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An illustration of the MITM attack

An illustration of the MITM attack

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Article
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With the popularity of smartphones and widespread use of high-speed Internet, social media has become a vital part of people’s daily life. Currently, text messages are used in many applications, such as mobile chatting, mobile banking, and mobile commerce. However, when we send a text message via short message service (SMS) or social media, the inf...

Citations

... They hide a secret message (or its bit-stream) through an innocent cover text to protect its existence against eavesdropping attacks such as a Man-in-the-Middle (MitM). The target users for such technology may possess sensitive knowledge (e.g., whistleblowers) or could be affiliated to intelligence agencies (e.g., military) [3], who are susceptible to censorship and have a vital demand for privacy protection [6], [8], [10]. • Text watermarking methods can be utilized to verify the authenticity of sensitive documents over private or public networks to provide content authentication. ...
... Moreover, the embedding capacity of a steganographic method must be technically larger than that of watermarking. Such requirements directly affect their application scenarios and make their designs and evaluations quite different [6]- [10]. In text steganography, a cover file/message is created by a steganographer (or a device), whereas in text watermarking, the content provider (e.g., publisher) is responsible for generating the cover file, i.e., the authority that holds the copyright of documents. ...
... In addition to websites, according to the experimental analysis conducted by Ahvanooey [9], 15 of the 17 most popular SMAs support Unicode, and only two of them employ exclusive character encoding, i.e., 'Twitter' and 'Telegram'. Among the Unicode characters, some of them are indistinguishable from others and reserved for modifying perceptual glyphs of specific letters in particular languages, called Zero-Width Characters (ZWC) [9], [10]. Furthermore, there are special spaces such as Thin, Hair, Three-Per-Em, etc., that function [7]. ...
Article
Information hiding is the science of concealing a secret message or a watermark inside a cover media (a host file/message) for providing various security purposes such as content authentication, integrity verification, covert communication, etc. When the cover media is textual content, the process of hiding is very difficult compared to other digital media, such as image, video, and audio. In this study, we investigate the most significant practical implications of applying information hiding techniques to textual contents. We then summarize the main challenges that may arise when deploying these techniques to different text formats. Based on the discussion, we recommend potential research directions for interested researchers and developers in the field of cybersecurity.
... The mmWave frequency band offers ultra-fast communication but at short ranges. Nonetheless, the directionality of narrow beams 145 facilitates covert communications as to intercept a mmWave communication, the adversary can only detect the intermittent misaligned beams. The on and off behavior of the misaligned beams and the overhead for signal detection in a wide frequency band make the adversary's detectability very difficult. ...
... e. An Innovative Text Steganography Technique via Social Media: To preserve the confidentiality of text messages sent via Short Message Service (SMS) or social media, researchers in [145] proposed "AITSteg". The proposed scheme provides end-to-end security for sharing of confidential information/secret messages (SM) between end-users. ...
Article
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Data encryption aims to protect the confidentiality of data at storage, during transmission, or while in processing. However, it is not always the optimum choice as attackers know the existence of the ciphertext. Hence, they can exploit various weaknesses in the implementation of encryption algorithms and can thus decrypt or guess the related cryptographic primitives. Moreover, in the case of proprietary applications such as online social networks, users are at the mercy of the vendor’s security measures. Therefore, users are vulnerable to various security and privacy threats. Contrary to this, covert communication techniques hide the existence of communication and thus achieve security through obscurity and hidden communication channels. Over the period, there has been a significant advancement in this field. However, existing literature fails to encompass all the aspects of covert communications in a single document. This survey thus endeavors to highlight the latest trends in covert communication techniques, related challenges, and future directions.
... Initially, secret data might be hidden in cover media via a process of embedding. Secondly, secret bits might be recovered from stego text via extractions [2]. The naked eye won't be able to notice the secret data that is hidden within the cover media. ...
... Our method uses all English letters in the embedding process, and by using the Huffman compression algorithm to reduce the hiding capacity, we obtained a high compression ratio, as shown in Table 3. The capacitance ratio is calculated using equation (2). Capacity ratio = (Stego text size) / (Stego text size after compression) …………... (2) The proposed method for text-based steganography achieved important characteristics. ...
