Analysis of the critical packing parameter Cpp and relevant shape factors that influence the amphiphilic nanocarrier morphology.

Analysis of the critical packing parameter Cpp and relevant shape factors that influence the amphiphilic nanocarrier morphology.

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The study of nanostructured drug delivery systems allows the development of novel platforms for the efficient transport and controlled release of drug molecules in the harsh microenvironment of diseased tissues of living systems, thus offering a wide range of functional nanoplatforms for smart application in biotechnology and nanomedicine. This art...

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... Graphene/Graphene oxide nanomaterials are preferred over nanocarts as they are available in a wide variety of carrier designs. However, solid lipid nano-carriers (SLNs) are currently the most promising and new lipophilic drug carriers [73]. SLNs are used by researchers for drug delivery and drug substitute colloidal with global morphology. ...
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Background Nowadays, researchers are moving toward a herbal approach to cancer treatment because of the harmful effects of synthetic anti-tumor drugs. The evaluation of active compounds with plant origin may help in the remedy of human illnesses in the future. These active compounds have direct or indirect curative efficacies on difficult to cure diseases such as cancer. Investigation of nanoforms of these active compounds is one of the curious topics of the scientific community. Main body Saffron and its components obtained from Crocus sativa , essential oils obtained from lavender, Syzygium aromaticum called cloves and Beta vulgaris are known for their anticancer effects. Nano-drugs are designed to increase the anticancer activity of plant-derived drugs. Herbal extracts operate very great in the production of nanoparticles. The aim is to ensure that only the nano-drug is delivered to the tumor site. Furthermore, nanoparticles have hazardous effects when analyzed at elevated doses, but this issue can be doped together with plant extracts. Short conclusions The nanocomposites (graphene oxide, solid lipid nano and nanoemulsion) of phytomolecules obtained from saffron, clove, lavender and red beet may be effective in minimizing these toxic effects. In the near future, detecting the anticancer molecular mechanisms of these naturally derived compounds and nanocomposites could contribute to further cancer research. Apart from these, these compounds and its nanocomposites could have antiviral effects against today's threat covid-19 virus. Consequently, more promising anticancer and antiviral agents would be discovered. Graphical abstract
... Various nanocarriers have been studied extensively, including polymeric NPs, hydrogels, micelles, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, quantum dots, silica NPs, and inorganic metal NPs, including gold and silver, and magnetic NPs. 140 This thesis focused on drug delivery platforms for intracellular bacterial infections such as TB. ...
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Nanomaterials-based hybrid nano therapy is gaining attraction as a promising way to treat intracellular bacterial infections. Gold-based nanomaterials have been widely used for biomedical applications such as photothermal therapy (PTT). This thesis discusses the development of a combination therapeutic approach that kills intracellular bacteria in conjunction with photothermal and antibiotic therapy using gold nanorod (GNR) based nano-assembly. This NIR laser-activated nano-assembly delivers antibiotics to the site of infection and offers PTT. The synergistic application of both therapies increases the efficacy of treatment. The protected delivery of antibiotics and their release in the proximity of the bacterial surface decreases off-target toxicity and drug dosage. The core of the nano-assembly is composed of GNRs coated with a mesoporous silica shell (MS). The MS shell serves as a carrier for the anti-tuberculosis drug bedaquiline. The core-shell nanoparticle is encapsulated within a thermo-sensitive liposome (TSL). The TSL layer is further conjugated to the mycobacteria-targeting peptide NZX. NZX mediates the adhesion of the final nano-assembly onto the mycobacterial surface. Upon NIR laser irradiation GNRs convert the photon energy of the laser to localized heat, which melts the TSL, triggering the release of bedaquiline. The antibacterial activity of the final nano-assembly against Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msmeg) was 20 folds more efficacious than the free drug equivalent. Mtb can alter immune defense mechanisms exerted by the host macrophage. Hence, host-targeted nano-assemblies (HTNs) were fabricated by conjugating host targeting ligands (β-Glucan) onto the nano-assembly. The binding of β-Glucan conjugated HTNs to the dectin-1 receptor present on macrophages increases the free radical production and cellular uptake of HTNs. An NIR laser triggers the photothermally induced structural disruption of the nano-assembly, releasing the drug at the targeted sites. The released bedaquiline within the macrophage promotes phagosome acidification and phagolysosome formation, effectively killing 99% of intracellular bacteria. Similar nano-assemblies were developed for dual-targeted drug delivery against lung carcinoma and proved to be 20 fold more effective than the anticancer drug alone. Finally, a simple and rapid diagnostic test was developed for detecting mycobacteria within a minute using lectin conjugated multi-core silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles.
