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Association between risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) and Cognition using Tukey HSD test 

Association between risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) and Cognition using Tukey HSD test 

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A relation between midlife risk factors (hypertension and diabetes) and dementia has been studied in past and an association has been documented, in spite of some studies pointing to the contrary. The study was based on post-hoc analysis of data obtained from a study conducted on an elderly population (60 years and above) from selected geographical...

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... The ApoE polymorphic alleles are the main genetic determinants of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk: people with the ε 4 alleles have a higher risk than those with the more common 3 alleles, whereas people with the 2 alleles have a lower risk [26][27][28][29]. Nevertheless, hypertension and diabetes also sometimes cause Alzheimer's disease [30]. ...
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Dementia impairs memory, critical thinking, and decision-making. Alzheimer's disease is caused by extracellular amyloid fibrils containing the peptide Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulating in the brain. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. A slew of small molecule inhibitors developed over several decades has targeted dementia and related diseases. The drugs and inhibitors cannot cross the BBB due to their insurmountable nature. Many molecular nanomedicines have been developed that can cross the BBB via adsorptive-mediated transcytosis. Drug-loaded nanosized formulations, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanotransporters, liposomes, nanoemulsions, exosomes, gold nanoparticles, and dendrimers, have a significant impact on dementia diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses on recent developments in nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for dementia and related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in nanotechnology may help overcome drug delivery limitations for dementia therapy. Nanoparticles' size, composition, and structural variety bring up new therapeutic possibilities, including treating and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. It is possible to enhance therapeutic effectiveness by enhancing pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, water solubility, and stability under physiological conditions while reducing adverse effects by restricting their location in healthy tissues.
... Moreover, it is well established that hypertension coexists in a significant proportion of patients with diabetes [8,9]. Hence, if an antidiabetic medication modulates hemodynamic changes and normalises hypertension, it can be more beneficial against diabetes-related complications [10]. ...
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... Although Montufar et al. [13] found no statistically significant differences in HTN (P = 0.459) between patients with AD and controls, Kimm et al. [14] considered HTN a strong risk factor of AD either in the age of less than or more than 65 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Raina et al. [17] found a significant difference between patients and control regarding HTN. ...
... Although Montufar et al. [13] found no statistically significant differences in HTN (P = 0.459) between patients with AD and controls, Kimm et al. [14] considered HTN a strong risk factor of AD either in the age of less than or more than 65 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Raina et al. [17] found a significant difference between patients and control regarding HTN. ...
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Background: Becoming shorter by each cell division, telomere length (TL) is regarded as a marker of cellular aging. Relative TL (T/S) depends on the quantitation of telomere hexamer repeat copy number normalized to autosomal single‑copy gene copy number. TL is influenced by several factors, including oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the possible role of TL and OS as markers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty participants were categorized into three groups. Group 1: Included 60 patients with AD. Group II: included 60 age-matched nondemented subjects. Group III (pregeriatric group): included 60 healthy controls with their ages ranging between 30 and 60 years. TL was determined by the quantitative Real time-PCR method, plasma levels of 8-OHdG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by colorimetery. Results: In comparison to the other two groups, patients with AD showed shortened TL, increased plasma 8-OHdG concentration, and decreased TAC. The sensitivity of T/S ratio to predict AD was 86.67%, whereas the specificity was 96.67%. The sensitivity of 8‑OHdG to predict AD was 96.67%, whereas the specificity was 86.67%. Conclusion: AD is associated with shortened TL and increased OS as manifested by decreased TAC and increased serum 8-OHdG. T/S and 8-OHdG could be used as early predictors for AD.
... These are a commonly encountered co-morbidities especially in Jordan (9,10). Diabetes and hypertension are known risk factors for dementias and cerebrovascular events, especially if they were coexisted (11)(12)(13). Most requests were for preoperative evaluation, followed by focal weakness/ numbness, and J Med J 2020; September: Vol. ...
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... Early-onset DM-related development of dementia remains unexplored in epidemiological studies, although some studies have reported that T2DM has an association with cognitive impairment (memory and executive both), vascular dementia, and AD along with other Neuroepidemiology 2020;54:287-303 DOI: 10.1159/000505816 [12,13] Prevalence of dementia prevalence of dementia in India [13] prevalence of dementia in SEA countries [12] global prevalence of dementia [12] factors like hypertension, dyslipidemia, and apolipoprotein [18]. DM, as a risk factor for dementia, was postulated [19] when it was demonstrated that age increases the susceptibility of diabetes leading to dementia [20]. A study by Solanki et al. [21] reported that 48% of DM patients had characteristics similar to dementia. ...
