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Automotive windshield deicing, experimental results. Temperature of windshield's Surface 1 in °C versus time in seconds at the locations shown in the upper left corner. Cold room temperature was maintained at − 10 °C. PETD heater is on Surface 2. 

Automotive windshield deicing, experimental results. Temperature of windshield's Surface 1 in °C versus time in seconds at the locations shown in the upper left corner. Cold room temperature was maintained at − 10 °C. PETD heater is on Surface 2. 

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De-icing is a process in which interfacial ice attached to a structure is either broken or melted and then the ice is removed by some sort of external force (e.g. gravity or wind-drag). Conventional thermal de-icing is effective but requires too much energy. Mechanical de-icing requires less energy but is less effective, often leaving significant a...

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Context 1
... conductive polymer fi lms, metal foils (stainless-steel, copper, titanium, aluminum alloys, structural steel, and titanium alloys), and thin metal fi lms (copper, silver, gold and platinum) sputtered on ceramic or glass. Substrate surface area varied from 5 cm × 5 cm to 5 m × 0.6 m. The experiments were conducted in cold rooms and a wind tunnel at the Ice Research Lab of Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Temperatures ranged from − 40 °C to − 1 °C with wind velocity up to 150 km/h. The range of heating density, W , varied from 500 W/m 2 to 250 kW/m 2 . A glass de-icer was made of a 356 mm × 356 mm × 6 mm soda- lime glass sheet coated with 0.3 μ m layer of indium tin oxide (ITO), a common transparent conductor. The ITO layer had a sheet-resistance of 8 Ω and was scratch-protected with an approximately 2- μ m layer of Al 2 O 3 , which also functioned as an anti-glare coating. The windshield had two electric buses on its sides (see Fig. 10). The 1-cm wide buses were either made of thin copper deposited electrochemically, or painted with silver-based conductive paint. Ice blocks 2-cm in thickness were then frozen to the glass windshield by surface melting/refreezing. Short pulses of 60-Hz AC power were applied to the electric buses to heat the ice-glass interface and de-ice the glass surface. When the interfacial ice melted, the ice block slid off of the windshield under the force of gravity. Fig. 11 depicts experimental de-icing time, t , and deicing energy, Q , as functions of the density of heating power, W, obtained at T = − 10 °C. Fig. 12 shows the same experimental results with Q − 1 and t − 2 plotted versus W. As can be seen from Fig. 12, with a heating pulse duration that is short compared with the heat diffusion time through the ice and glass sheets, t ≤ 30 s, Q and t follow correspondingly the simple inverse and inverse-quadratic dependen- cies on W , as predicted by Eqs. (13) and (14). Further energy savings can be achieved if the ice is quickly removed from the surface at the end of a PETD pulse, thus preventing refreezing of the interface. These additional savings come from the fact that a thinner melted layer is required. For instance, when a glass deicer similar to the one described above was equipped with a small automotive wiper, it was possible to reduce the deicing pulse duration down to 0.3 s with a heating power density of 100 kW/m 2 . This corresponds to Q = 3 kJ/m 2 or just about 1% of the density of the deicing energy required for deicing at a “ conventional ” power density of 0.6 kW/m 2 used to deice automotive windshields. Several car windshields of the construction (shown in Fig. 7) manufactured by Guardian Industries Co. were tested in a cold room. One of the windshields was then installed in a car, an Audi A8, and further tested inside a drive-in facility at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab in Hanover, NH. All of the windshields have the approximate shape of the curved trapezoid shown in Fig. 13. A thin- fi lm of silver-based alloy was sputtered on either Surface 2 or Surface 3 to form a PETD heater. Two copper-foil electric buses10 mm wide and 0.1 mm thick were installed along the whole length of the upper and lower edges of the windshields. The electrical resistance of the PETD as measured at room temperature was 2.0 ± 0.1 Ω . The total heated area of the glass was close to 1.0 m 2 . Six thin- fi lm thermocouples were installed on glass Surface 1 to monitor temperature of the ice/glass interface as shown in Fig. 14. The de-icing tests were conducted in still air with temperatures from − 3 °C to − 20 °C. Two types of power supplies were used. The fi rst was an automotive dual- voltage (12 V/120 V) battery