Figure 2 - uploaded by James L Szalma
Content may be subject to copyright.
Average Number of Hours Spent Gaming in a Typical Day for Female and Male Gamers. 

Average Number of Hours Spent Gaming in a Typical Day for Female and Male Gamers. 

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is two-fold: 1) replicate the results of Phan, Jardina, Hoyle, and Chaparro (2012), and 2) extend their work on video gamers by understanding how female and male hardcore gamers differ from those who play casually, as well as examine the differences between hardcore gamers. Two hundred and twenty-five undergraduate student...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... defining casual and hardcore group membership, nine female students were categorized as being hardcore gamers and 104 females were categorized as causal gamers. Sixty-four males were categorized as hardcore gamers and 38 males were categorized as casual gamers. There was a significant difference between the number of days per week females (M = 2.72, SD = 1.97) played video games and the number days per week that males played video games (M = 5.02, SD = 1.85), t(214) = 8.81, p = .00. A 2 (female, male) x 2 (casual, hardcore) between- subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) yielded a significant interaction at the p = .05 level, F(1, 211) = 6.68, p = .010, partial η 2 = .031. However, no main effect of gender was observed, F(1, 211) = 1.58, p = .43, partial η 2 = .61. Additionally, there was not a significant main effect for hardcore versus casual gaming, F (1, 211) = 4.68, p = .28, partial η 2 = .824. The descriptive statistics based on this ANOVA are reported in Figure 1. There was a significant difference between the average number of hours that females spent gaming (M = 2.17, SD = 1.60) and average number of hours males spent playing video games (M = 3.24, SD = 2.12), t(186.88) = 4.14, p = .000. The same 2x2 ANOVA yielded a trending main effect for gender, F(1, 211) = 110.04, p = .061, η 2 = .99, as well as a significant main effect for casual versus hardcore patterns of behavior, F(1, 211) = 4887.29, p = .01, partial η 2 = 1.00. Additionally, a significant interaction between pattern of gaming behavior and gender was not observed, F(1, 211) = .011, p = .918, partial η 2 = .000. The results of this ANOVA are included in Figure 2. t-test between females (M = 76.68, SD = 67.44) and males (M = 101.54, SD = 70.85), t(213) = 2.64, p = .01, revealed a significant difference between the average length (in minutes) of a single, typical gaming session. When the same 2x2 ANOVA was conducted, there was a trending interaction observed between gender and casual versus hardcore gamers, F(1, 211) = 2.71, p = .10, partial η 2 = .01. There were no significant main effect for gender, F (1, 211) = .24, p = .71, partial η 2 = .19, or for casual versus hardcore gaming, F(1, 211) = 14.63, p = .16, partial η 2 = .94. The results of this ANOVA are displayed in Figure 3. A t-test between females (M = 0.50, SD = 0.78) and males (M = 0.97, SD = 1.31), t(162.98) = 3.20, p = .00, yielded a significant difference between the amount of time females and males spent researching video games. When the same 2x2 ANOVA was conducted, there was a trending main effect for casual versus hardcore gaming patterns of behavior, F(1, 210) = 49.03, p = .09, partial η 2 = .98. However, there was no main effect for gender, F(1, 210) = 1.25, p = .47, partial η 2 = .56. There was no significant interaction between the two independent variables, F(1, 210) = .94, p = .34, partial η 2 = .00. The results of this ANOVA are included in Figure 4. A t-test between females (M = 23.99, SD = 27.71) and males (M = 52.99, SD = 37.95), t(181.67) = 6.301, p = .000, revealed a significant difference between total number of video games owned to date. When the same 2x2 ANOVA was run, there was a significant main effect for gender, F(1, 208) = 6916.00, p = .01, partial η 2 = 1.00. There was also a significant main effect casual versus hardcore, F(1, 208) = 52174.97, p = .00, partial η 2 = 1.00. But, there was no significant interaction, F (1, 208) = .01, p = .97, partial η 2 = .00, between the two variables. The results of this ANOVA are shown in Figure 5. A significant difference between females (M = 1.71, SD = 1.80) and males (M = 3.46, SD = 3.16), t(159.05) = 4.86, p = .00, in terms of the number of new video games purchased within the last six months, was observed. When the same 2x2 ANOVA was produced, there were no significant main effect for gender, F(1, 204) = 4.77, p = .27, partial η 2 = .83, or a main effect for casual versus hardcore, F(1, 204) = 5.69, p = .25, partial η 2 = .85. Additionally, no significant interaction was found, F(1, 204) = 2.36, p = .13, partial η 2 = .01. The results of this ANOVA are presented in Figure ...

