Awareness about risk factors and complications of hypertension 

Awareness about risk factors and complications of hypertension 

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Introduction: The most prevalent form of hypertension is systolic blood pressure (SBP) and it is considered to be predisposing risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to assess self-care practices, knowledge and awareness of hypertension, especially related to SBP among cardiac hypertensive patients. Methodology: A...

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... hundred and thirty seven patients (35.7%) claimed to have high blood pressure at their last checkup. Results of questions relating to hypertension knowledge in cardiac hypertensive patients are given in table 3. Table 4 gives the data regarding the awareness of cardiac hypertensive patients in relation to hypertension risk factors and complications. Risk factor most commonly identified by the participants was too much salt intake (N=523, 78.8%). ...

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... Hypertension may lead to renal failure, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events [7]. Globally complications of hypertension account for 9.4 million mortalities and 45% of all deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and 51% due to cerebrovascular disease [8]. ...
... This was supported by the result that only 48.7% were cognizant of the fact that smoking can increase the risk of hypertension. Results were consistent with Tesema et al. (56.9%) [32], but a greater percentage was reported by Bilal et al., in 2015 [7]. This increase in awareness of smoking hazards is a good indication but further advances should be made to break the chain of smoking especially in youth. ...
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Background Despite massive research guidelines, high blood pressure remains a major public health concern since barriers to treatment and control are on the rise. Lack of awareness is one of the serious impediments to managing hypertension. Therefore, this study is designed to gauge awareness, beliefs, and practices related to hypertension amongst diagnosed subjects. Methods A total of 425 hypertensive patients were recruited from the wards and outpatient department of Jinnah Medical College Hospital located in Korangi district, Karachi. Data was obtained regarding socio-demographics, comorbidity, duration of HTN, current BP readings, and BMI. Additionally, awareness, practices, treatment, and control of hypertension were also assessed. Using IBM SPSS version 25.0, a chi-square test was run for categorical variables to analyze the differences in demographic variables, awareness, practices, and treatment between controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Multivariate regression model was used to identify the risk factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results 65.6% of the total study population was females, of which, 70.7% had uncontrolled hypertension, with a p-value of 0.007. Majority of the candidates were between the ages of 50 and 59 and there was a significant difference in age groups of controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients (p-value = 0.019). Co-morbidities and duration of hypertension yielded no significant results. Awareness, treatment, and practices of lifestyle modifications amongst controlled or uncontrolled hypertension groups were not statistically significant. Age and female gender were the only risk factors significantly linked with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion Overall, there was no significant difference in the statistics of controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients. This requires further investigation and evaluation to identify the unknown risk factors and co-morbid contributing to these findings. Most of the patients are on treatment and still not controlled, and this could be considered under treatment. Health professional's advice and counseling skills, social media, internet, and public awareness sessions can play an active role in the management of BP and its associated complications.
... This is consistent with studies done in Jimma Southwest Ethiopia, Mekelle Northern Ethiopia, Uganda, Angola, India, and Lebanon. 13,28,[42][43][44][45] This could be due to the biological effect of increased SBP with age, mainly due to the reduction in elasticity (increased stiffness) of large duct arteries which in turn leads to arterial stiffening, peripheral vascular resistance which leads to raised BP. 46 Another possible reason might be older age is unfavorable with most hypertension self-care practices whereas hypertension self-care practices are important for control of BP. 47 Non-adherence to antihypertensive medication was also positively associated with uncontrolled hypertension. This finding is consistent with other studies conducted in Mekelle, Gondar Northern Ethiopia, Sudan, Cameroon, and Congo. ...
