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Antibacterial and antifungal activities of black pepper 

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of black pepper 

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Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine,...

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... pepper (Piper nigrum) (Table 13) is largely used as a flavoring agent in foods. The antifungal effects of EO and acetone extract of black pepper on various pathogenic fungi were tested by the inverted petriplate technique and food poisoning technique [136]. ...
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... pepper (Piper nigrum) (Table 13) is largely used as a flavoring agent in foods. The antifungal effects of EO and acetone extract of black pepper on various pathogenic fungi were tested by the inverted petriplate technique and food poisoning technique [136]. ...

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... Antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is a tool to determine the fungal inhibitory property of compounds and develop novel antifungal drugs. Of the available methods, including broth dilution, disk diffusion, gradient diffusion, azole agar method, etc., to determine antifungal susceptibility, poisoned food technique has been found to be suitable for in vitro tests [24][25]. In the present study, this established method was used to evaluate antifungal activities of the synthesized esters (compounds 5-8) against two fungi, namely, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) ...
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Extensive research over the past decades has shown that sugar ester (SE)-type biomolecules bring long-chain fatty acids with sugar moieties into the plant cells and play various important roles in food, surfactants, innovative green materials, and biological properties. Thus, in this study, dimolar isopentanoylation of methyl α-D-glucopyranoside (compound 4) furnished methyl-2,6-di-O-isopentanoyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), indicating selectivity at C-2 and C-6 positions. The obtained compound (5) was further acylated to give 3,4-di-O-acyl esters (compounds 5-8) in good yields. In vitro antifungal activities of these compounds exhibited moderate to good zone of inhibition. To rationalize these results, molecular docking studies of compounds 4-8 were performed on lanosterol 14-α-demethylase (CYP 51). The attachment of acyl ester chain(s) to the glucopyranoside ring added more lipophilicity and affected their fungal inhibition by binding to the lanosterol 14-α-demethylase enzyme. In particular, the isopentanoyl group showed a stronger binding affinity with lauroyl groups, as in compound 8, than with the fluconazole group, indicating the higher efficiency of SEs.
... The resistance of some fungal species to antifungal drugs, high treatment costs and toxic effects of current drugs all have encouraged researchers to look for alternative natural compounds. The spices are recently used to preserve feed and combat fungal growth and mycotoxins production due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and no negative impact on animal and human health (Liu et al., 2017 andPurkait et al., 2020). Many investigations reported the inhibitory effect of spices on fungi with variable responses to different types of spices (Bokhari, 2007 andBokhari &Aly, 2009). ...
... It was identified as the antifungal component, responsible for the growth inhibition of Aspergilli (Reddy et al., 2007) and showed fungistatic and fungicidal activities on solid and broth medium, respectively (Chee & Lee, 2007). Li et al. (2014) and Liu et al. (2017) suggested the possible mechanism of antifungal activity of clove and cinnamon. They reported that eugenol and cinnamon oil can destroy cell walls and membranes causing the cytoplasmic leakage, inhibiting the ergosterol synthesis then inhibit the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins. ...
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Food and feed contamination with mycotoxin is a global issue that represents major health risks to both animals and humans. The antifungal properties of spices and Ganoderma mushroom, as food preservatives, against seven toxigenic fungi isolated from Egyptian rabbit, poultry, and cow feed were investigated in this study. The growth diameter of fungal colonies was measured separately on plates of Potato dextrose agar medium with different spices at a concentration of 60 g/L. Clove, cinnamon, and turmeric completely inhibited all of the fungi tested, while the rest of the spices had a moderate to variable inhibitory effect, and several spices (coriander, fennel, anise, and caraway) even promoted the fungal growth. The five best effective spices with 16 concentrations (0.05 to 100 g/L) were used to find minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for each fungal isolate separately. Clove and cinnamon were the most effective spices against all tested fungal isolates, with MIC of 0.05-1 g/L and MFC of 3-10 g/L. Hence, clove and cinnamon are recommended, as the best antifungal spices that can easily inhibit fungal growth at a minimal concentration. Mycelial plugs of Ganoderma mbrekobenum exhibited a high inhibition activity against the growth of Monascus ruber, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Penicillium sp. The antifungal activities of aqueous and organic extracts of Ganoderma mushroom were investigated, and the methanol-chloroform extract was shown to have the maximum activity, making it a good antifungal agent. Keywords: Antifungal activity; Food spices; Ganoderma mbrekobenum; Growth inhibition; Mycotoxins.