Citations

... "Intensive games," on the other hand, are generally played on PC or gaming console, rely vastly on computational resources, and require a certain amount of training time to be learned. They are often multiplayer based, are challenging without a definitive completion, and cannot be fully mastered, with the most skilled players becoming professionals in the E-sports scene (Bosser & Nakatsu, 2006;Green & Bavelier, 2003;Kapalo et al., 2015;Rehbein et al., 2016;Saputra et al., 2017). Although these two categories still seem very broad and further studies are needed to specifically assess the processes involved in different types of video games (Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2012, it is easy to understand that the type of games played will have very different effects in VR, on both the sense of presence and cybersickness. ...
... On this question, it is particularly interesting to see that while men and women report approximately similar levels of video game experience (Entertainment Software Association, 2019), the two genders still differ widely on the type of video games and media used. Women dominantly play "casual games" (puzzles, matching games) on smartphones or tablets, while men dominantly play "intensive games" (first-person shooter, real-time strategy) on computers or gaming consoles (Bosser & Nakatsu, 2006;Kapalo et al., 2015;Rehbein et al., 2016;Saputra et al., 2017). Besides cultural aspects, it is also possible that biological differences, notably in the susceptibility to sensory conflict as an evolutionary process (Treisman, 1977), or in hormones secretion rates (notably vasopressin), enhance the susceptibility to negative symptoms for women (Clemes & Howarth, 2016). ...
Article
The question of the relationship between the sense of presence and performance in virtual reality is fundamental for anyone wishing to use the tool methodologically. Indeed, if the sense of presence can modify performance per se, then individual factors affecting the human-computer interaction might have repercussions on performance, despite being unrelated to it. After a discussion on the sense of presence and the particularities it provokes, this work studies the psychophysiology of virtual reality. This in virtuo experience is understood according to a constitutive and reciprocal relationship with the subject's cognitive profile, made up of all the human, contextual and motivational factors impacting the processing of immersion. The role and importance of performance in virtual reality is described in this framework in such a way as to be studied methodologically. The presence-performance relationship is discussed based on previous works and analyzed in terms of attentional resources. Finally, the degree of ecological validity of the performance is described as the factor modulating the relationship between the sense of presence and performance (the Phi Angle). Limitations, applications and test hypotheses of the model are presented. This work aims to help the conceptualization of virtual reality, but also to improve its methodological framework.
... However, this finding does not indicate that convenience and Qualtrics samples are preferable to community since each researcher may have specific target population needs. For example, the majority of heavy gamers on the most popular platforms such as consoles and computers tend to be male, which would make community-recruited samples more attractive for those wishing to study more externally generalizable samples by gender (Kapalo et al., 2015). On the other hand, individuals from East Asia tend to have much more invested relationships with video games and the internet, as demonstrated by substantially higher gaming disorder rates in that region of the world (Chia et al., 2020). ...
