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Arthropod richness and abundance groups and individuals per location as mean ± SE

Arthropod richness and abundance groups and individuals per location as mean ± SE

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Using sown groundcovers as trap crops to protect a cash crop is a traditional pest management tool. Pistachio is a major crop in California's Central Valley, where high summer temperatures and little to no precipitation between May and November lead to summer dry-down of annual groundcover. Hemipteran pests that consist of 'small bugs' and 'large b...

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Context 1
... < 0.001) and abundance (χ 2 = 39,303, p < 0.001). Both richness and abundance were higher in the trap crop groundcovers than in the control groundcovers, and higher in the tree canopy of the trap crop plots than in the plots with weedy vegetation (Table 2). ...
Context 2
... strategies could therefore focus on preventing this pest influx in spring, for example by planting trap crops around the orchards as demonstrated in other crop systems (Hokkanen 1991;Soergel et al. 2015;Majumdar and Price 2019). However, Table 1 Arthropods per sample in 2018 and 2019 sorted by abundance within target group presented as mean ± SE Target group Species or family 2018 2019 Small bug pest Nysius raphanus Howard (Lygaeidae) 9.406 ± 3.478 2.164 ± 3.007 Lygus hesperus (Knight) (Miridae) 4.224 ± 0.470 1.293 ± 1.665 Phytocoris spp. Fallén (Miridae) 0.016 ± 0.004 0.027 ± 0.019 Calocoris norvegicus (Gmelin) (Miridae) 0.008 ± 0.007 0.003 ± 0.003 Large bug pest Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål) (Pentatomidae) 0.391 ± 0.059 0.094 ± 0.069 Chinavia hilaris Say (Pentatomidae) 0.048 ± 0.009 0.137 ± 0.173 Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) (Pentatomidae) 0.059 ± 0.018 0.087 ± 0.115 Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas) (Coreidae) 0.004 ± 0.002 0.096 ± 0.140 Euschistus sp. ...


... Seasonal occurrences of C. uhleri (e.g., Zalom et al. 1997), T. pallidovirens (e.g., Pease and Zalom 2010), and N. viridula (e.g., Tillman 2010) have been reported from various parts of the US. Field collections in individual California pistachio orchards have provided a general idea of C. uhleri and T. pallidovirens occurrence and, to a certain extent, phenology (Michailides et al. 1987, Stahl et al. 2021. However, there is a lack of information about C. uhleri and T. pallidovirens life histories (Rijal et al. 2021). ...
California pistachios are threatened by several stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including the native Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) and Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål), as well as the invasive Nezara viridula (L.). In pistachio, control tactics often target specific life stages, which makes knowledge about life histories fundamental to successful IPM programs. For that purpose, life history parameters of these stink bug species were assessed. Nymphal development and survivorship at seven constant temperatures, upper and lower development thresholds, thermal constants, adult longevity and fecundity, and life table parameters were evaluated. No species completed development at 15°C or 35°C. For N. viridula, egg to adult development was fastest at 30°C, whereas for T. pallidovirens there was no significant difference between 27.5 and 30°C and C. uhleri development was similar between 25 and 30°C. Egg to adult survival was highest at 22.5°C and 27.5°C. The thermal requirements as degree-days (DD) to complete immature development were estimated to be 714.3, 370.4, and 434.8 for C. uhleri, T. pallidovirens, and N. viridula, respectively. For C. uhleri, life table calculations produced a value of 56.7 d for mean generation time (To), 24.89 for net reproductive rate (Ro) and 0.057 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r). Thyanta pallidovirens had a To of 39.9 d, a Ro of 81.10 and a r of 0.11. The results are discussed with respect to the improvement of IPM in California pistachios, and the information presented may contribute to the control of these pest species in other ecosystems.