... The main active components with antimicrobial properties are glycyrrhizin, licochalcone A, licochalcone E, and glabridin (Adamczak et al., 2019). Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), on the other hand, contains a variety of compounds, including flavonoids, diterpenes, and polyphenols, all of which have biological bioactivities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and insecticide properties (Liu et al., 2017;Nieto et al., 2018). As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of acetonic extracts of selected Egyptian medicinal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rosmarinus officinalis against opportunistic MDR bacterial and fungal pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. ...
... Plant extracts contain several bioactive substances that have antibacterial and antifungal properties. As a result, there is a strong link between the components of plant extracts and their antimicrobial activity (Liu et al., 2017). As shown in Suppl. ...
... Because of their lipophilic properties, plant extracts can pass through the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, exerting cytotoxic effects on living microorganisms. They have been shown to disrupt cell membranes and inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, which is the primary component of the fungal cell membrane (Liu et al., 2017). Cinnamon, for example, has been shown to inhibit bacteria by disrupting cell membranes, changing lipid profiles, and inhibiting ATPase, cell division, and biofilm formation. ...
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... Fujisawa and Murakami (2016) reported that eugenol is the most abundant compound in the ethanolic extract of clove. Nassan et al. (2015) and Liu et al. (2017) recorded antifungal and antibacterial effects against strains Grampositive and Gram-negative, as well as yeasts and mold for extracts of oregano, cumin, cinnamon, sage and other spices like clove. For a long time, clove has been considered a powerful antiseptic against infectious diseases. ...
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Benmakhlouf Z, Benserradj O, Kellab R. 2022. Short Communication: Identification of phytochemical constituents of Syzygium aromaticum L. using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 23: 2586-2593. Syzygium aromaticum L. is a traditional spice that has various pharmacological activities attributed to its content of bioactive molecules. The purpose of this work is to evaluate phytochemical constituents of S. aromaticum L. extract using gas chromatography coupled spectrometry mass (CG/MS). The number detected of phenolic compounds was 45, which the most abundant being eugenol (54.63%), followed by Phenol,2-metoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-, acetate (eugenol acetate) (21.57%) and caryophyllene (16.71%). In addition, the antimicrobial activity was screened by the paper disc diffusion method for three bacterial strains, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus 6538) and by the direct contact method on three fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The results showed that extract presents an inhibitory activity with all the strains tested. Salmonella sp. is very sensitive (++) to the stock solution (100 mg/mL), sensitive (+) to dilutions (50 and 25) mg/mL with inhibition diameters of (16, 12, 10) mm respectively. The other bacterial strains are sensitive (+) only to the stock solution. The results of our experiment confirm that fungi strains: A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans show a remarkable antifungal activity at 100 mg/mL. The result indicated that the extract obtained from dried buds of S. aromaticum could be considered an agent for antibacterial and antifungal in the pharmaceutical field.
... aeruginosa and Candida albicans (Mittal et al., 2019;Puškárová et al., 2017;Santos et al., 2017). Some EOs can control food fermentation by controlling Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth (Liu et al., 2017;Mith et al., 2014). Their bactericidal mechanisms include hydrophobic interactions with bacterial cell envelopes, coagulating of membrane protein and destruction of membrane potential which result in cellular death (Chouhan et al., 2017). ...