... There are two types of nanoparticles used as nanocarriers: inorganic and organic. The most common inorganic nanocarriers are mesoporous silica, gold/silver, and superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) [110]. Inorganic nanoparticle drug delivery is minimal because of the health risks, high toxicity, and poor drug loading efficiency. ...
... nanocarriers: inorganic and organic. The most common inorganic nanocarriers are mesoporous silica, gold/silver, and superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) [110]. Inorganic nanoparticle drug delivery is minimal because of the health risks, high toxicity, and poor drug loading efficiency. ...
... Nanomedicine for glioma therapy and diagnostics is an urgent need. The essential aspects of nanoparticles for brain tumours' treatment are their shape, complicated physico-chemical properties, passive and active targeting capabilities, and surface flexibility that can be modified [110,119]. These properties of nanoparticles aid in the identification and treatment of brain tumours and the delivery of therapeutic drugs via the BBB [75]. ...
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Brain tumours have unresolved challenges that include delay prognosis and lower patient survival rate. The increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying cancer progression has aided in developing various anticancer medications. Brain cancer is the most malignant and inva-sive type of cancer, with several subtypes. According to the WHO, they are classified as ependymal tumours, chordomas, gangliocytomas, medulloblastomas, oligodendroglial tumours, diffuse astrocy-tomas, and other astrocytic tumours on the basis of their heterogeneity and molecular mechanisms. The present study is based on the most recent research trends, emphasising glioblastoma cells classified as astrocytoma. Brain cancer treatment is hindered by the failure of drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is highly impregnableto foreign molecule entry. Moreover, currently available medications frequently fail to cross the BBB, whereas chemotherapy and radiotherapy are too expensive to be afforded by an average incomeperson and have many associated side effects. When compared to our current understanding of molecularly targeted chemotherapeutic agents, it appears that investigating the efficacy of specific phytochemicals in cancer treatment may be beneficial. Plants and their derivatives are game changers because they are efficacious, affordable, environmentally friendly, faster, and less toxic for the treatment of benign and malignant tumours. Over the past few years, nanotechnology has made a steady progress in diagnosing and treating cancers, particularly brain tumours. This article discusses the effects of phytochemicals encapsulated in nanoparticles on molecular targets in brain tumours, along with their limitations and potential challenges.
... This is an important attribute, along with biocompatibility and biodegradability, which has led to the widespread use of these structures as carriers [12]. Hydrophobic drugs are placed inside the two-layer liposome, while hydrophilic drugs are placed inside the aqueous core or in two-layer contact [11,13]. Due to changes in biological distribution, liposomal formulations have increased the therapeutic effect of drugs in clinical models compared to the traditional formulation [14]. ...
Article
Liposomes mainly comprise an aqueous core surrounded by a lipid bilayer, akin to cellular membranes. The encapsulation, loading, and release properties of therapeutic agents in both, the core and lipid bilayer can be prominently affected by the preparative processes for liposome which include hydration of lipid thin films, detergent removal, solvent injection, reverse phase evaporation, emulsion, microfluidic methods (micro hydrodynamic focusing, microfluidic droplets and pulsed jet flow microfluidics), among others. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages for loading various hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Therefore, selecting an appropriate method for the synthesis of micro-and nano liposome is a critical issue, particularly on the large-scale commercial enterprise. Herein, the main aim of this review is to present and compare the relative advantages of conventional and novel preparative methods of liposome in view of the emerging trend in their utilization. As the main conclusion, a combination of methods, for instance, supercritical fluids (SCFs) and microfluidic approaches can be employed along with emulsion method to synthesize micro and nanoliposomes encapsulated lipophilic drugs.
... Nanoparticles (NPs)-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) are gaining intense research interest in the global scenario because they can overcome many of the limitations of traditional drug delivery systems such as nonspecific targeting, lack of solubility and inability to enter the core of the tumor sites [1][2][3][4]. Recent research efforts in nano-biotechnology are mainly focusing on developing efficient drug delivery systems using novel materials at the molecular level so that they can interact with the living cells of the body with the added benefits of precise and timely release of drugs. ...
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A smart drug delivery system involving the nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polypyrrole (PPy) loaded with the drug, curcumin has been developed through ecofriendly routes. The nanocomposite exhibits pH dependent and sustained drug release over a prolonged period. Functionalization of MWCNTs via lemon fruit extract provides water dispersible MWCNTs, which can be used as the drug carrier with reduced toxicity and enhanced biocompatibility. The inner void spaces of functionalized MWCNTs are used for storing drug which results in enhanced curcumin encapsulation of about 89%. Morphological, structural and chemical characterization of the developed nanocomposite has been carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. Dynamic light scattering experiment reveals that the size and zeta potential of drug loaded nanocomposite lie within the ideal range of 172–194 nm and 18.4 mV, respectively. Ease of cellular uptake and chemotherapeutic potency of curcumin loaded nanocomposite are confirmed through fluorescence imaging under in vitro conditions. Finally, the safety profile of acid functionalized MWCNTs/PPy nanocomposite is endorsed by the cytocompatibility analysis, carried out using SRB assay. Altogether, the nanocomposite developed in the present work through green chemistry routes, is one step ahead as a versatile carrier to deliver hydrophobic drugs like curcumin, and offers great promise in drug delivery applications.