Article
Crowdsourced samples are increasing in popularity, particularly within psychological and addictive behaviors research. The trend has resulted in significant interest in the use of panel samples for the examination of behavioral and substance addictions. One newer panel platform, Qualtrics, has seen an increase in usage in recent years despite lack of research examining the validity of Qualtrics-produced data for addictive behaviors. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the validity of Qualtrics-obtained data for the most recently classified behavioral addiction-video gaming. The evaluation compared a Qualtrics-recruited video gamers sample (n = 586) to traditional community (n = 108) and student (n = 217) samples on demographics and key outcomes relevant to gaming disorder researchers (average playtime, frequency of gaming, and gaming disorder risk scores) to evaluate the generalizability of Qualtrics panel data. The results revealed that Qualtrics samples were comparable to a traditionally recruited community sample, but different from a student sample on gaming frequency (p < .001) and risk for gaming disorder (p < .001). The Qualtrics sample also had longer durations of average gaming time relative to the student sample (p = .01), with some differences in demographics between the all three sources of recruitment. The findings suggest that Qualtrics may provide a suitable method of convenience panel recruitment, generalizable to the broader North American community, for research examining video gaming behaviors and gaming disorder. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... As such, it was believed this would be the most accurate and clear assessment of how frequently adolescents' play video games intensely. Finally, the use 2þ hours daily versus 3þ or 4þ hours was based on prior research suggesting a long gaming session for both casual as well as excessive gamers would be in excess of 2 h (Kapalo, Dewar, Rupp, & Szalma, 2015;Neys, Jansz, & Tan, 2014). As such, how often they play 2þ hours (i.e., never, less than monthly, monthly, weekly, daily) would be a strong indicator of their video gaming intensity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Esports betting is an emerging gambling activity where individuals place bets on an organized video gaming competition. It represents only one of several gambling activities commonly endorsed by adolescents. To date, limited research has explored the relationship between esports betting and mental health among adolescents and its convergence with both problem gambling (PG) and problem video gaming (PVG). The present study examined the relation between esports betting, PG and PVG, and both externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescents while accounting for adolescents' video gaming intensity (i.e., how often they play 2 h or more in a day) and engagement in other gambling activities. Methods Data was collected from 6,810 adolescents in Wood County, Ohio schools. A subset of 1,348 adolescents ( M age = 14.67 years, SD = 1.73, 64% male) who had gambled and played video games during the past year were included in the analyses. Results Approximately 20% ( n = 263) of the included sample had bet on esports during the past year. Esports betting was positively correlated with other forms of gambling, both PG and PVG, and externalizing behaviors. Mediation analyses revealed esports betting was associated to both internalizing and externalizing problems through PVG and not PG. Conclusions Esports betting may be particularly appealing to adolescents who are enthusiastic video gamers. As such, regulators must be vigilant to ensure codes of best practices are applied to esports betting operators specifically for underaged individuals.
... Our data also corroborates previous work demonstrating the average age of professional gamers who play consistently to maintain their status to be between 18 and 25 years of age [43,44]. Our findings support the existing work on the definitions of 'hardcore', 'core' and 'casual' gamers from one another, as discussed by Scharkow and colleagues [33], Kuttinen and colleagues [34], and Kapalo and colleagues [45]. ...
Article
This paper collated and analysed information regarding the abilities, gameplay and game genre preferences perceived to be important by amateur gamers and whether these perceptions differed based on several criteria, including time spent gaming and the types of games people played. First-person Shooter (FPS), Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) and Real-time Strategy (RTS) games were examined among a sample of 301 gamers (262 male) at the PAX East gaming festival. Participant’s perceptions of the importance of and preference for a subset of gameplay attributes were assessed through a survey and compared with the game genre individuals reported playing most. MOBA and FPS gamers were found to have similar preferences for competitive and fast paced games requiring quick and precise actions, while strategy was preferred for RTS. Preference and the perceived importance of tactical aspects of FPS and MOBA games were found to be unimportant, contradicting their current prominence in esports. Our findings suggest that the current treatment of RTS games in esports research as an action video game is possibly flawed and they should not be grouped with MOBA/FPS games.