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The presence of pathogenic bacteria in food is considered as a primary cause of food-borne illness and food quality deterioration worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of five essential oils (EOs) against multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens. In the current study Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus were isolated from raw milk and biochemically characterized. The anti-bacterial effect of different antibiotics and EOs (thyme, oregano, lemongrass, mint, and rosemary) was determined using the standard disc diffusion method. The antibiogram study revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin while Staphylococcus was resistant to streptomycin, amoxicillin, and lincomycin. Moderate resistance was observed to doxycycline, amikacin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin and cefixime. Isolates were found less resistant to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. EOs showed a broad range of antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except P. aeruginosa. Of these, thyme was more effective against most of the multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and formed the largest zone of inhibition (26 mm) against Escherichia followed by oregano oil (18 mm) against Staphylococcus (p<0.05). Klebsiella spp and Citrobacter spp showed resistance to mint and lemongrass oil respectively. The EOs such as lemongrass, mint and rosemary were less active against all the bacteria. The findings of the recent study suggest the use of EOs as natural antibacterial agents for food preservation. A presença de bactérias patogênicas em alimentos é considerada a principal causa de doenças transmitidas por alimentos e deterioração da qualidade dos alimentos em todo o mundo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a eficácia de cinco óleos essenciais (OEs) contra patógenos de origem alimentar multirresistentes. No presente estudo, bactérias Gram-negativas (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas e Klebsiella) e as bactérias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus foram isoladas do leite cru e caracterizadas bioquimicamente. O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes antibióticos e OEs (tomilho, orégano, capim-limão, hortelã e alecrim) foi determinado usando o método padrão de difusão em disco. O estudo do antibiograma revelou que as bactérias Gram-negativas eram altamente resistentes à penicilina, enquanto o Staphylococcus era resistente à estreptomicina, amoxicilina e
... aeruginosa and Candida albicans (Mittal et al., 2019;Puškárová et al., 2017;Santos et al., 2017). Some EOs can control food fermentation by controlling Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth (Liu et al., 2017;Mith et al., 2014). Their bactericidal mechanisms include hydrophobic interactions with bacterial cell envelopes, coagulating of membrane protein and destruction of membrane potential which result in cellular death (Chouhan et al., 2017). ...
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The presence of pathogenic bacteria in food is considered as a primary cause of food-borne illness and food quality deterioration worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of five essential oils (EOs) against multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens. In the current study Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus were isolated from raw milk and biochemically characterized. The anti-bacterial effect of different antibiotics and EOs (thyme, oregano, lemongrass, mint, and rosemary) was determined using the standard disc diffusion method. The antibiogram study revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin while Staphylococcus was resistant to streptomycin, amoxicillin, and lincomycin. Moderate resistance was observed to doxycycline, amikacin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin and cefixime. Isolates were found less resistant to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. EOs showed a broad range of antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except P. aeruginosa. Of these, thyme was more effective against most of the multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and formed the largest zone of inhibition (26 mm) against Escherichia followed by oregano oil (18 mm) against Staphylococcus (p<0.05). Klebsiella spp and Citrobacter spp showed resistance to mint and lemongrass oil respectively. The EOs such as lemongrass, mint and rosemary were less active against all the bacteria. The findings of the recent study suggest the use of EOs as natural antibacterial agents for food preservation. A presença de bactérias patogênicas em alimentos é considerada a principal causa de doenças transmitidas por alimentos e deterioração da qualidade dos alimentos em todo o mundo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a eficácia de cinco óleos essenciais (OEs) contra patógenos de origem alimentar multirresistentes. No presente estudo, bactérias Gram-negativas (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas e Klebsiella) e as bactérias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus foram isoladas do leite cru e caracterizadas bioquimicamente. O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes antibióticos e OEs (tomilho, orégano, capim-limão, hortelã e alecrim) foi determinado usando o método padrão de difusão em disco. O estudo do antibiograma revelou que as bactérias Gram-negativas eram altamente resistentes à penicilina, enquanto o Staphylococcus era resistente à estreptomicina, amoxicilina e
... It helps in defending medicinal plants against reactive oxygen components, microorganisms, herbivores and insects [20,21]. [22].The outcome of the antimicrobial activities of the plant extract and fractions are shown in Figures 3-6 and Table 4. The fungal extract and fractions were tested against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. niger and C. albicans. ...