described in a pending patent application (Petrenko et al., 2007). The battery had typical dimensions of a large automotive battery and could be electronically switched from 12.6 V to 126 V. When freshly charged and complimented with an automotive alternator, the battery is capable of delivering up to 5.5 kW of power for about 60 s into a 2 Ω load. The second power source was the 200 V battery of a Toyota Prius. A thin, and almost uniform layer of ice was grown on Surface 1 of a windshield by spraying 600 ml of water that formed approximately 0.6-mm-thick ice. During the tests a data-acquisition system recorded the six temperatures, the battery current, and the voltage across the copper bus bars. Depending on the environmental temperature and level of its charge, the dual-voltage battery was capable of delivering from 4.0 kW to 5.5 kW to the windshield, while the Toyota Prius battery was capable of delivering from 14 kW to 16 kW to the same load. Due to the trapezoidal shape of the windshields, the density of heating power was not uniform, decreasing from the top to the bottom of the windshields by about 37%. Small variations in the thickness of the silver-based conductive fi lm added additional non-uniformity to the density of heating power, W. Fig. 15 shows temperature of windshield's Surface 1 versus time after the PETD installed on Surface 2 was turned on. The locations of the thermocouples are shown schematically in the upper left corner of Fig. 15 and can also be seen in Fig. 14. The cold room temperature in that test was maintained at − 10 °C and the mean power applied to the windshield was approximately 4 kW. As seen from the fi gure, different locations of the ice/glass interface reached ice-melting point (0 °C) at different times. While the interface in the upper right corner of the windshield was melted in 15 s, it took 22 s to melt the interface in the center of lower edge of the windshield. As can be seen in Fig. 9, the theory predicts an interface-melting time of 15 s. After the interface was melted, windshield wipers removed the ice. In cases where ice overlapped the unheated edges of the windshield, an additional 2 to 10 s of heating time were needed. Full ice removal from windshields equipped with PETD placed on Surface 3 took from 45 to 60 s under the same experimental conditions described above. De-icing of the same windshield with the Toyota Prius battery took from 2 to 4 s at − 10 °C which is consistent with the computer simulation results shown in Fig. 8. PETD technology has already found several practical applications and a signi fi cant number of new applications are in current development. The largest-scale PETD so far has been installed on a glass, dome- shaped roof of Moscow Atrium, in Moscow, Russia (see Fig. 16). The roof area is about 10,000 m 2 . The roof has a multi-layer laminated structure with a thin- fi lm transparent heater installed on Surface 2. The entire roof area is divided into 12 PETD sections powered by a 3-phase 380 VAC/ 50 Hz power source. Most of the glass panes of the roof have trapezoidal shapes approximately 2 m × 2 m in size. Total power available for PETD is up to 4 MW, and the sections are powered one at a time. At ambient temperature of − 10 °C and wind velocity up to 10 m/s, calculated total de-icing time of all 12 sections is 180 s. PETD installation was completed in the summer of 2009 and the system was tested during the winter of 2009 – 2010. Ice and snow slid off of the roof as expected when the ice interface was melted. A PETD system in current usage was installed on one cable and one pylon of Sweden's Uddevalla bridge (see Fig. 17). The largest of the bridge's cables are over 200 m in length and 25 cm in diameter. The bridge PETD is made of 0.3 mm-thick stainless steel foil and is powered by a large battery bank. The de-icer cleans one cable at a time with pulses several seconds in length. Deicing tests on one of the bridge cables began in 2005. The tests demonstrated excellent deicing performance, but have also shown that the mechanical design of a seam that keeps the edges of the stainless steel foil together needs to be improved. Goodrich Corp. has acquired exclusive rights to develop the technology for de-icing airplanes, windmill turbines, and sea vessels. Together with Thayer School of Engineering, Goodrich has produced and installed the fi rst PETD airplane de-icer on the leading edges of a Cessna-plane's wings shown in Fig. 18. That de-icer was tested extensively during the 2003 – 2004 winter season and demonstrated almost instant ice cleaning and extremely low average power consumption (Botura et al., 2005). Goodrich is currently developing PETD for several large airplane manufacturers. One of the most promising