the process were established, and important roles vesicles play in vital activities of their producing cells were determined. Studies of pathogenic bacterial vesicles contribute to understanding the causes of acute infection and developing drugs on their basis. Despite intensive research, issues associated with the understanding of vesicle biogenesis, the mechanisms of bacterium-bacterium and pathogen-host interactions with participation of vesicles, still remain unresolved. This review discusses some results obtained in the research into OMVs of Lysobacter sp. XL1 VKM B-1576. This bacterium secretes into the environment a spectrum of bacteriolytic enzymes that hydrolyze peptidoglycan of competing bacteria, thus leading to their lysis. One of these enzymes, lytic endopeptidase L5, has been shown not only to be secreted by means of vesicles but also to be involved in their formation. As part of vesicles, the antimicrobial potential of L5 enzyme has been found to be considerably expanded. Vesicles have been shown to have a therapeutic effect in respect of anthrax infection and staphylococcal sepsis modelled in mice. The scientific basis for constructing liposomal antimicrobial preparations from vesicle phospholipids and recombinant bacteriolytic enzyme L5 has been formed.