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Bahia Shehab, You May Crush the Flowers, But You Cannot Delay the Spring (verse by poet Pablo Neruda), 2011. Cairo. Calligraffiti. 

Bahia Shehab, You May Crush the Flowers, But You Cannot Delay the Spring (verse by poet Pablo Neruda), 2011. Cairo. Calligraffiti. 

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The wave of uprisings known as the Arab Spring that swept over the Middle East and North Africa from December 2010 to early 2013 left its imprint on political and social life in the countries concerned. This ephemeral moment also marked a change in various forms of artistic expression. Street art, graffiti, and calligraffiti are among the most stri...

Citations

... Other intangible aspects of heritage tend to be either overlooked or are often regarded as too difficult to address. As shown elsewhere, aural heritage, the sounds generated by, and prevalent, in the human-generated environment, tends to be under-researched [71], as is the interface between intangible aspects of heritage and tangible yet ephemeral manifestations [72,73]. Multisensory aspects of intangible cultural heritage have been largely overlooked, with emerging research in that direction exploring the nature of culinary heritage [74][75][76]. ...
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Annually, there are between 2500 and 3000 Christmas markets in Germany. While purported to be rooted in century-old tradition, the current concept of the markets, shaped in the 1930s, gradually transformed from primarily mercantile operations to experiential events. The experiential dimension is a collection of visual, auditory, and olfactory components that create a compound sensory response: the 'Christmas atmosphere'. The prevalence of COVID-19 meant that traditional Christmas markets were largely absent from the festive calendar in Germany in 2020, disrupting the usual sensory experiences associated with these events. A review of the online presence showed that augmented markets and virtual reality were subsequently utilized in an attempt to recreate the experience and the ambience of the traditional markets, but had limited interactivity with many of the senses. We explore to what extent these multiple-sensory components may have been lost during the Christmas period of 2020 due to the COVID-19-induced transition from the traditional multisensory live market to a predominantly online experience, and highlight problems which arise through the documentation of such complex intangible heritage.
... The majority of the discourse on ephemeral heritage relates to manifestations of cultural heritage in the form of paper-based ephemera [106], soundscapes [20,21], events and performances [107], street art [108], modern, non-permanent materials (such as edible art) [109], temporary art installations [110] and digital ephemera [111], including digital art [112] and projections [113]. ...
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The standard methodology for the assessment of cultural heritage significance relies on hindsight, with a passage of time elapsed between the creation of the site or object and its assessment. There are, however, cases where heritage significance is instant (e.g., sites associated with the first Moon landing). This paper argues that hindsight will not be required to determine that the COVID- 19 pandemic will come to be considered as a significant historic event, as COVID-19 has already manifested itself as a social, cultural and economic disruptor on a global scale with a mortality in the millions. Heritage professionals have the unique opportunity to assess and document places and structures associated with the pandemic, that are poised to be worthy of a heritage listing in the near future, while they are still in use and function as intended. This paper discusses the nature of the sites and structures and explores possible management approaches to safeguard evidence of the pandemic for future generations
... Street Art is an artistic activity that is based on a community setting, characterized by interaction with the community and involving a professional artist collaborating with people. It referred to as "the art of the subaltern and of political protest," (Naguib 2016). Street Art encompasses various forms of visual arts created in public spaces such as graffiti and calligraffiti (Abdulaziz 2015;Arnoldi 2015;Zoghbi and Karl 2012). ...
Chapter
Since ancient times, art played a significant role in people’s life. It fulfills their spiritual needs and represents their culture. Art is a powerful tool for shaping the spirits, minds, morality, and emotions of people. As with any other aspect of life, art has its periods of prosperity and crumble. Before, public art had been represented in art pieces displayed at museums, but then, the meaning extended to art in outdoor spaces. The scope of this research is public art installed in open spaces. The main aim of the study is to shed light on the lost role of public art in Egyptian cities in shaping the cultural and social life to help fighting this phenomenon and reviving the role of art in the community. The research revealed that the absence of having a comprehensive plan that controls the construction and installation of art pieces in open spaces and the ignorance of the artists’ role in the community are the most important reasons behind the problem of randomness of art in public spaces.
... The mural in Rome was used by friends and family of Seif in a campaign to free her and other political prisoners in Egypt. 4 While Abo Bakr's work and other revolutionary Egyptian street art has been extensively covered in academic literature (see for instance Abaza, 2013, 2015b, Abdelmagid, 2013Abou-Setta, 2015;Awad and Wagoner, 2017;de Ruiter, 2015;Findlay, 2012;Hamdy, 2015;Kraidy, 2016b;Lennon, 2014;Naguib, 2017;Nicoarea, 2014;Sanders, 2012;Schielke and Winegar, 2012;Sharaf, 2015;Wagoner, 2019;Zakareviciute, 2014), the mural of Seif in Christiania has not received any specific attention. ...