applications of this new de-icing technology is harvesting ice from commercial and residential icemakers. Because an ice-harvest cycle includes both heating and re-cooling of massive hardware, icemakers use almost the same amount of electric energy to release the ice as they do to make it. PETD can release the ice from icemakers using very little heat, thus drastically reducing the energy needed for the ice harvest and re-cooling cycles. Our commercial icemaker prototype demonstrated up to a 40% savings of the energy normally needed to produce 100 lbs of ice, while reducing the energy required to harvest the ice by a factor of 10. To increase the density of heating power to 32 kW/m 2 while using only 1.5 kW of a 120 VAC/60 Hz line power, we divided the evaporator's surface area into 15 deicing sections. The high-density heating was then applied for just 0.7 s to each individual section, resulting in a total ice harvest time of just 10.5 s and total energy consumption of 15.75 kJ. For comparison, a commercial icemaker with a similar ice-production rate of 400 lb/24 h typically uses about 1 kW of heating power applied for about 2.5 min to 3 min with a total energy consumption of 150 kJ to 180 kJ. Additional energy consumption with the PETD ice harvest method is possible due to the fact that it then takes less electric power to recool the icemaker hardware and to restart the ice-growing cycle than it takes in conventional icemakers. Our residential icemaker prototype ...
Context 2
... ceramic or glass. Substrate surface area varied from 5 cm × 5 cm to 5 m × 0.6 m. The experiments were conducted in cold rooms and a wind tunnel at the Ice Research Lab of Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Temperatures ranged from − 40 °C to − 1 °C with wind velocity up to 150 km/h. The range of heating density, W , varied from 500 W/m 2 to 250 kW/m 2 . A glass de-icer was made of a 356 mm × 356 mm × 6 mm soda- lime glass sheet coated with 0.3 μ m layer of indium tin oxide (ITO), a common transparent conductor. The ITO layer had a sheet-resistance of 8 Ω and was scratch-protected with an approximately 2- μ m layer of Al 2 O 3 , which also functioned as an anti-glare coating. The windshield had two electric buses on its sides (see Fig. 10). The 1-cm wide buses were either made of thin copper deposited electrochemically, or painted with silver-based conductive paint. Ice blocks 2-cm in thickness were then frozen to the glass windshield by surface melting/refreezing. Short pulses of 60-Hz AC power were applied to the electric buses to heat the ice-glass interface and de-ice the glass surface. When the interfacial ice melted, the ice block slid off of the windshield under the force of gravity. Fig. 11 depicts experimental de-icing time, t , and deicing energy, Q , as functions of the density of heating power, W, obtained at T = − 10 °C. Fig. 12 shows the same experimental results with Q − 1 and t − 2 plotted versus W. As can be seen from Fig. 12, with a heating pulse duration that is short compared with the heat diffusion time through the ice and glass sheets, t ≤ 30 s, Q and t follow correspondingly the simple inverse and inverse-quadratic dependen- cies on W , as predicted by Eqs. (13) and (14). Further energy savings can be achieved if the ice is quickly removed from the surface at the end of a PETD pulse, thus preventing refreezing of the interface. These additional savings come from the fact that a thinner melted layer is required. For instance, when a glass deicer similar to the one described above was equipped with a small automotive wiper, it was possible to reduce the deicing pulse duration down to 0.3 s with a heating power density of 100 kW/m 2 . This corresponds to Q = 3 kJ/m 2 or just about 1% of the density of the deicing energy required for deicing at a “ conventional ” power density of 0.6 kW/m 2 used to deice automotive windshields. Several car windshields of the construction (shown in Fig. 7) manufactured by Guardian Industries Co. were tested in a cold room. One of the windshields was then installed in a car, an Audi A8, and further tested inside a drive-in facility at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab in Hanover, NH. All of the windshields have the approximate shape of the curved trapezoid shown in Fig. 13. A thin- fi lm of silver-based alloy was sputtered on either Surface 2 or Surface 3 to form a PETD heater. Two copper-foil electric buses10 mm wide and 0.1 mm thick were installed along the whole length of the upper and lower edges of the windshields. The electrical resistance of the PETD as measured at room temperature was 2.0 ± 0.1 Ω . The total heated area of the glass was close to 1.0 m 2 . Six thin- fi lm thermocouples were installed on