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Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts using micro-broth dilution method; (MIC) minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/ml). 

Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts using micro-broth dilution method; (MIC) minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/ml). 

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimi-crobial potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Thym-bra spicata L. (Lamiaceae), Nepeta curviflora Boiss. and Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae) against six Gram negative bacteria and one Gram positive bacterium. Agar well diffusion method was adopted to examine the antimicrobial...

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... Then, 100 μl of bioethanol extract was added to wells and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Antibacterial activity was detected by measuring the zone of inhibition that appeared after the incubation period (Omar et al. 2013). ...
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Hands are the primary mode for the spread of microbes. For infection control, the first-line of defense as well as personal hygiene, are mandatory. Hand sanitizers that contain ethanol as the main constituent are used to kill a broad range of microbes. Demand for petroleum-derived ethanol is increasing with the COVID-19 outbreak and primary suppliers are searching for alternatives to overcome this problem. Objective of this study is to produce bioethanol from ripen papaw peel waste using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the potential utilization of bioethanol generated from papaw peel waste for a pilot study of which the end aim is hand sanitizer production. The blended ripened papaw (Carica papaya) fruit peel (100g/L) was inoculated with the S. cerevisiae (2g/L) in a fermentation medium that contains 10 g/L yeast extract, 10 g/L KH2PO4, 2 g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 0.5 g/L MgSO4•7H2O and allowed to ferment for 6-36 hours at room temperature. The bioethanol yield obtained after 12 hours, was 0.6% (V/V). The fermentation conditions were optimized by changing one factor at a time, while keeping the other variables constant. Significantly higher bioethanol yield (6.2 times, 3.7% V/V [p<0.05]) was obtained from papaya peels at the optimized conditions of 12 hours of incubation period, 5:1 ratio between air space and fermentation solution, 5g/L of yeast inoculum, 15g/100ml of papaw fruit peel, 1g/100ml of soybean powder as nitrogen source, 60ml/100ml of diluted sulfuric acid at pH 5. When the agar well diffusion assay was performed against pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp, all the bacterial strains showed an inhibition zone, i.e., they were sensitive for the bioethanol extract.
... (Tohme and Tohme 2000). In the folk medicine, berries of J. excelsa are used for healing skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (Omar et al. 2013). J. excelsa is used in Lebanon for dysmenorrhea, cough, bronchitis, common cold, jaundice and tuberculosis, and to induce menses and abortion (Hooper and Field 1937;Yesilada et al.;1995). ...
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... Then the mixture was centrifuged for 5 min at 4000 rpm and the supernatant was evaporated by freeze-dryer. For ethanol extraction the same procedure was applied using 70% ethanol as a solvent and evaporation done by rotary evaporator (Omar et al., 2013). To adjust the final concentration at 1mg/ml for enzyme assay and 100 mg/ml for antibacterial assay (Abdallah et al., 2017). ...
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... It was observed that ethanol extract of PA exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential against most of the tested bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. 59 Another most common bacterial infection is by Helicobacter pylori which has been proven to be the major factor in gastric cancer, chronic active gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric lymphoma. [60][61][62][63] The available treatment regimen for H. pylori includes the combination of antibiotics along with agents which can suppress acid formation. ...
... This agrees with the obtained results in the upright study. On the contrary, E. coli ATCC 25922 was unsusceptible to T. spicata essential oils and crude extracts (Akin et al., 2010;Omar et al., 2013). Such contradictions could be referred to the genotype variations among different examined E. coli strains as well as to the plant extraction methodology and type. ...
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Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens, plants are being an excellent alternate to fight the further spread of multidrug resistant microorganisms. In this study, six plant species grown wildly in Palestine were used to determine their efficacy against multidrug resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. The dried areal parts of Calamintha incana, Lupins pilosus, Parietaria judica, Satureja thymbra, Thymbra spicata and Verbascum fruticulosum were extracted with water, ethanol and methanol solvents. All extracts were screened for their antibacterial activity using micro-dilution method. Plant extraction with alcohol solvents provided stronger antibacterial effect compared to the aqueous ones. All alcoholic extracts have an inhibitory effect against E. coli except the ethanol extract of L. pilosus and the methanol extracts of V. fruticulosum and C. incana. Moreover, C. incana aqueous extract was the only aqueous extract with bacteriostatic activity. Among the studied plant species, ethanol extract of T. spicata was the most potent one with MBC value 12.5 mg/mL. However, P. judica ethanol extract which exhibited the best MIC effect (6.25 mg/mL) killed E. coli isolate at a 25 mg/mL. In conclusion, obtained results confirmed the efficacy of using some plant extracts as natural antibacterial alternatives. Therefore, it suggests the possibility of using them as drugs for the treatment of other multidrug resistant bacterial isolates.
... In Palestine, there are several studies concerning the different biological activities of many plant extracts. These plant extracts were used as antibacterial, antitumor, antifungal and antioxidant agents (AliShtayeh et al., 1997;Ali-Shtayeh and Abu Ghdeib, 1998a;Ali-Shtayeh et al., 1998b;AbuShanab et al., 2004;Abu-Shanab et al., 2006;Husein et al., 2010;Omar et al., 2013;Fares et al., 2013). Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium which is one of the leading causes of human infections of the skin, soft tissues, bones and joints, abscesses, as well as normal heart valves (Karlowsky et al., 2003). ...
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Based on the importance of herbal plants in medicine, this study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Thymbra spicata, Nepeta curviflora, and Verbascum fruticulosum against two clinical isolates (I and II) of the gram positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Agar well diffusion method was performed to examine the antibacterial activity of all studied plant extracts. Micro-broth dilution method was used to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) then the minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) for all active extracts. The examined isolates were susceptible to the prepared plant extracts. Ethanol and methanol extracts of T. spicata were the most efficient extracts. Ethanol and methanol extracts for all plants in this study showed higher antibacterial activity compared to aqueous extracts. Among the studied plant extracts, T. spicata extracts showed the best antibacterial effect for MRSA as they act as bacteriocidal agents at concentration range (0.781-6.25) mg/ml. Fractionation and characterization of T. spicata active components may enhance the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs against MRSA.