Article
This article traces the intersecting and interstitial spaces of political aesthetics in political street art featuring key activists of the Egyptian uprising of 2011–13 as well as the following struggle. We argue that the complex political expressions displayed in the images as recontextualized and embodied afford the images different roles in citizens’ political and social struggles. We develop three modalities of political street art – emplacement, travelling and conversation – that allow different works different roles in the political formation of subjectivity. In order to understand street art’s role in political subjectivity formation, this article applies visual discursive analyses to two expressions of political street art: first, the stencil of a blue bra, referring to sitt al-banat, a woman who was stripped naked in public as she was beaten unconscious by Egyptian military soldiers; second, the mural of then jailed activist Sanaa Seif in the Copenhagen borough of Christiania.
Article
Since their appearanceon the streets as alternative communication tools in 1980s, graffiti have led to controversies over their conceptualization as vandalism of the public property. Despite this negative understanding, however, graffiti are tools through which minorities and marginalized groups are able to represent themselves and express their voices in public spheres. Thus, graffiti are turning into alternative and protest tools of communication. Today, through the possibilities that new media and especially social media offer, the lost voices are disseminated faster through graffiti and therefore, graffiti are transformed into more effective communication channels.While acknowledging the yet ongoing vandalistic approach to graffiti, this study contributes theoretically, through a qualitative method of analysis, to the theories on graffiti by offering a discussion on how new media affects the dissemination and conceptualization of graffiti. The analysis and conclusive discussions suggest that despite the negative conceptualization of graffiti as a vandalistic act, they have been utilized as alternative communication tools and are reached by a huge number of audiences through their dissemination by new media even after their actual disappearance from the street walls.
Research
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A Special Issue on the Arab Spring with a fresh approach focusing on countries and movements that weren't the epicenter of the uprisings i.e. the Gulf monarchies, Lebanon, Iran, Morocco, Turkey, Jordan, the Kurdish and the Palestinian movement. Also articles on the European policy and the Arab Spring in theater and the art of graffiti.
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In this chapter, we examine the work of the Sámi artist Anders Sunna and the Egyptian artist Bahia Shebab in order to address strategies of artistic criticism of the relations between states and their citizens. Both artists are protesting against contemporary processes relating to space, state and nation, and they express themselves in ways that are embedded in the aesthetics of unsanctioned street art. This expression constitutes an interesting form of politics, situated somewhere in-between, or alongside, party politics and the practices of civil society. Our aim is to describe and discuss what we see as specifically effective and dynamic themes in the chosen artwork—the use of space as object and methodology, and the production of iconic imageries within fantasies of protest. The stencils and spray paintings of Shehab and Sunna offer us keys to exploring efforts to artistically reveal and dismantle national and neocolonial power.
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Writing as Art Art, being a part of culture and civilization, is difficult to define. It is most often analyzed in terms of aesthetics. The art is most often associated with paintings, sculptures, architecture, music or literature. At the same time, it is hardly ever associated with writing. This article discusses and compares ways of perceiving different types of writing as art that originates from different cultures. Egyptian hieroglyphs were characterized as religious and utilitarian, while their artistic aspect was rather secondary. This approach has changed due to globalization and commercialization. Chinese calligraphy is characterized by duality-a combination of spirituality with pragmatic approach. Arabic calligraphy is primarily religious, but the visual effect seems to be as important as the element of its usage. Calligraffiti that is derived from Arabic calligraphy is, against the tradition, secular and serves as a tool of expression that can be seen both on the streets and in museums. Concrete poetry ignores conventions and gives a new dimension to both poems and typography. Despite time and cultural differences, in all these cases-to a greater or lesser degree-the visual value seems to be just as important (or even more important) as the substantive value of the texts. The visual effect and the functional element cooperate with each other and complement each other creating multidimensional works of art.
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The role of photography and social media have been seen as pivotal to the Egyptian political uprisings of 2011 where icons of the revolution circulated widely, helped galvanize protesters, and documented key events against the backdrop of a rapidly shifting discourse of photojournalism. By examining the citizen-produced image of the ‘girl with the blue’ in its capacity to reflect the spatial-temporal dynamics of the revolution, to mediate complex social issues of gender and political visibility, and to contribute to the development of cultural memory role through contemporary street art, this essay uncovers the significance of an icon in the digital age.