glass Surface 1 to monitor temperature of the ice/glass interface as shown in Fig. 14. The de-icing tests were conducted in still air with temperatures from − 3 °C to − 20 °C. Two types of power supplies were used. The fi rst was an automotive dual- voltage (12 V/120 V) battery described in a pending patent application (Petrenko et al., 2007). The battery had typical dimensions of a large automotive battery and could be electronically switched from 12.6 V to 126 V. When freshly charged and complimented with an automotive alternator, the battery is capable of delivering up to 5.5 kW of power for about 60 s into a 2 Ω load. The second power source was the 200 V battery of a Toyota Prius. A thin, and almost uniform layer of ice was grown on Surface 1 of a windshield by spraying 600 ml of water that formed approximately 0.6-mm-thick ice. During the tests a data-acquisition system recorded the six temperatures, the battery current, and the voltage across the copper bus bars. Depending on the environmental temperature and level of its charge, the dual-voltage battery was capable of delivering from 4.0 kW to 5.5 kW to the windshield, while the Toyota Prius battery was capable of delivering from 14 kW to 16 kW to the same load. Due to the trapezoidal shape of the windshields, the density of heating power was not uniform, decreasing from the top to the bottom of the windshields by about 37%. Small variations in the thickness of the silver-based conductive fi lm added additional non-uniformity to the density of heating power, W. Fig. 15 shows temperature of windshield's Surface 1 versus time after the PETD installed on Surface 2 was turned on. The locations of the thermocouples are shown schematically in the upper left corner of Fig. 15 and can also be seen in Fig. 14. The cold room temperature in that test was maintained at − 10 °C and the mean power applied to the windshield was approximately 4 kW. As seen from the fi gure, different locations of the ice/glass interface reached ice-melting point (0 °C) at different times. While the interface in the upper right corner of the windshield was melted in 15 s, it took 22 s to melt the interface in the center of lower edge of the windshield. As can be seen in Fig. 9, the theory predicts an interface-melting time of 15 s. After the interface was melted, windshield wipers removed the ice. In cases where ice overlapped the unheated edges of the windshield, an additional 2 to 10 s of heating time were needed. Full ice removal from windshields equipped with PETD placed on Surface 3 took from 45 to 60 s under the same experimental conditions described above. De-icing of the same windshield with the Toyota Prius battery took from 2 to 4 s at − 10 °C which is consistent with the computer simulation results shown in Fig. 8. PETD technology has already found several practical applications and a signi fi cant number of new applications are in current development. The largest-scale PETD so far has been installed on a glass, dome- shaped roof of Moscow Atrium, in Moscow, Russia (see Fig. 16). The roof area is about 10,000 m 2 . The roof has a multi-layer laminated structure with a thin- fi lm transparent heater installed on Surface 2. The entire roof area is divided into 12 PETD sections powered by a 3-phase 380 VAC/ 50 Hz power source. Most of the glass panes of the roof have trapezoidal shapes approximately 2 m × 2 m in size. Total power available for PETD is up to 4 MW, and the sections are powered one at a time. At ambient temperature of − 10 °C and wind velocity up to 10 m/s, calculated total de-icing time of all 12 sections is 180 s. PETD installation was completed in the summer of 2009 and the system was tested during the winter of 2009 – 2010. Ice and snow slid off of the roof as expected when the ice interface was melted. A PETD system in current usage was installed on one cable and one pylon of Sweden's Uddevalla bridge (see Fig. 17). The largest of the bridge's cables are over 200 m in length and 25 cm in diameter. The bridge PETD is made of 0.3 mm-thick stainless steel foil and is powered by a large battery bank. The de-icer cleans one cable at a time with pulses several seconds in length. Deicing tests on one of the bridge cables began in 2005. The tests demonstrated excellent deicing performance, but have also shown that the mechanical design of a seam that keeps the edges of the stainless steel foil together needs to be improved. Goodrich Corp. has acquired exclusive rights to develop the technology for de-icing airplanes, windmill turbines, and sea vessels. Together with Thayer School of Engineering, Goodrich has produced and installed the fi rst PETD airplane de-icer on the leading edges of a Cessna-plane's wings shown in Fig. 18. That de-icer