... Saying that someone who watches 20 h of only action movies a week is a movie expert is misleading. Although such an individual might be an expert in that genre of movie, their lack of interest or experience with other genres of movies would not make them an expert in movies more generally, yet this type of experience with games would typically qualify them as "hardcore" or "experienced" video game players in gaming research (e.g., Fritsch et al. 2006;Kapalo et al. 2015). Even more misleading about using "time spent playing" as a measurement is that how much time is spent is related to the genre being play and whether the play is solo or with others (Johnson et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative research on video games often reduces participants' gaming experience to how much time they spend playing video games. Although appropriate in some instances, it often fails to capture aspects of the video game experience. Studies that only use time as a means of establishing expertise in gaming fail to capture how much a player is involved in different types of video storytelling, game rules and mechanics, social experiences online and/or offline, and many other aspects. Only using time as a measurement also introduces a bias against women, as they typically have less leisure time overall, reducing the time they might spend playing video games. The current study proposes and tests a novel measure for gauging participants' experience with video games that includes their experience with various game genres in addition to time dedicated to playing games. The "genre diversity score" presented in this paper provides a better understanding of an individual's experience with gaming as a whole while still providing a metric that can be used in quantitative research. To demonstrate the usefulness of this measure it is compared to measures of time spent playing, the use of a PC for gaming, and casual/non-casual gaming. The analyses indicate that the genre diversity score outperforms other gaming measures in various tests of predictive power making a case for it to be used in future quantitative or mixed methods studies on gaming.
... They usually cannot be finished or fully mastered, and more than often present a professional E-sports scene. In addition, these kind of games are the ones usually associated with gaming disorders (Green and Bavelier, 2003;Bosser and Nakatsu, 2006;Kapalo et al., 2015;Rehbein et al., 2016;Saputra et al., 2017). Examples of intensive games might be real time strategy or first-person shooter games. ...
Article
Full-text available
(Frontiers in Virtual Reality: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frvir.2020.571713/abstract) The use of virtual reality in spatial cognition evaluation has been growing rapidly, mainly because of its potential applications in the training and diagnosis of cognitive impairment and its ability to blend experimental control and ecological validity. However, there are still many grey areas on virtual reality, notably on the sense of presence and its complex relationship to task performance. Performance in VR is often suggested to be influenced by other human factors amongst which cybersickness, gender, video game experience and field dependence. Would an individual experiencing more presence systematically show better performance? This study aimed to be part of a framework of virtual reality as this question is fundamental for rigorous assessment and diagnostic, and particularly in the spatial cognition field. 48 healthy young subjects were recruited to take part in a virtual spatial cognition evaluation. Spatial cognition performance, along with their level of presence, cybersickness, video game experience, gender and field dependence, were measured. Matrix correlations were used, along with linear regressions and mediation analysis. Results show that presence promoted performance on the spatial cognition evaluation, while cybersickness symptoms hindered it, notably among women. The presence – performance relationship was not mediated by other human factors. Video game experience significantly predicted both sense of presence and cybersickness, the latter two being negatively correlated. Even if women experienced more negative symptoms than men, gender appears less informative than cybersickness and video game experience. Field dependence was not associated with any other variable. Results are discussed by confronting two theories of cognition (representational versus ecological), highlighting that virtual reality is not a simple transposition of reality but truly a new paradigm with its own biases favoring some individual more than others, and that some human factors have to be controlled for rigorous uses of virtual environments, particularly for spatial cognition evaluation.
