Average* sodium content of biscuits and difference between these contents and those printed on nutritional labels. 

Average* sodium content of biscuits and difference between these contents and those printed on nutritional labels. 

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The aim of this study was to analyze the proximate and mineral composition of 21 types of biscuits. All biscuits showed high fat contents, significantly different (P < 0.05) from those described on the labels, except for three brands. Insoluble fiber fractions were predominant in the analyzed samples. Among the 21 biscuits analyzed, 16 showed food...

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... Biscuit T 0 (control) records the highest content (5.89 mg/100 g), and biscuit T3 (75%) records the lowest score (3.456 mg/100 g). The results of this study are comparable to those found by Maria et al. [28] (4.08 mg/ 100 g) in biscuit made from coconut. Iron also contributes to the formation of red blood cells. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of biscuits from wheat-sweet potato-soybean composite flours. Substitutions of wheat flour with sweet potato and soybean flours at the rate of 25% (wheat flour 375 g, sweet potato flour 100 g, and soybean flour 25 g) (T1), 50% (wheat flour 250 g, sweet potato flour 200 g, and soybean flour 50 g) (T2), 75% (wheat flour 125 g, sweet potato flour 300 g, and soybean flour 75 g) (T3), and 100% (wheat flour 0 g, sweet potato flour 400 g, and soybean flour 100 g) (T4) were made to obtain the wheat-sweet potato-soybean composite flours. Wheat flour without sweet potato and soybean flour was used as control (T0). The functional properties (water absorption capacity and water solubility index) of the flours were determined. Sensory evaluation of biscuits was determined. The proximate and mineral contents of the most preferred biscuits were determined. Results showed that the substitution significantly increases the functional properties of the flours ( P < 0.05 ). Sample 75% (T3) is the most preferred biscuit. The incorporation of sweet potato and soy flour in the formulation significantly increases the moisture, fat, protein, fiber, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, and potassium contents of the biscuits ( P < 0.05 ). Biscuit 75% (T3) records the highest levels in protein and fiber while sample T0 (control) records the highest levels of iron, zinc, and sodium. In terms of overall acceptability and nutrient contents, sample 75% (T3) is the best biscuits.
... This study shows that the moisture content is low when compared to others types of flour described by (Kumar et al., 2021) [28] . Usually, the high-quality flour contains 9% to 12% moisture content (Hsu et al., 2003) [26] if moisture levels are higher than 12% so the flour is prone to microbial growth while low level are suitable for the storage and have long shelf life hence the moisture parameter play an important aspect to shows the presence or absence of water content which help shown an idea about its chemical, physical changes during storage period (Hasmadi et al., 2020;Passos et al., 2013) [36] therefore, in the present study showed low moisture content which is suited for the storage. The ash content value was found to be higher ranges 2.81% as compared to result obtained in cassava flour which were grown in Tawau and semporna region (Hasmadi et al., 2020) in which ash content ranged 2.43% and 2.19%. ...
... This study shows that the moisture content is low when compared to others types of flour described by (Kumar et al., 2021) [28] . Usually, the high-quality flour contains 9% to 12% moisture content (Hsu et al., 2003) [26] if moisture levels are higher than 12% so the flour is prone to microbial growth while low level are suitable for the storage and have long shelf life hence the moisture parameter play an important aspect to shows the presence or absence of water content which help shown an idea about its chemical, physical changes during storage period (Hasmadi et al., 2020;Passos et al., 2013) [36] therefore, in the present study showed low moisture content which is suited for the storage. The ash content value was found to be higher ranges 2.81% as compared to result obtained in cassava flour which were grown in Tawau and semporna region (Hasmadi et al., 2020) in which ash content ranged 2.43% and 2.19%. ...
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... Selain itu proses pengolahan pangan dapat pula meningkatkan kandungan mineral pada produk pangan. Menurut dos Passos et al., (2013), proses pengolahan pangan dapat meningkatkan kandungan mineral pada produk pangan, bukan hanya karena penambahan NaCl tapi juga adanya penambahan bahan tambahan pangan yang digunakan untuk memperbaiki tekstur, aroma dan juga meningkatkan masa simpan produk. Pada proses pengolahan produk biskuit ini, dilakukan penambahan bahan-bahan tambahan pangan seperti soda kue untuk mendapatkan tekstur biskuit yang renyah, perisa susu dan vanilla yang dapat menetralisir aroma ikan pada tepung ikan toman. ...
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... 10 Moisture content is an important indicator of food shelf-life since it has an important relationship between conservation and the chemical, physical and microbiological changes during the storage of foods regardless in a wet or dry state. 15 Ash content also is essential to a food's nutrition and longevity. The higher the water content of foods, the more it is susceptible to the interactions with microbes and its environment. ...
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Vegetable acts as major valuable source of nutrients. Among different vegetables, okra was analyzed to study moisture content, ash content, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), total carbohydrates, and micro-minerals, fatty acid compositions and pesticide residues. Fatty acid compositions were studied by gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) while, gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector GC-ECD was used for analysis of pesticide residues. Total carbohydrate content was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The amount of soluble dietary fiber was estimated by acid extraction method. Fe, Cu and Zn content were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The relative percentage of fatty acids were found to be palmitic, cis-9-oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acid in a range of 0.27-1.35, 3.78 - 6.32, 30.67- 38.44, 2.13 - 4.85 and 1.29 -3.17 %, respectively. Residual diazinon, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and quinalphos were not found to be present in any sample. Total carbohydrate, SDF, moisture and ash content in fresh okra fruits were found to be 6.01- 6.09, 3.35 - 3.50, 88.02 - 91.84 and 1.72 - 2.04 %, respectively. The amount of Fe, Cu and Zn was 11.41-11.43, 1.78 -1.85 and 8.56 - 9.05 mg per 100 g sample, respectively.
... Therefore, the decrease in sodium chloride did not interfere with the texture of the crackers. Passos et al. (2013) found that the humidity values of cream crackers vary from 2.5% to 4.0%, which presents a pleasant texture. This result is similar to the result of the present study, in which the humidity value was found to range from 2.43% to 3.89%. ...
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Aiming to reduce the sodium content in saltine crackers, the present study employed a methodology of salt coating that provided an inhomogeneous distribution of salt so that the salt perception was not altered. To this end, three cracker recipes were prepared and compared. Recipe 1 (F1) was the standard, Recipe 2 (F2) had a 33.3% reduction in salt in the dough, and Recipe 3 (F3) had no salt in the dough but instead a salty coating with the same amount of salt as F2. Physicochemical and sensory analyses revealed that F1 and F3 were not statistically different in salt perception, whereas F2 differed from the others. From these results, it was concluded that the methodology of covering crackers with a salty coating with a 42.5% salt reduction could be an alternative to achieving salt reduction.
... The results are supported to the findings of Passos et al. (2013) in commercial cookies for proximate and mineral content. Niaba et al. (2013) found that mineral content increased in cookies supplemented with Macrotermes subhyalinus flour. ...