was tested extensively during the 2003 – 2004 winter season and demonstrated almost instant ice cleaning and extremely low average power consumption (Botura et al., 2005). Goodrich is currently developing PETD for several large airplane manufacturers. One of the most promising applications of this new de-icing technology is harvesting ice from commercial and residential icemakers. Because an ice-harvest cycle includes both heating and re-cooling of massive hardware, icemakers use almost the same amount of electric energy to release the ice as they do to make it. PETD can release the ice from icemakers using very little heat, thus drastically reducing the energy needed for the ice harvest and re-cooling cycles. Our commercial icemaker prototype demonstrated up to a 40% savings of the energy normally needed to produce 100 lbs of ice, while reducing the energy required to harvest the ice by a factor of 10. To increase the density of heating power to 32 kW/m 2 while using only 1.5 kW of a 120 VAC/60 Hz line power, we divided the evaporator's surface area into 15 deicing sections. The high-density heating was then applied for just 0.7 s to each individual section, resulting in a total ice harvest time of just 10.5 s and total energy consumption of 15.75 kJ. For comparison, a commercial icemaker with a similar ice-production rate of 400 lb/24 h typically uses about 1 kW of heating power applied for about 2.5 min to 3 min with a total energy consumption of 150 kJ to 180 kJ. Additional energy consumption with the PETD ice harvest method is possible due to the fact that it then takes less electric power to recool the icemaker hardware and to restart the ice-growing cycle than it takes in conventional icemakers. Our residential icemaker prototype demonstrated a 90% energy savings compared to similar conventional residential icemakers. The author thanks Drs. M. Starostin and M. Higa for their help with the experiments described in this paper; ...

Citations

... More importantly, icing phenomenon on the aircraft is potential risk which greatly threats flight administration and people's life. In order to deal with these inconvenient bothers for ice or frost removal, the ways of physical deicing or chemical deicing have commonly appeared to weaken the ice adhesion or eliminate the ice layer instantly [2]. But the common use of classic deicer raises the concerns about economy or pollution, especially deicing fluid utilization is not only single-use, but along with serious environmental pollution as well [3,4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Passive anti-icing and active deicing methods are urgent need to avoid icing phenomenon for practice. Additionally, introduction of water drops monitoring will aggressively improve the efficiency of icing protection. In this work, a membrane composed by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) with properties of super-hydrophobicity, dual-driven heating and sensing performance was fabricated. CNT with photo-thermal effect and hydrophobicity can realize photo-thermal deicing and passive anti-icing. AgNW with great electrical conductivity is competent for electric-heating deicing works. Additionally, stearic acid treatment makes the surface realize super-hydrophobicity. The result manifests that water contact angle of membrane surface reaches to 153.2°, and the sliding angle of membrane is only 6°. Compared with pure polydimethylsiloxane, freezing time of water drop (200 µL) on the membrane surface is delayed apparently. Dual-driven heating property of membrane can eliminate the ice on the surface. The result shows that surface can reach 163 °C at the 6 V voltage supply and 95 °C at the 300 mW/cm² near-infrared irradiation, respectively, and ice (200 µL frozen water) on the membrane surface just take 311 s to be melted by 200 mW/cm² near-infrared irradiation, and 236 s by 5 V voltage supply, respectively. Additionally, membrane encapsulated by flexible materials endow itself with good sensing performance (gauge factor reach 217.8) and cycle stability (≥ 100 cycles), and water drops falling from high place could be detected by membrane clearly. This membrane combines the properties of super-hydrophobic anti-icing, dual-driven heating deicing, and water dropping monitoring together, which is potential to further applied in practice field of icing protection.
... This short heating time limits the heat penetration depth into both the ice and the structure [58,59]. A PETD [60] pulse heats the ice-structure interface just above the melting point causing the ice to slide off on the resulting thin water film. This method could be used for many applications such as cable cars, tramways, transmission lines and bridge structures. ...