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Dacryodes klaineana is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of painful menstruation; tachycardia and cough. The study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the plant. The extract and fractions of D. klaineana were screened for their antioxidant effects using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents (TPC) assay methods. The antimicrobial activity of the plant was evaluated using the agar diffusion method against four different bacterialstrains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi strains (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). The crude methanol extract (MLE), hexane fraction (MLHF), ethyl acetate fraction (MLEF) and butanol fraction (MLBF) produced dose-dependent antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP assays. The antioxidant activity of MLEF was comparable to the standard drug, ascorbic acid. MLEF also gave the highest content of total phenol content with a percent gallic acid equivalent of 100.68 ± 1.17 mg GAE/g. The extract and fractions were active against the bacteria species, but inactive against the fungi species. The study demonstrated that the antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of D. klaineana may offer a promising source of new antioxidants and antimicrobials in the ethnomedicinal management of diseases.
... Thymus plants are important medicinal herbs because these contain antimicrobial agents and different active phenolic substances such as thymol, carvacrol, terpinene and p-cymene (Demirci et al., 2018;Liu et al., 2017;Nascimento et al., 2000;Šegvić Klarić et al., 2007). (Palaniappan and Holley 2010) suggested that thymol can reduce bacterial resistance to common drugs, including penicillin. ...
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Aromatic plants such as thyme have been shown promising results as a natural feed additive in livestock feed due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the herb. Carvacrol and thymol are among essential oil extracted from thyme with high phenolic contents used for commercial interest. Essential oil components extracted from thymus plants are used widely in pharmaceutical applications and exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenesis, anti-inflammatory and are used as immunostimulants without residual effect like synthetic antibiotics. Thyme essential oil had also the ability to inhibit methanogenic microbes; addition of essential oil to the rumen can reduce methane emitted from ruminant animals. The aerial part of thyme contains a high amount of carbohydrates and a low concentration of tannin. Incorporation of thyme in animal nutrition as a powder or essential oil extract form can promote growth, productive and reproductive performance, increase feed intake, improve digestion and absorption of nutrients, increase carcass quality, reduce morbidity and mortality rate. This paper aims to review the beneficial application and recent finding of thyme in livestock feed
... El uso de plantas para la extracción de aceites esenciales ha sido de gran interés por sus propiedades organolépticas, químicas y medicinales, esto se debe a la gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos presentes como son los terpenoides; los cuales tienen grandes beneficios nutracéuticos y son ampliamente utilizados como tratamiento para diversas enfermedades con fines antivirales y antimicrobianos (Sharma et al., 2017, Lim and Choi, 2019, Rodríguez et al., 2019. El interés del uso de aceites esenciales surge por la resistencia y escasa actividad de algunos antibióticos frente a microorganismos patógenos; lo que ha generado la necesidad de incrementar la búsqueda y experimentación científica de plantas medicinales con propiedades antimicrobianas (Liu et al., 2017, Nair et al., 2017, Breijyeh et al., 2020. Muchos de los antibióticos utilizados para tratar infecciones bacterianas han sido purificados a partir de plantas, ya que sus principios activos proporcionan nuevas fuentes terapéuticas contra las bacterias resistentes a los antibióticos (Sharma et al., 2017, Kokoska et al., 2019, Sathoff and Samac, 2019, Soliman et al., 2021, en la actualidad se han realizado múltiples trabajos encaminados para evaluar el efecto antimicrobiano de los compuestos químicos aislados a partir de las plantas y han dado las bases científicas como alternativa de tratamiento en procesos infecciosos, es por ello que en los últimos años se ha recurrido al uso de extractos y aceites esenciales como antimicrobianos (Oliveira et al., 2007, Niño et al., 2012, Debalke et al., 2018, Soliman et al., 2021. ...
