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Average fatty acid composition of nuts (grams per 100 g) 

Average fatty acid composition of nuts (grams per 100 g) 

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It is well established that, due to their high content of saturated fatty acids (SFA), the intake of meat and meat products is strongly associated with elevated blood cholesterol concentrations and an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Conversely, the intake of foods rich in unsaturated fatty acids, such as those...

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... the exception of chestnuts, which contain little fat, nuts are fatty foods. Their total fat content ranges from 46 % in cashews and pistachios to 76 % in macadamia nuts (Table 1). However, the fatty acid composition of nuts is beneficial because the SFA content is low (4-16 %) and almost one- half of the total fat content is made up of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA (oleic acid) in most nuts, similar proportions of MUFA and PUFA (linoleic acid) in Brazil nuts, a predomi- nance of PUFA over MUFA in pine nuts, and mostly PUFA, both linoleic acid and ALA, in walnuts. ...
Context 2
... regard to walnuts, it must be underlined that they are the whole food with the highest content of ALA of all edible plants ( Exler &Weihrauch, 1986). As shown in Table 1, the proportion of linoleic acid to ALA in walnuts is < 4:1. At the cellular level, these two fatty acids are substrates for the same desaturation and elongation enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway leading to eicosanoid production (Calder, 2004). ...

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... The fatty acid profile of pecan is similar to the olive (Olea europaea L.) oil, which is also recognized as a healthy oil. There is a correlation of fatty acids with blood circulation and cardiovascular diseases (11), where it has been revealed that high levels of circulating linoleic acid are inversely related to the mortality associated with this type of disease. Oleic and linoleic acids have also been linked to the lower risks of type 2 diabetes, inhibiting negative regulators in the insulin pathway and linking linoleic acid to stimulating insulin secretion (12). ...
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... These agents can also reduce the pro-oxidant effects of PUFA on LDL oxidation and DNA damages (134). The main fat compounds in hazelnuts and almonds are MUFA and are associated with decreased LDL sensitivity to oxidation (119). Therefore, differences in the fat content of different nuts may partly explain why pistachios, walnuts, almonds, and other MUFA-rich nuts can reduce oxidative stress, whereas walnuts (PUFA-rich) Do not have. ...
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... Therefore, artificial drying is critical to preserve the safety of the nuts. Simultaneously, because tree nuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids (Curb et al., 2000;Gecgel et al., 2011;Ros & Mataix, 2006;Virtanen et al., 2014), the oil quality of tree nuts is sensitive to the thermal drying process Chen, Venkitasamy, Zhang, Deng, et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2020). Thus, the drying practices of tree nuts need to be conduct appropriately and efficiently right after harvesting to ensure the quality, safety, and market value of dried products (Ajith et al., 2015;Chen, 2021;Tavakolipour, 2015;Zhang et al., 2018;Zhang, Chen, et al., 2021). ...
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Tree nuts are important economic crops and are consumed as healthy snacks worldwide. In recent years, the increasing needs for more efficient and effective postharvest processing technologies have been driven by the growing production, higher quality standards, stricter food safety requirements, development of new harvesting methods, and demand to achieve energy saving and carbon neutralization. Among all, the technologies related to drying, disinfection, and disinfestation and downstream processes, such as blanching, kernel peeling, and roasting, are the most important processes influencing the quality and safety of the products. These processes make up the largest contribution to the energy consumptions and environmental impacts stemming from tree nut production. Although many studies have been conducted to improve the processing efficiency and sustainability, and preserve the product quality and safety, information from these studies is fragmented and a centralized review highlighting the important technology advancements of postharvest processing of tree nuts would benefit the industry. In this comprehensive review, almonds, walnuts, and pistachios are selected as the representative crops of tree nuts. Current statuses, recent advances, and ongoing challenges in the scientific research as well as in the industrial processing practices of these tree nuts are summarized. Some new perspectives and applications of tree nut processing waste and by‐products (such as the hulls and shells) are also discussed. In addition, future trends and research needs are highlighted. The material presented here will help both stakeholders and scientists to better understand postharvest tree nut processing and provide technological recommendations to improve the efficiency and sustainability, product quality and safety, and competitiveness of the industry.
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In this study, the nutritional potential of some hazelnut varieties from the spontaneous flora of Romania was analyzed as a means to increase the sustainability of the local production. The chemical composition from hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from spontaneous flora was determined in terms of mineral substances, protein, as well as essential and non-essential amino acids. The eight amino acids investigated had the following average values: Arg-0.68 g/100 g, Phe-0.415 g/100 g, Ser-0.277 g/100 g, Glu-0.188 g/100 g, Asp-0.133 g/100 g, Pro-0.038 g/100 g, and Lys-0.031 g/100 g. The average values of metal content were in the ranges: 88.39-146.98 µg·g-1 (Fe); 96.93-123.23 µg·g-1 (Zn); 46.68-100.38 µg·g-1 (Cu); 26.00-87.78 µg·g-1 (Mn); 4.87-32.19 µg·g-1 (Ni); 1.87-2.84 µg·g-1 (Cr); and 1.29-1.86 µg·g-1 (Cd). Crude protein content values were in the range 16.33-22.31%. In order to harness this nutritional potential, the variety with superior quality indices was included, in the form of flour, in biscuit-type baked goods that were characterized from nutritional and sensory points of view. The results showed that the content of polyphenols increased with the addition of hazelnut flour, as did the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
... The pecan nut oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and considered as a healthy oil (Villarreal-Lozoya et al., 2007; Ros and Mataix 2006). The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than that of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in pecan. ...
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Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) is the most economically valuable nut tree growing in many countries of the world. 10 nut quantitative traits and 15 fatty acid components of 112 pecan accessions were determined to analyze the morphometric and fatty acids genetic diversity in this study. The measured nuts traits of single nut mass, nut transverse, longitudinal and lateral diameter, nut aspect ratio, single nuts kernel mass, kernel yield and shell thinness were found highly variable. 15 fatty acids were detected among 36 tested fat acids in the nut kernel of pecan, and 14 fatty acids were found high variation except for the C12:0. Plenty of these traits are significant economic importance and could be used as breeding targets to improve the pecan variety. The positive correlations were observed between each pair of single nut mass, nut transverse diameter, nut longitudinal diameter and nut lateral diameter. Single nuts kernel mass is significantly positively correlated with single nut mass, nut transverse diameter, nut longitudinal diameter and nut lateral diameter. The 2D PCA plot successfully grouped the samples according to their phenotypic resemblance and morphological characteristics. 112 accessions were grouped into 4 and 3 major clusters according to the nut quantitative traits and fatty acids components and contents, respectively. Based on these results, we suggest that multidisciplinary research team should be set for genetic breeding of pecan to promote the conservation of local genetic diversity and improve the nuts production and commercialization in China.
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