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The scope of this study comprehends problems associated with modern urban vehicles known as cable propelled gondolas system operations in icing conditions. The aspects under consideration are problems related to the operations, safety, and maintenance of cable car systems in harsh climate conditions. The geographical location of the gondola cars makes them vulnerable to severe weather conditions especially in cold climates of the northern hemisphere, where icing on its components is an operational, maintenance, and safety concern. The harsh climate conditions can cause unadorned malfunctions posing a threat to the integrity the of system as well as a high risk to human safety. The study basis on the identification of these problems in operational, maintenance and safety domain including implications the industry faces in the form of severe accidents costing precious lives and lost capital. Furthermore, it incorporates the ice detection, anti/de-icing approaches as well as the safety strategies in use nowadays. The massive increase in operations and dynamic climate conditions gondola cars require serious attention. This study unsheathes serious underlying problems that severely affect the gondola operations, makes them prone to major maintenance shutdowns and poses high risk to structural and human safety. The identified problems in this study and severity of risks draw attention to need for practicable solutions incorporating de-icing and ice removal techniques for safe operation of gondolas in cold climates saving time, effort, inconvenience, and prodigious lost capital.
... The system works by controlling the temperature of the surface of exposed areas such as the leading edge of wings to be above zero degrees, usually by integrating a heat source such as a carbon nanotube coating on the surface [78]. A more recent approach is de-icing where short pulses of heat are applied through a similar electric heat source [79]. The first UAS test flight results indicate that electro-thermal methods can be effective and practical even for very small fixed-wing UAS [80]. ...
Conference Paper
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The Arctic is one of the least developed and most under-invested regions in the world, primarily due to its harsh environment and remoteness. However, with the current retreat of Arctic sea ice, the pristine Arctic region is gradually open for economic activities and has been of great interest for Arctic council members. For example, the European Union (EU) Integrated Policy for the Arctic has a clear emphasis on the issues specific to the European Arctic. In particular, it focuses on sustainable Arctic maritime economic growth and launches a process of identifying and developing its relevant key enabling technologies. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) or drone is a key enabling technology for missions in harsh and remote Arctic environment, such as finding shorter and safer shipping routes, geological survey for undiscovered rare earth elements, delivering medical supplies to remote areas, Search & Rescue operations, and tracking Arctic ice and vegetation for climate change study. In this paper, we present challenges, opportunities, and enabling technologies related to the development of UAS for Arctic applications. Furthermore, we discuss our hands-on experience of flying drones in harsh Arctic environment and provide a list of operational risks and recommendations.
... The traditional thermal heating method is widely used and very efficient for active de-icing, [11,[68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75] while it requires excess energy consumption and has a potential risk of surface overheating in harsh and unpredictable environments. [76,77] Thus, the traditional thermal heating method is not an ideal approach for the practical anti-icing application. ...
... [5] Secondly, the thermal stability and surface over heating of electro-thermal promoted AIM cannot be ignored such that the safety problems of electrothermal heating can be solved. Thirdly, the energy saving is of great importance for electro-thermal promoted AIM, [11] and it can be achieved by combining both advantages of passive antiicing surfaces (i.e., SHSs and lubricating surfaces) and electrothermal heating techniques. Fourthly, the re-freezing problems of melted ice are also crucial for efficient anti-icing and deicing, mainly depending on the sustainability of passive AIM. ...