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Background: The essential oils of plants and active principles (terpenoids) have antimicrobial effect, since they interact directly with the bacterial membrane causing the leakage of ions and other cytoplasmic compounds, as well as inhibiting the development of mobility and adhesion structures (flagella and fimbriae) in bacteria. Objective: To determine the inhibition of mobility in bacteria from terpenoid compounds and essential oils of plants. Methodology: The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation of the plants Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Eucalyptus spp, Mentha spicata, Origanum vulgare and Salvia rosmarinus. The terpenoids: carvacrol, limonene, linalol, terpinene and thymol were identified by gas chromatography. Inhibition of mobility was evaluated in SIM medium. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and main components (PC), from these data they were graphically contrasted to group the treatments that were able to inhibit mobility. Results: The bacteria in order of sensitivity affected by each of the terpenoids and essential oils of plants were Clostridium spp, with 76.2%; E. coli (71.45%) and Salmonella spp (57.1%), so the Pseudomona spp bacteria was the most resistant, presenting a total inhibition percentage of 47.6%. Carvacrol acted as an inhibitor at a concentration of 0.75 mg mL-1 in Clostridium spp and E. coli. Limonene, linalol and thymol, affected mobility in concentrations 0.05, 0.15, 0.75 mg mL-1 , on Clostridium spp, E. coli and Salmonella spp. The CP analysis showed the highest correlation of 0.9956 for Pseudomona spp. Implications: The terpeniod compounds and essential oils of plants are an alternative for the synthesis of antibacterial active principles. Conclusions: The inhibition of mobility in Clostridium spp, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomona spp was presented at a concentration of 0.75 mg mL-1 for the terpenoid compounds limonene, linalol and thymol, as well as in the essential oils of peppermint and oregano. RESUMEN Antecedentes: Los aceites esenciales de plantas y principios activos (terpenoides) tienen efecto antimicrobiano, ya que interactúan directamente con la membrana bacteriana provocando la fuga de iones y otros compuestos citoplasmáticos, así como inhibir el desarrollo de estructuras de movilidad y adhesión en bacterias (flagelos y fimbrias). Objetivo: Determinar la inhibición de movilidad en bacterias a partir de compuestos terpenoides y aceites esenciales de plantas. Metodología: Se extrajo el aceite esencial por hidrodestilación de las plantas Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Eucalyptus spp, Mentha spicata, Origanum vulgare y Salvia rosmarinus. Se identificaron los terpenoides: carvacrol, limoneno, linalol, terpineno y timol por cromatografía de gases. La inhibición de movilidad fue evaluada en medio SIM. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva y componentes principales (CP), a partir de estos datos se contrastaron gráficamente para agrupar los tratamientos que fueron capaces de inhibir †
... Recent studies on fenugreek oil suggested its antifungal and anticancer properties (Aqil and Ahmad 2003;Nandagopal et al. 2012;Palambo and Semple 2001). Based on the studies carried out in fenugreek, the worldwide report shows that the seeds and oil of this plant possess strong antibacterial activity in a concentration range of mg/mL to g/mL (Dash 2011;Liu et al. 2017a). ...
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Antimicrobials of natural origin are proving to be an effective solution to emerging antimicrobial resistance and its physiological side effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that essential oils encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions have better antimicrobial activity than the oil itself, possibly due to its high stability, solubility, sustained release, and increased bioavailability. In the present study, fenugreek oil—a well-known antimicrobial and antioxidant—has been used to fabricate nanoemulsion (NE), with an objective to meet potential alternative to synthesized antimicrobials. A combination of three different components, water, fenugreek oil, and Tween 80, has been used to prepare the nanoemulsions of different size and one of the most stable nanoemulsion with lowest concentration of surfactant Tween 80 was used to assess its bioactivity, antimicrobial properties, and toxicity against human hepatic cell line. Among all the formulations, nano-emulsion with 2.5% oil concentration, 30 min sonication (hydrodynamic size 135.2 nm, zeta potential 36.8 mV, PDI 0.135, and pH 5.12), was selected for all studies. The nanoemulsion showed potential antibacterial activity against all the microbial strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) used in this study. Interestingly, the nanoemulsion showed potential antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, known to show resistance against ampicillin. The toxicity evaluation in human hepatic cell line (WRL-68) indicated no significant toxicity of nanoemulsion up to the concentration of 800 µg/ml. The synthesized nanoemulsion thus has a translational potential as a food-grade non-toxic natural nanoantimicrobials. Graphical abstract