... Since we were not aware of any valid measures that could be used to evaluate gaming expertise, we developed a series of questions to assess the participants' perceived expertise (PE). The questions (average number of sessions played weekly, average session length, number and types of games played, amount spent on videogames per year, and preferred gaming platforms) were developed based on work by Kapalo et al. [29] and Phan et al. [30]. Approximately 250 participants were originally recruited to fill out the questionnaire assessing their self-report gaming expertise. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of video game tutorials is to help players easily understand new game mechanics and thereby facilitate chances of early engagement with the main contents of one’s game. The mobile game market (i.e., phones and tablets) faces important retention issues caused by a high number of players who abandon games permanently within 24 h of downloading them. A laboratory experiment with 40 players tested how tutorial presence and player expertise impact on users’ psychophysiological states and continuous-use intentions (CUIs). The results suggest that in a simple game context, tutorials have a positive impact on non-expert players’ perceived state of flow and have no effect on expert players’ perceived flow. The results also suggest that flow has a positive impact on CUIs for both experts and non-experts. The theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these results are discussed.
... While most studies in our review reported age or gender, under 10% reported analyses specifically evaluating gender or age differences. In the papers that did address gender differences, the majority was grounded in gaming literature (Hilgard, Engelhardt, & Bartholow, 2013;Jenson & De Castell, 2010;Kapalo, Dewar, Rupp & Szalma, 2015). Additionally, there were inconsistencies in the reporting of a participant or user's prior experience with technology. ...
Article
Full-text available
Interactive simulation is one of the most prominent methods used to train and measure learning outcomes across multiple disciplines. Despite the ubiquity of simulation-based training in a variety of domains including nursing, serious games, military operations, etc., there is a paucity of research on how simulation experience is defined and how individual differences impact user experience. Towards this end, this paper provides a critical review of the existing literature. We describe how we can leverage existing findings and emergent themes to better understand and define simulation experience, and we outline areas for further investigation of the role of individual differences in user experience to enhance not only training outcomes, but also perception of simulation.
... However, game complexity depends on the gamer's perception, and it is likely to vary according to the type of player. A casual gamer [10] (i.e., a gamer who is playing sporadically up to a few games a year, with a low gaming session average length) may find the learnability of a given game more difficult than a hardcore gamer (i.e., a more dedicated gamer who is playing the various games downloaded for free or purchased more frequently), because the latter transfer their experience to the new game. ...
... The mean age was M=23 (SD = 3.98) with a range from 18 to 40; 28 were males. Based on [10,38] criteria, we were able to classify participants in two categories: Casual (C) or Hardcore (H). Specifically, players were discriminated on reported selfcategorization, average session played a week, average session length and previous gaming experience with video game. ...
Conference Paper
Today's freemium mobile gaming market faces two major issues: conversion and retention. To this end, tutorials are used to help players quickly adopt a new game mechanic, but does it have the same effect on purchase and continuous use intentions for all players? We suggest that tutorials have different effects on casual players (i.e., a gamer who is playing sporadically up to a few games a year, with a low gaming session average length) vs. hardcore gamers (i.e., a more dedicated gamer who is playing the various games downloaded for free or purchased more frequently). Preliminary results of this experimental research involving 43 participants already propose that casual players' intentions toward a game differ from those of hardcore players when exposed to the game tutorial. To better understand this difference, further analyses are underway to explore the players' psychophysiological state during the tutorial using eye tracking and physiological data.
... Those who are serious gamers are more likely to display signs of game addiction or obsession (). These types of gamers also show a greater degree of intrinsic motivation towards gaming (Dewar et al., 2015). ...
Article
Motivation has been found to direct our attention across a number of studies. In the literature, this phenomenon is referred to as motivated cognition. The present study seeks to extend the work on motivated cognition to an applied setting: video gaming. We measured memory recall performance on a 20-minute game-based attention task. Forty-nine (27 females; 22 males) undergraduate students viewed a sequence of four game-based videos that required them to monitor the video for a number of enemy threats and non-threats, as well as contextual information. The results indicated that those higher in intrinsic motivation were more likely to correctly detect and subsequently recall threat, non-threat, and contextual information. Gamers significantly outperformed non-gamers in this task across all performance measures. We concluded that motivated cognition is indeed influenced by individual differences such as motivation and interest in the activity.