... Tartuce et al 3 also demonstrated the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of AuNPs by conjugating AuNPs with 2-methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile, which improved the redox and inflammatory profiles in infarcted rats. Other studies have indicated the efficacy of AuNPs as anticancer drug nanocarriers [4][5][6] and in disease diagnosis. 7 Based on their demonstrated properties and effectiveness, AuNPs have become the focus of numerous studies in the research and development of new tools for applications in numerous diseases. ...
... 75,82,85 Previous in vitro studies evaluated the effects of AuNPs on tissue regeneration mediators. [1][2][3][4][5][6] For example, Patel et al 81 showed that the application of 10 nm AuNPs to mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue regulates muscle cell differentiation within 7 days via the expression of myogenic regulatory factors. In another study, Gê et al 75 showed that AuNP hydrogels with a mean diameter of 30 to 40 nm and concentration between 20 and 80 µg/mL caused increases in the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts through the formation of myotubes and upregulation of the expression of myogenesis-inducing genes. ...
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Proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species are released after muscle damage, and although they are necessary for the muscle regeneration process, an excess of these substances leads to the destruction of biomolecules and impairment of the repair system. Several drugs have emerged in recent years to control the muscle inflammatory response, and studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This review reveals the effects of AuNPs on the inflammatory and redox mechanisms of muscles. We assessed the results of several studies published in different journals over the last 20 years, with a focus on the effects of AuNPs on possible aspects of muscle regeneration or recovery, namely, inflammatory processes and redox system mechanisms. A systematic database search was conducted using PubMed, Medline, Bireme, Web of Science, and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed studies from the 2000s. Combinations of keywords related to muscle damage, regeneration or repair, AuNPs, oxidative stress, and antioxidants were used in the search. This review did not address other variables, such as specific diseases or other biological effects; however, these variables should be considered for a complete understanding of the effects of AuNPs on skeletal muscles.
... The objective of devising novel drug delivery systems is to augment the scientific efficiency via recent medications by refining the process of drug biodistribution, volume, and dose duration [6][7][8]. Nanocarriers having optimum biological and physicochemical characteristics are much easier to carry by body cells than larger molecules and can be efficiently utilized as a drug delivery tool for presently available bioactive materials [6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
Background Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS) provide numerous benefits compared to conventional dosage forms. Poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability, frequent dosing, and particular hydrophilic lipophilic character of the drug are the biological factors associated with the traditional systems leading to the development of SLNs. Objective For improving the solubility profile, enhancing the bioavailability, and attaining the best possible therapeutic effect of lipid inclined or aqueous inclined drug; formulating solid lipid nanoparticles is the best choice. Methods Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) have been projected as a colloidal carrier system having a particle size of 50–1,000 nm, collectively combining the benefits of other colloidal systems like liposomes, emulsions etc. for delivering the drug at the target site. High absorption, high stability, and efficient drug packing enhance the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the packed drug. Result Solid Lipid Nanoparticles can be developed in different dosage forms and administered via routes such as nasal, rectal, oral, topical, vaginal, ocular, and parenteral. They have higher physicochemical stability and the batch size can be easily scaled up at low cost. Lipophilic as well as hydrophilic drugs can be easily incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticles. Conclusion In this manuscript, the authors have reviewed different aspects of solid lipid nanoparticles, major principles behind mechanism methods; recent patents, applications, and therapeutic potentials of solid lipid nanoparticles.
... With the advancements in technologies and availability of novel tools, the employment of silver and gold nanoparticles, nanotubes, micelles, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles as carriers for administering bioactive compounds has been rapidly increased [42,43]. NPs are prevalent choice-based systems for drug delivery as they not only protect and stabilize the drug but also enhance its targeting to specific tissues. ...
... Many studies have focused on nanoencapsulated drugs using NPs which passively increase tissue targeting due to the "greater permeability and retention" [44]. Moreover, these days, NPs have been used to deliver antibiotics, immunomodulatory molecules, DNA vectors, and vaccine components [42]. The physicochemical properties of NPs are detrimental to their interaction with biological systems. ...