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Objective The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients on follow-up at public hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 415 hypertensive patients in Eastern Ethiopia from June 15 to July 15, 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and reviewing patients’ charts. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Results This study revealed that magnitude of uncontrolled hypertension was 48% (95% confidence interval = 43.1%−52.8%). Being male (adjusted odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.29–3.26), age ⩾55 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.96–5.08), non-adherence to medication (adjusted odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.94), low diet quality (adjusted odds ratio = 4.04, 95% confidence interval = 2.44–8.44), physically inactive (adjusted odds ratio = 3.20, 95% confidence interval = 1.84–5.56), and having comorbidity (adjusted odds ratio = 3.04, 95% confidence interval = 1.90–4.85) were significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusions In our sample of hypertensive patients on follow-up at public hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia, half had uncontrolled hypertension. Older age, male sex, non-adherence to antihypertensive medication, low diet quality, physically inactive, and having comorbidity were found to be predictors of uncontrolled hypertension. Therefore, sustained health education on self-care practices with special emphasis on older, males, and patients with comorbid conditions.
... 2 Effective management of hypertension demands a shift in lifestyle. Research evidence suggests that hypertensive patients have inadequate knowledge about the condition in regard to blood pressure readings, 3 nature of hypertension, importance of regular medication, 4 seriousness of uncontrolled hypertension, 5 and the importance of management. 6 Educating patients on lifestyle management can be effectively carried out by Health Psychologists with the assistance of nursing professionals as major lifestyle changes depend upon health behavior modification. ...
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Background The alarming rise in prevalence of hypertension warrants psychosocial methods supplementing pharmacotherapy for better management and prevention of cardiac emergencies. The objective of the study was to assess the differential impact of the form and frequency of knowledge intervention on management of primary hypertension. Materials and Method The study was conducted on 256 hypertensive patients recruited through purposive sampling at health centers in Hyderabad, India. Pretest post-test control group quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. There were two forms of the knowledge intervention, namely ‘Direct Interaction’ and ‘Audio-Visual’. Each form was presented in two frequencies namely ‘single exposure’ and ‘double exposure’. The four groups were labelled as Direct Intervention Single (DIS), Direct Intervention Double (DID), Audio-Visual Single (AVS) and Audio-Visual Double (AVD). Adherence and management of hypertension were assessed at baseline and six weeks post experiment. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Results ANCOVA followed by Bonferroni Multiple Group Comparison Test revealed significant differences between the four intervention groups and control group on adherence (p<.001). In case of hypertension management significant differences were observed between Control group and DIS, DID (P<.001), Control and AVS (P<.01). Control group did not differ from AVD. Conclusion There was a positive impact of Knowledge Intervention on adherence and management of hypertension. Double exposure in audio visual form was counterproductive in hypertension management.
... However, participants in this study did not recognise kidney failure and impaired vision as complications of hypertension. This finding is consistent with other studies in which the respondents were not able to identify the complications of hypertension (Bilal et al., 2015;Sathish Kumar et al., 2015). Although the participants in our study recognised kidney disease and diabetic foot as complications of diabetes mellitus, they were not able to associate peripheral neuropathy with diabetes mellitus. ...
Article
Purpose This study looked at the impact of a community-based public health campaign on hypertension and diabetes mellitus awareness and prevention, as well as student experiential learning in a campaign conducted by pharmacy students. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sampling cross-sectional pre–post survey was done to assess disease awareness and knowledge among those who attended the health campaign. The data analysis includes a total of 230 participants with complete data. After the campaign, the pharmacy students used self-assessment to reflect their learning experience. Findings Most participants were unaware of their blood pressure and blood glucose readings, but they reported improved awareness of diseases and prevention of hypertension and diabetes after the health campaign. Although most participants correctly identified the common signs and symptoms of hypertension, few could associate it with overweight. Most participants were unaware of the 5 g per day salt intake limit for controlling hypertension before the campaign. Most participants were less aware that diabetes is associated with impaired vision, peripheral neuropathy, renal and heart diseases. Students expressed increased confidence in leadership, teamwork and communication abilities after the campaign based on self-assessment. Practical implications A health campaign enhances the disease knowledge of the general public. It has been suggested that experiential learning be encouraged in the pharmacy curriculum. Originality/value This study adds to the knowledge on the roles of community-based health campaigns and the value of pharmacy students’ involvement in experiential learning.