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... Studies in Asia have shown that hypertension is associated with incidence of dementia in the elderly. [65][66][67][68][69] Indeed, not only is hypertension directly related to cognitive function, but hypertension that occurs in midlife (around the age of 45-55 years) also affects the incidence of cognitive impairments in later life. 46,70,71 An analysis conducted in conjunction with the Hisayama study, a prospective cohort study in Japan performed over 32 years , was designed to compare blood pressure in midlife and late life, and to compare these data with dementia output and its subtypes. ...
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Approximately 365 million people in Asia were classified as elderly in 2017. This number is rising and expected to reach approximately 520 million by 2030. The risk of hypertension and cognitive impairment/dementia increases with age. Recent data also show that the prevalence of hypertension and age‐related dementia are rising in Asian countries. Moreover, not many people in Asian countries are aware of the relationship between hypertension and cognitive impairment/dementia. Furthermore, hypertension control is poorer in Asia than in developed countries. Hypertension is known to be a major risk factor for damage to target organs, including the brain. Decreased cognitive function can indicate the presence of target organ damage in the brain. Twenty‐four‐hour blood pressure profiles and blood pressure variability have been associated with cognitive impairment and/or silent cerebral diseases, such as silent cerebral infarction or white matter lesions, which are predisposing conditions for cognitive impairment and dementia. Hypertension that occurs in midlife also affects the incidence of cognitive impairments in later life. Managing and controlling blood pressure could preserve cognitive functions, such as by reducing the risk of vascular dementia and by reducing the global burden of stroke, which also affects cognitive function.
... The results from a study conductive by us previously also pointed to an association between raised BP and dementia although we were not able to establish a relation between diabetes and dementia. [28] Although there is uncertainty regarding the relationship between BP and risk of dementia, AlzRisk does promote that the benefits of BP control on cardiovascular risk are sufficient to justify the role of preventing HTN to prevention of dementia. However the same cannot be said of diabetes and dementia. ...
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Background Evidence suggests that modifiable risk factors which can be targeted by prevention are vascular diseases, such as diabetes, midlife hypertension (HTN), midlife obesity, midlife cholesterol, mid- and late-life depression as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Methods A comprehensive search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database and Google Scholar was conducted. A combinations of medical subject headings and free text words that included search terms related to the exposure (e.g., prevalence, HTN, raised BP, high BP, diabetes, high blood sugar, DM, India, state), were combined with search terms related to the outcomes (e.g., prevalence, disease burden, estimate, dementia, India). The filters included were English for the language category and humans for the study category. Results The PubMed search initially identified 269 references, and a total of 204 abstracts were screened by inclusion criteria. Full-text assessment of 136 articles on prevalence of dementia resulted in 20 relevant articles from which the different regions of the country were identified. Based on the search conducted according to the regions; 287abstracts of the prevalence of HTN and 577 on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were screened. There were 43 full-text articles on the prevalence of HTN and diabetes from the regions where the prevalence of dementia was available. Of these potentially relevant articles were 14 in number. Conclusion Despite the uncertainty in the role, the data analysis, therefore, points to a role in the prevention of HTN and diabetes to prevent dementia.
... [27] A recent study from northwest India assessed the association between raised blood pressure and dementia although it could not differentiate the difference caused by diastolic and systolic blood pressure hypertension. [28] There is a need of a multicentric longitudinal study to assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and dementia. ...
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The elderly population with cognitive decline is increasing at an alarming rate in developing countries such as India. There is a paucity of basic clinical research in the field of cognitive decline dealing with areas of prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and management. In India, prioritization of research capabilities is obligatory to decrease the research gap, i.e., the difference between the information needed to plan services and that which is available. The information can be gathered and utilized to frame policies and early remedial measures to tackle the emerging disease burden on the community. This article highlights the research done on cognitive decline so far and the further need for priority research on various important areas such as epidemiology, assessment methods and diagnosis, psychobehavioral symptoms, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and interventional studies to create an evidence base for our population.