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Application examples and requirements, massive vs. critical IoT [1].  

Application examples and requirements, massive vs. critical IoT [1].  

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Lifetime is a critical parameter in ubiquitous, battery-operated sensors for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication systems, an emerging part of the future Internet of Things. In this practical article, the performance of radio frequency (RF) to DC energy converters using transparent and flexible rectennas based on graphene in an ambient RF energyh...

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... machines is already an important component in automated production, but in the future, areas such as smart energy distribution [2], health care [3] and smart cities [4] will also rely on Internet access. The market is now expanding toward both massive IoT deployment and more advanced solutions that may be categorized as critical IoT, as shown in Fig. 1. In massive IoT applications, such as sensors that report wirelessly to the cloud on a regular basis, the price of the communication link must be sufficiently low for the business case to make sense. In particular, the cost of the power supply is a great challenge in many wireless M2M applications, and there is an increasing demand for ...
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... with the year 2020 consumption and a reporting interval of several times per day. However, in a scenario in which only flexibility is required, printed carbon could instead be the material of choice for the antenna [18]. Furthermore, a state-of-the-art transparent graphene antenna provides a decent 30% bat- tery lifetime increase, as shown in Fig. 10. The consump- tion of the transceiver with the employed reporting scheme is ∼10 µW on ...

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