... This could result from the perception of these patients that changes in lifestyle have no impact on high blood pressure management. 23 Iyalomhe and Iyalomhe 24 demonstrated a low level of knowledge on HP, ineffective attitudes towards treatment and adoption of inappropriate lifestyles in a study with 108 patients undergoing antihypertensive treatment. In addition, only 10 patients (9.3%) reported practicing physical exercises regularly. ...
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Background: Increased level of physical activity (PA) and health education are known as non-pharmacological treatments of hypertension (HP). There is a lack of studies investigating the influence of HP knowledge on the level of PA among hypertensive patients. Objective: To examine the influence of patient’s knowledge about HP on PA level and the relationship between these variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in in a primary care center located in a city in the southern Brazil. A total of 199 hypertensive patients (median 61.2 [13] years; body mass index (BMI) 21.9 (7.5) kg/m2; 72.4% women) were included. The level of PA was assessed by measuring the number of steps taken daily. The knowledge about HP was assessed by a standardized questionnaire (HIPER-Q). The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare age, BMI and PA level between HP knowledge categories, and the Spearman test was used to assess correlations (p <0.05). Results: The median score of knowledge about HP for patients categorized as insufficient (n=6, 3%), poor (n=24; 12.1%), acceptable (n=101; 50.8%) and good (n=68; 34.2%) was 11.0 (8.0), 20.0 (4.0), 26.0 (5.0) and 38.0 (2.0), respectively. No patient has achieved an “excellent” level of knowledge. There was no significant difference in PA level (p = 0.341), BMI (p = 0.510) or age (p = 0.073) between these categories. Age was negatively correlated with knowledge about HP (p <0.05 and rho = 0.02). Conclusions: Patient’s knowledge about HP did not influence the level of PA in hypertensive patients. Age, number of steps per day and BMI were not significantly different between the categories of knowledge. Public policies and organizational strategy should be addressed to improve health education and avoid sedentary behavior in this population. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0) Keywords: Hypertension; Health Programs and Plans; Health Education; Exercise; Physical Activity; Epidemiology; Quality of Life; Blood Pressure.
... It should be rehearsed day by day for 15-30 minutes. (Bilal et al., 2015) The current investigation intends to decide the adequacy of a igure of eight on the reduction of blood pressure among hypertensive clients in community areas. ...
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Hypertension is a crucial problem in developing countries where there is without treatment; it leads to serious and life-threatening causes. Hypertension is an "iceberg" disease. The current investigation intends to decide the adequacy of the figure of eight on the reduction of blood pressure among hypertensive clients. A Pre experimental one group pretest post-test design was used with (60) hypertensive client who falls into the inclusion criteria was selected by using purposive sampling technique which 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. The demographic data and the structured questionnaires were collected in both the groups followed by that the pretest was conducted on 1st two days and after that, the intensity level of blood pressure in both the groups was assessed by using a sphygmomanometer (systole/diastole) Only in the experimental group the post-test (Level of Blood pressure) was evaluated on the 5th day. The investigation shows that in the pretest of the experimental group, 15(50%) had stage I hypertension, 14(46.67%) had stage II hypertension and 1(3.33%) had prehypertension. Whereas in the post-test, 21(70%) had prehypertension, 8(26.67%) had stage I hypertension and only 1(3.33%) had stage II hypertension. Thus, the study proves that figure of eight walking can be used as an effective nursing intervention for reducing the blood pressure among the hypertensive clients and it is an easily applicable technique and also causes effective method with no side effects.
... A similar observation was made in a study conducted in Debra Berhan in Ethiopia, 26 but this finding disagrees with the study conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 29 This difference is due to the differences in access to media 28,39,40,51 and can have better access to healthcare services than those living in small towns. 25,31,51 In this study, having adequate knowledge about hypertension improves self-care practice. ...
... 29 This difference is due to the differences in access to media 28,39,40,51 and can have better access to healthcare services than those living in small towns. 25,31,51 In this study, having adequate knowledge about hypertension improves self-care practice. This finding was in line with the finding of a study conducted in Saudi Arabia 32 and Debre Berhan Town, Ethiopia. ...