Article
Ice accretion on exposed surfaces is unavoidable as time elapses and temperature lowers sufficiently in nature, causing detrimental impacts on the normal performance of devices and facilities. To mitigate icing problems, both active de-icing and passive anti-icing materials (AIM) have been utilized. Traditional active anti-icing methods suffer from energy consumption, low efficiency and high cost, while passive AIM meet the challenges of improving mechanical durability and maintaining low ice adhesion strength during icing/de-icing cycles. Recently, new AIM are rationally designed by the combination of passive anti-icing and active de-icing, exhibiting efficient, reliable and energy-saving properties. The conceptual idea is that passive AIM only need to reach a certain value of ice adhesion strength (i.e., τice˂100 kPa) instead of achieving lowest ice adhesion strength, and simultaneously combine with active de-icing techniques (i.e., electro-thermal and photo-thermal stimulus) to realize ideal all-weather anti-icing/de-icing. In this review paper, we give a brief introduction to passive AIM, and mainly focus on recent advances in the electro-/photo-thermal promoted AIM in terms of anti-icing/de-icing mechanisms, challenges and perspectives. The new conceptual anti-icing/de-icing strategy will inspire the rational design of the state-of-the-art AIM in future and provides practical solutions to mitigate outdoor anti-icing/de-icing problems in our daily life.
... When voltage is applied, it undergoes rapid heating, which immediately creates water at the interface between the ice and heater. Water can reduce the adhesion of the ice and heater interface [52]. This means that ice can be removed easily by external forces such as wind and gravity. ...
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Homogenously dispersed Cu oxide nanoparticles on laser-induced graphene (LIG) were fabricated using a simple two-step laser irradiation. This work emphasized the synergetic photo-electrothermal effect in Cu oxide particles embedded in LIG. Our flexible hybrid composites exhibited high mechanical durability and excellent thermal properties. Moreover, the Cu oxide nanoparticles in the carbon matrix of LIG enhanced the light trapping and multiple electron internal scattering for the electrothermal effect. The best conditions for deicing devices were also studied by controlling the amount of Cu solution. The deicing performance of the sample was demonstrated, and the results indicate that the developed method could be a promising strategy for maintaining lightness, efficiency, excellent thermal performance, and eco-friendly 3D processing capabilities.
... Malfunction, decreased performance, economic losses, and endangerment of human life represent some of the consequences of atmospheric ice accumulating on infrastructure [4]. Current strategies to mitigate icing problems, known as active deicing methods, consist of ice removal from surfaces using external mechanical and thermal loads [5][6][7]. Moreover, ice accretion is prevented or limited by applying chemicals on surfaces, known as anti-icing or deicing fluids. ...
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Icephobic coatings interest various industries facing icing problems. However, their durability represents a current limitation in real applications. Therefore, understanding the degradation of coatings under various environmental stresses is necessary for further coating development. Here, lubricated icephobic coatings were fabricated using a flame spray method with hybrid feedstock injection. Low-density polyethylene represented the main coating component. Two additives, namely fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil and paraffinic wax, were added to the coating structure to enhance coating icephobicity. Coating properties were characterised, including topography, surface roughness, thermal properties, wettability, and icephobicity. Moreover, their performance was investigated under various environmental stresses, such as repeated icing/deicing cycles, immersion in corrosive media, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. According to the results, all coatings exhibited medium-low ice adhesion, with slightly more stable icephobic behaviour for cottonseed oil-based coatings over the icing/deicing cycles. Surface roughness slightly increased, and wetting performances decreased after the cyclic tests, but chemical changes were not revealed. Moreover, coatings demonstrated good chemical resistance in selected corrosive media, with better performance for paraffin-based coatings. However, a slight decrease in hydrophobicity was detected due to surface structural changes. Finally, paraffin-based coatings showed better resistance under UV irradiation based on carbonyl index and colour change measurements.
... 11.169 0021-9797/Ó 2021 Published by Elsevier Inc. surfaces and in the development of new technical solutions to reduce the icing of surfaces, operating in contact with atmospheric precipitations [1][2][3]. Contemporary methods to combat ice accumulation are conventionally divided into active, passive, and combined ones [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Traditionally, the most widely used active deicing methods utilize various forms of energy such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical [1,3,10,11]. ...
... In most of these studies, the preference was given to SLIPSs as demonstrating enhanced initial functional properties [ However, the applicability of SLIPSs as anti-icing coatings in the conditions of repetitive formation of different types of solid water deposits and their detachment under shear stresses were not analyzed or discussed in the literature in detail. At the same time, during the exploitation of the coatings in aviation, shipping, and energy transportation, strong air flows typically induce high shear and mixed-type surface stresses [5,43,44]. That is why the applicability of new types of coatings for the practice should be concluded from the long-term experiments in conditions similar or close to the real exploitation conditions. ...