... Their physicochemical characteristics depend mainly on the chemical compositions including inorganic, organic, or hybrid; dimensions whether small or large in sizes; shapes or arrangements like star, rod, sphere, branched or hyperbranched, and lamellar or multilamellar structures; surface charges, functional groups, and coating materials. Based on the literature survey, in comparison to inorganic and metallic nanoparticles, some drug formulations with organic polymer-based nanoparticles received FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval and have proven to be more successful as effective drug carriers in humans and exhibited excellent safety profiles during clinical investigations [42]. ...
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is pulmonary emphysema characterized by blockage in the airflow resulting in the long-term breathing problem, hence a major cause of mortality worldwide. Excessive generation of free radicals and the development of chronic inflammation are the major two episodes underlying the pathogenesis of COPD. Currently used drugs targeting these episodes including anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, and corticosteroids are unsafe, require high doses, and pose serious side effects. Nanomaterial-conjugated drugs have shown promising therapeutic potential against different respiratory diseases as they are required in small quantities which lower overall treatment costs and can be effectively targeted to diseased tissue microenvironment hence having minimal side effects. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are safe as their breakdown products are easily metabolized in the body. Drugs loaded on the PLGA NPs have been shown to be promising agents as anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory. Surface modification of PLGA NPs can further improve their mechanical properties, drug loading potential, and pharmacological activities. In the present review, we have presented a brief insight into the pathophysiological mechanism underlying COPD and highlighted the role, potential, and current status of PLGA NPs loaded with drugs in the therapy of COPD.
... A number of biomarkers are routinely tested in clinical practice-PSA (prostate cancer), CEA (colorectal cancer), CA-125 (ovarian cancer), ER (breast cancer), AFP (liver cancer) and CA 19-9 (pancreatic cancer)and nanosensors can be successfully used to detect them [89][90][91][92][93][94]. The most frequently used nanoparticles in the diagnosis of cancer diseases are gold nanoparticles, nanoshells and quantum dots [95,96]. Nanoparticles such as micelles, dendrimers, quantum dots, liposomes and carbon nanotubes can also be used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. ...
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Many of the anticancer agents that are currently in use demonstrate severe side effects and encounter increasing resistance from the target cancer cells. Thus, despite significant advances in cancer therapy in recent decades, there is still a need to discover and develop new, alternative anticancer agents. The plant kingdom contains a range of phytochemicals that play important roles in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. The Solanaceae family is widely used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, due to its bioactive ingredient content. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight the antitumour activity of Solanaceae extracts—single isolated compounds and nanoparticles with extracts—and their synergistic effect with chemotherapeutic agents in various in vitro and in vivo cancer models. In addition, the biological properties of many plants of the Solanaceae family have not yet been investigated, which represents a challenge and an opportunity for future anticancer therapy.
... 12 Among these, amphiphilic lipidic materials are used to formulate a vesicular matrix that can thus encapsulate either hydrophobic or aqueous-soluble drug substances. 13,14 From them, the nonlamellar reversed lyotropic liquid crystals dispersed in an aqueous medium such, as micellar discontinuous cubic phases, hexagonal and bicontinuous mesophases, have been intensely investigated. Nanostructured lipid-based carriers, such as hexosomes and cubosomes, are formed via the stabilization process due to electrostatic interactions or to steric factors during the self-assembly stage of amphiphilic lipids, forming non-lamellar phases in the presence of excess water and a stabilizing agent. ...
Article
Lipid-based drug delivery nanoparticles, including non-lamellar type, mesophasic nanostructured materials of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), have been a topic of interest for researchers for their applications in encapsulation of drugs biologics and their controlled and targeted release of drugs. Cubosomes, derived from LLCs, are self-assembled cubic-phase bicontinuous crystalline nanoparticulate colloidal dispersions. Their lipid-bilayers are arranged in 3D space such that they have an uninterrupted, regular cubic symmetrical surface, separated by two interconnected aqueous channels. Thus, they have a large surface area involving numerous internal segments, giving them a definitive advantage over the lamellar liposomes in facilitating the efficient entrapment and sustained release of active therapeutic substances. This review focuses on the unique properties of cubosomes, such as their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic bioactive substances, which make them attractive for encapsulation and release of therapeutic molecules, including large biomolecules. The controlled drug release via functionalization has demonstrated the cubosomes as a potential vehicle for various administration routes. Their self-assembling property makes their production uncomplicated, with two major manufacturing methods: the top-down and bottom-up methods. Cubosomes are formed when amphiphilic lipids such as monoolein, monolinolein, phylantriol, etc., self-assemble into non-lamellar bicontinuous cubic phases in excess water. In this review, we have endeavored to outline the composition, preparation techniques, and cargo release mechanisms of cubosomes. Further, the prospective routes of administration of cubosomes-based drug delivery systems, their challenges, and future potentialities are addressed.