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Background: Self-care practice is the activity that a hypertensive patient undertakes intending to improve their health. Poor self-care practice leads to uncontrolled hypertension. Therefore, strategies designed to prevent and control hypertension-related death, disability, and morbidity should consider the level of the patient's self-care practice and risk factors. This study assessed self-care practice and associated factors among hypertensive patients in public health facilities of Harar Town in eastern Ethiopia. Method: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 398 randomly selected hypertensive patients from 25 March 2019 to 16 April 2019. Pretested structured questionnaires adapted from validated tools were used to collect data from participants using electronic Open Data Kit software through face-to-face exit interview. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 24. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with self-care practice. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to report association and the significance was declared at p-value < 0.05. Results: Level of good self-care practice was 29.9% (95% confidence interval: 25.3% and 34.7%). Age ⩾ 60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 and 9.3), formal education (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 and 4.2), absence of comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1 and 3.1), adequate knowledge about hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 4.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5 and 8.8), good social support (adjusted odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.6 and 4.7), and being khat abstainer (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1 and 3.5) were significantly associated with good self-care practice. Conclusion: The prevalence of good self-care practice was low. In this study, good self-care practice was significantly associated with age, formal education, comorbidities, knowledge about hypertension, social support, and current khat chewing condition. Regular check-up and follow-up of patients' compliance with self-management protocol, and more emphasis should be given to identify factors that potentially impeding patients' adherence to hypertension self-management protocol.
... 25,26 However, community based studies have shown inadequate knowledge and, poor attitude and practice among patients with hypertension in various countries like Nepal, Pakistan and USA. [25][26][27][28] In these studies it have been shown that such level of knowledge, attitude and practice affect the control of high blood pressure despite appropriate treatment. 26 In India, various studies were conducted to assess KAP regarding hypertension. ...
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Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular complications. This can be described as the ‘sleeping snake’ which bites when it wakes up. We aimed to determine the knowledge (K), attitude (A) and practice (P) [KAP] regarding hypertension among hypertensive patients taking antihypertensive medication in Medical College, Kolkata.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the hypertensive patients from July 2017 to September 2017 using random sampling technique. Suitably designed and validated questionnaire of knowledge, attitude and practice on hypertension consisting of 20 questions were used to determine the KAP scores. The difference in the median KAP scores between sex, level of education and duration of hypertension were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test.Results: A total of 318 patients met the inclusion criteria and majority of them were male (53.15%), had received secondary level of education (43.08%) and had hypertension for <5 years (56.91%). The blood pressure ranged from 110-240/70-120 mmHg. The median K, A and P scores were 4 (5), 5 (0) and 3 (1) respectively. Practice was statistically associated with sex (p<0.007). Significant differences were found between patients with below and above secondary educational level regarding knowledge (p=0.0001), attitude (p=0.02) and practice (p=0.001). Patients with duration of hypertension more than five years had better knowledge compared to those with duration less than five years (p=0.0001).Conclusions: Our study showed that there are scopes for improving knowledge, attitude and practice among hypertensive patients for better management of hypertension.
... Though evidence-based self-care behaviors in HT allow for normalizing BP, patients with HT do not typically adhere fully to these behaviors. In case of primary hypertension self-care involves lifestyle changes, including proper diet and weight control, and pharmaceutical adherence [7,8]. Together, these behaviors contribute to better BP control and symptom monitoring. ...
... What is worse, as many as 40% take no action whatsoever to normalize their BP [31]. In other studies, the percentage of hypertensive patients with good selfcare practices ranged between 20.3 and 37.1% [8,32]. In their study of patients with HT, Gebremichael et al. demonstrated an association between good self-care practices and good BP control [32]. ...