... In vitro PT and aPTT assays were conducted on normal platelet poor plasma blood samples by a digital coagulation analyzer. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted Omar et al.; JSRR, 13(6): 1-10, 2017; Article no.JSRR.32989 2 using a statistical package SPSS via applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests. ...
... Several studies in Palestine have been published concerning many plant extracts biological active properties such as antibacterial, antitumor, antifungal and antioxidant of wild plants [22]. As the intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulation pathways can be detected using various in vitro assays, including prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time [23]. ...
... This coincided with its use in traditional medicine in menstrual problems as was proved to have antiplatelet activities [28]. The remaining examined plant species were chosen due to their other recorded bioactivities [22]. In this sense, it was expected if those plant species were examined may lead to the emergence of novel potential natural products with an effectiveness on the coagulation cascade. ...
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Aim: As there is little data available on the validity of wild plants use in Palestine for blood disorders, the aim of this study was to determine the anticoagulant properties of Urtica urens, Parietaria judica, Satureja thymbra, Thymbra spicata, Teucrium creticum, Verbascum fruticulosum, Lupinus pilosus, Paronychia argentea, and Ruta chalepensis. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology and Biology/ Faculty of Science/ An- Najah National University, between November 2015 and May 2016. Methodology: Studied plant species ethanol extracts were prepared to final concentrations 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml. In vitro PT and aPTT assays were conducted on normal platelet poor plasma blood samples by a digital coagulation analyzer. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using a statistical package SPSS via applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests. Results: Urtica urens extract prolonged PT at 50 mg/ml, while T. spicata at 50 and 25 mg/ml, suggesting their inhibitory effect on the tissue clotting factors, which belong to the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. Paronychia argentea demonstrated a decreasing effect on PT at all studied concentrations recording zero PT, affecting the extrinsic pathway. Furthermore, U. urens, T. spicata, P. argentea and P. judica prolonged aPTT at 50 mg/ml due to the inhibition of the contact factors in the intrinsic pathway. The greatest anticoagulation activity was seen in U. urens and T. spicata as they prolonged both PT and aPTT, so they could have inhibitory effect not only on the clotting factors in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, but also, those in the common pathways. Conclusion: The effective examined plant species could provide potential bioactivity from which anticoagulation or anti-bleeding drugs can be exploited.
... The antibacterial effect of T. spicata extracts was more evident against S. aureus strains than K. pneumoniae strains. Similar to current study, Omar et al (2013) reported that S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were sensitive to aqueous extract of T. spicata (MIC= 50 mg/ml) but K. pneumoniae was resistant to ethanolic extract (30). In addition, Bakhtiyari et al (2014) found Gram-negative bacteria to be less susceptible to hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of T. spicata than Gram-positive bacteria (31). ...
... The antibacterial effect of T. spicata extracts was more evident against S. aureus strains than K. pneumoniae strains. Similar to current study, Omar et al (2013) reported that S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were sensitive to aqueous extract of T. spicata (MIC= 50 mg/ml) but K. pneumoniae was resistant to ethanolic extract (30). In addition, Bakhtiyari et al (2014) found Gram-negative bacteria to be less susceptible to hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of T. spicata than Gram-positive bacteria (31). ...
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Objective(s) To evaluate the in vitro interaction between different extracts of Thymbra spicata L. and certain antimicrobial drugs of different mechanisms, including ampicillin, cefotaxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. This study was performed against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materials and Methods Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using checkerboard microdilution. Results Different interactions (synergistic, additive and indifference) were observed between plant crude extracts and used antibiotics depending on the strain. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index ranged from 0.02 to 1.5 for S. aureus and 0.25 to 2 for K. pneumoniae strains. The best synergistic capacity appeared with cefotaxime against S. aureus strains, where the activity of cefotaxime was increased from 8- to 128-fold. Conclusion These results may indicate that T. spicata extracts potentiates the antimicrobial action of antibiotics, suggesting a possible utilization of this herb in combination therapy against emerging multidrug-resistance S. aureus and K. pneumoniae.
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The concern toward using herbs around the world for the treatment of infectious diseases is increased during this century. Based on that, the following conducted experiment was performed to detect the effectiveness of using ethanol and aqueous extracts from Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiaceae) that is growing wild in Palestine. The bioactivity of both aqueous and ethanol extracts was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and other two clinical isolates which are Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. Well susceptibility method and micro-broth dilution method were utilized to examine the antibacterial potential for both extract types under investigation. The obtained results showed that S. thymbra ethanol extract was better than aqueous one as it produced (10, 30, 16 and 12 mm) inhibition zones against K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. Meanwhile, S. thymbra aqueous extract had an impact on P. mirabilis with 20 mm zone of inhibition. The MIC results of the running experiment showed that ethanol extract exhibited a powerful inhibitory behavior as it prevented the growth of all tested microorganisms in a concentration range between 6.25 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml. Moreover, S. thymbra aqueous extract showed a moderate inhibition potential at 50 mg/ml MIC values to all examined bacterial isolates expect for K. pneumoniae clinical isolate. In conclusion, the acquired results confirmed the possibility of employing S. thymbra extracts in medicine and pharmaceutical industry of new drugs against some pathogenic bacteria.