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Annual number of intense Cat 3–5 cyclones (1980–2009). Source: Authors.

Annual number of intense Cat 3–5 cyclones (1980–2009). Source: Authors.

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Article
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This research concerning the northern Indian Ocean demonstrates the variability of intense tropical cyclones (categories 35) both on an inter-annual and intra-seasonal scale. All the cyclones intensity have been re-analysed with the Dvorak technique using both National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and geostationary satellites with a 4-km...

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Context 1
... a lower activity level, extreme intensities are quite comparable with those of other basins. During the 'record' 1999 season, of the three intense systems formed ( Figure 5), 05B generated sustained winds over a 1-min period estimated at 155 knots, being the peak of the Saffir-Simpson (Simpson, 1974) rating system. This intensity is similar to that of Katrina or Rita in the North Atlantic in 2005 or that of Monica (2006) and Geralda (1994), respectively in the South Pacific and the southern Indian Ocean. ...
Context 2
... inter-annual distribution reveals a high level of irregularity ( Figure 5). Over a period of three decades, 13 years did not have categories 3-5 cyclones. ...

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... As seen in the anomaly plot ( Figure 2d) the subtropical jet was displaced to the north of its climatological position, which explains the reduced shear in the Sea of Oman and northern Arabian Sea. The borderline La Nina ( Figure S1b) also likely contributed to lower vertical wind shears in the region (Hoarau et al., 2012). ...
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... Regardless, it indicates that the correlation is spatially nonuniform. Hoarau et al. (2012) indicate that the correlation between the intensity of the cyclone and the SSTs is insignificant (only 0.018) for high intensity cyclones (wind speed higher than 100 knots) if we consider the entire north Indian Ocean. Based on the data for 1998-2011, Ali et al. (2013) showed that the intensity of more than 50% of the cyclones in the north Indian Ocean had no correlation with the SSTs. ...
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... The priorities of the community are disrupted as they shift from development to recovery. On the reverse, others argue that one advantageous social impact of cyclones is that they foster social cohesion as people unite to prepare for the cyclone and engage in recovery activities, thus forging new relationships (Hoarau et al., 2012). ...
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... Social costs of cyclones involve the loss of lives and livelihoods, destruction of agricultural produce resulting in food scarcity and damage to essential health and education services (Knutson et al., 2019). Moreover, there are worsened economic indices as governments need to reconstruct destroyed areas and money budgeted for other development initiatives is now rechannelled to repair the destruction caused by the cyclone (Hoarau et al., 2012). The priorities of the community are disrupted as they shift from development to recovery. ...
... The priorities of the community are disrupted as they shift from development to recovery. On the reverse, others argue that one advantageous social impact of cyclones is that they foster social cohesion as people unite to prepare for the cyclone and engage in recovery activities, thus forging new relationships (Hoarau et al., 2012). ...
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... Social costs of cyclones involve the loss of lives and livelihoods, destruction of agricultural produce resulting in food scarcity and damage to essential health and education services (Knutson et al., 2019). Moreover, there are worsened economic indices as governments need to reconstruct destroyed areas and money budgeted for other development initiatives is now rechannelled to repair the destruction caused by the cyclone (Hoarau et al., 2012). The priorities of the community are disrupted as they shift from development to recovery. ...
... The priorities of the community are disrupted as they shift from development to recovery. On the reverse, others argue that one advantageous social impact of cyclones is that they foster social cohesion as people unite to prepare for the cyclone and engage in recovery activities, thus forging new relationships (Hoarau et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
Reducing the risk of disasters including climate change risks calls for dynamic policies, strategies, plans and programmes that are underpinned by global frameworks on disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change adaptation (CCA) and sustainable development. As with most parts of the world, current DRR policy architecture in southern Africa is predominantly response oriented as evidenced by the 2019 cyclones Idai and Kenneth as well as unprecedented flooding and other hazards that affect the region. This chapter seeks to provide the foundational knowledge on the fundamentals of DRR, converging on resilience, with an amplification of the role played by climate change in increasing disaster risk. An integrative review of literature on DRR and CCA in general, and a documentary review of reports, international policies on DRR and CCA and national policies in the countries affected by the 2019 cyclones and floods, was conducted. The 2019 transboundary cyclones provide an opportunity to review existing DRR strategies whose inadequacy in addressing vulnerability, exposure and disaster risks in the region requires attention. This chapter provides the essential DRR, CCA and sustainable development theoretical grounding for the diverse thematic areas explored in greater detail in this book volume.