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Background Hypertension (HT) requires patients to continuously monitor their blood pressure, strictly adhere to therapeutic recommendations, and self-manage their illness. A few studies indicate that physician–patient communication and the patient’s satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship may affect the course and outcomes of the treatment process. Research is still lacking on the association between satisfaction with physician–patient communication and adherence to treatment or self-care in chronically ill patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between satisfaction with physician–patient communication and self-care and adherence in patients with HT undergoing chronic treatment. Methods The following instruments were used: the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale (ARMS) for evaluating adherence (12–48 points), the Self-Care of Hypertension Inventory (SCHI) for self-care level (0–100 points), and the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) for evaluating satisfaction with physician–patient communication. Socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained from patients’ medical records. The research has a cross-sectional and observational study design. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age > 18 years, hypertension diagnosed per European Society of Hypertension (ESH) guidelines, treatment with at least one antihypertensive drug for the past 6 months, and informed consent. Cognitively impaired patients unable to complete the surveys without assistance were excluded (MMSE ≤18). Correlations between quantitative variables were analyzed using Pearson’s or Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Linear regression was performed. Variable distribution normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Results The study included 250 patients (110 male, mean age 61.23 ± 14.34) with HT, treated at a hypertension clinic. In the CAT questionnaire individual questions pertaining to satisfaction with physician communication (on the CAT) were rated “excellent” 28.4–50.4% of the time. The best-rated aspects of communication included: letting the patient talk without interruptions (50.4% “excellent” ratings), speaking in a way the patient can understand (47.6%), and paying attention to the patient (47.2%). According to patient reports, physicians most commonly omitted such aspects as encouraging the patient to ask questions (28.4%), involving them in decisions (29.2%), and discussing the next steps (35.2%). The respondents had a low level of adherence to pharmaceutical treatment (16.63 ± 4.6). In terms of self-care, they scored highest in self-care management (64.17 ± 21.18), and lowest in self-care maintenance (56.73 ± 18.57). In correlation analysis, satisfaction with physician–patient communication (total CAT score) was positively correlated with all SCHI domains (self-care maintenance β = 0.276, self-care management β = 0.208, self-care confidence β = 0.286, p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with ARMS scores (indicating better adherence). Conclusions Satisfaction with physician–patient communication has a significant impact on self-care and pharmaceutical adherence in patients with hypertension. The more satisfied the patient is with communication, the better their adherence and self-care. Trial registration SIMPLE: RID.Z501.19.016.
... 33 Furthermore, from the study conducted in Pakistan, about twothirds of them (69.1%) had regular checkup of their blood pressure status. 34 The study has certain limitations such as; retrospective cross-sectional study design, single centered, and small sample size used. ...
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Background: Hypertensive emergency (HE) is an acute stage of uncontrolled blood pressure which poses a substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In our setting, the prevalence of HE and the characteristics of patients with a hypertensive crisis are not certainly known yet. Objective: The study assessed the prevalence of hypertensive emergency and associated factors among hospitalized patients with hypertensive crisis. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing records of patients having a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis with systolic/diastolic blood pressure raised to more than 180/120 mmHg admitted to Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (ACSH) from September 2018 to August 2019. Patients' medical records with complete information were enrolled consecutively. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, and other related variables were collected using a structured data collection tool from patient medical records. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was employed to determine factors associated with HE. Results: A total of 141 patients' records with a diagnosis of a hypertensive crisis were enrolled in the study; the majority were females 77 (54.6%) and residing in the urban setting 104 (73.8%). The mean age of the participants was 58.8 years. HE was found in 42 (29.8%) of patients. Intravenous Hydralazine 39 (27.7%) and oral calcium channel blocker 102 (72.3%) were the prescribed drugs for acute blood pressure reduction in the emergency setting. Surprisingly, patients who had no history of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.469; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.176‒0.933) and female sex (AOR=2.494; 95% CI: 1.111‒5.596) were found to be independently associated factors with HE. Conclusion: The prevalence of HE was found to account a significant proportion of patients. Hence, hypertensive patients should be strictly managed accordingly, and promoting screening programs could reduce the risk of target organ damage.