Article
Hypothesis Loss of anti-icing properties of slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) in conditions of repetitive shear stresses is the intrinsic process related to peculiarities of SLIPS structure. Experiments The study of the evolution of the ice adhesion strength to superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) and SLIPS during repetitive icing/de-icing cycles measured by a centrifugal method was supplemented with the estimation of change in capillary pressure inside the pores, and SEM analysis of the effect of multiple ice detachments on surface morphology. Findings Obtained data indicated that although for freshly prepared SLIPS, the ice shear adhesion strength at −25 °C was several times lower than for SHS, repetitive icing-deicing cycles resulted in dramatic SLIPS degradation. In contrast, SHS showed weak degradation at least during 50 cycles. Additional to the depletion of an impregnating oil layer, other mechanisms of SLIPS degradation were hypothesized and tested. It was shown that lower capillary pressure required to displace air by water from the surface texture for SLIPSs compared to SHSs resulted in deeper water/ice penetration inside the grooves. The accelerated destruction of the mechanical texture caused by the Rehbinder effect constitutes another mechanism of SLIPSs degradation.
... To implement this de-icing technology, a simple process diagram has been proposed, according to which a heating material is applied to the substrate surface in the form of a thin film (Figure 10a). When the heating material is turned on, the temperature at the interface between the substrate and ice rises, thereby contributing to the melting of ice (Figure 10b) [66]. Thus, the use of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic coatings is very promising in course of the prolongation of the service life of the materials and the reduction of the cost for their repair. ...
... To implement this de-icing technology, a simple process diagram has been proposed, according to which a heating material is applied to the substrate surface in the form of a thin film (Figure 10a). When the heating material is turned on, the temperature at the interface between the substrate and ice rises, thereby contributing to the melting of ice (Figure 10b) [66]. ...
... (a) Scheme of the anti-icing heating film on the substrate surface; (b) the temperature distribution at the interface after heating the film. Reprinted with permission from[66]. ...
Article
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An aggressive impact of the formed ice on the surface of man-made objects can ultimately lead to serious consequences in their work. When icing occurs, the quality and characteristics of equipment, instruments, and building structures deteriorate, which affects the durability of their use. Delays in the adoption of measures against icing endanger the safety of air travel and road traffic. Various methods have been developed to combat de-icing, such as mechanical de-icing, the use of salts, the application of a hydrophobic coating to the surfaces, ultrasonic treatment and electric heating. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the field of anti-icing and analyze the role of various additives and their operating mechanisms.
... In the case of operated carriers, it also lowers maneuverability, thus increasing the risk of accidents. The most common commercial deicing solutions consist of infrared or electrothermal melting, 3 addition of low-freezing point agents, 4 pneumatic actuation, 5 and mechanical vibration, 6 which require a high energy demand and need to be engineered for specific applications rather than offering a broadband solution. ...
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Unwanted icing has major safety and economic repercussions on human activities, affecting means of transportation, infrastructures, and consumer goods. Compared to the common deicing methods in use today, intrinsically icephobic surfaces can decrease ice accumulation and formation without any active intervention from humans or machines. However, such systems often require complex fabrication methods and can be costly, which limits their applicability. In this study, we report the preparation and characterization of several slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) realized by impregnating with silicone oil a candle soot layer deposited on double-sided adhesive tape. Despite the use of common household items, these SLIPSs showed anti-icing performance comparable to other systems described in the literature (ice adhesion < 20 kPa) and a good resistance to mechanical and environmental damages in laboratory conditions. The use of a flexible and functional substrate as tape allowed these devices to be stretchable without suffering significant degradation and highlights how these systems can be easily prepared and applied anywhere needed. In addition, the possibility of deforming the substrate can “allow” the application of SLIPS technology in mechanical ice removal methodologies, drastically incrementing their performance.
... Both theoretical and experimental demonstration on pulse electrothermal defrosting and de-icing have shown a great reduction in the energy consumption when compared to steady heating 9 . In conventional steady heating method, a great portion of the thermal energy is wasted due to the diffusive nature of the heat. ...