... The capacitance ratio is calculated using equation (2). Capacity ratio = (Stego text size) / (Stego text size after compression) …………... (2) The proposed method for text-based steganography achieved important characteristics. For example, to reduce the embedding capacity, Huffman compression was used. ...
Article
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In every system of security, to keep important data confidential, we need a high degree of protection. Steganography can be defined as a way of sending confidential texts through a secure medium of communications as well as protecting the information during the process of transmission. Steganography is a technology that is used to protect users' security and privacy. Communication is majorly achieved using a network through SMS, e-mail, and so on. The presented work suggested a technology of text hiding for protecting secret texts with Unicode characters. The similarities of glyphs provided invisibility and increased the hiding capacity. In conclusion, the proposed method succeeded in securing confidential data and achieving high payload capacity by using the Huffman compression algorithm, which was implemented on an unlimited text length. In addition, this approach has the ability to hide a single bit in every digit or letter in the cover file. Also, the approach meets the cognitive transparency and does not make the modifications apparent on the original data. The method suggested in this work increases the security level through coding a secret message before embedding it within the cover text, with the use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.
... In similar work suggested by [52], a zero-width character (ZWC) algorithm-based technique was employed to hide secret data in social media messages. Furthermore, symmetric key techniques used in addition to mathematical coding techniques offer enhanced resilience against attacks. ...
... These attributes are used to hide secret bits in the English language. Spaces are also used, via Unicode characters, to hide secret bits, as seen in [52]. ...
Article
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There has been a persistent requirement for safeguarding documents and the data they contain, either in printed or electronic form. This is because the fabrication and faking of documents is prevalent globally, resulting in significant losses for individuals, societies, and industrial sectors, in addition to national security. Therefore, individuals are concerned about protecting their work and avoiding these unlawful actions. Different techniques, such as steganography, cryptography, and coding, have been deployed to protect valuable information. Steganography is an appropriate method, in which the user is able to conceal a message inside another message (cover media). Most of the research on steganography utilizes cover media, such as videos, images, and sounds. Notably, text steganography is usually not given priority because of the difficulties in identifying redundant bits in a text file. To embed information within a document, its attributes must be changed. These attributes may be non-displayed characters, spaces, resized fonts, or purposeful misspellings scattered throughout the text. However, this would be detectable by an attacker or other third party because of the minor change in the document. To address this issue, it is necessary to change the document in such a manner that the change would not be visible to the eye, but could still be decoded using a computer. In this paper, an overview of existing research in this area is provided. First, we provide basic information about text steganography and its general procedure. Next, three classes of text steganography are explained: statistical and random generation, format-based methodologies, and linguistics. The techniques related to each class are analyzed, and particularly the manner in which a unique strategy is provided for hiding secret data. Furthermore, we review the existing works in the development of approaches and algorithms related to text steganography; this review is not exhaustive, and covers research published from 2016 to 2021. This paper aims to assist fellow researchers by compiling the current methods, challenges, and future directions in this field.
... So, it secures these sensitive data more than ever before. Moreover, the authors consider invisibility, security, robustness, and embedding capacity parameters while creating this text steganographic scheme [14]. ...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, as communication through different internet mediums is increasing rapidly, information security is a huge concern among people of all backgrounds. Text steganography is the method of ensuring data security by concealing any secret message using cover media in such a way that no naked eyes can identify the modification of cover texts. This paper proposes a Bit-Level Embedding Technique, a variant of text steganography, to hide secret messages in the cover medium by manipulating the white spaces available in a text medium and utilizing various Latin alphabets while assuring its confidentiality not attracting suspicion from its appearance. Finally, several experiments and comparisons have been conducted to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme in terms of embedding capacity, invisibility, robustness, and security that make this a standard text steganographic method. The authors propose a data hiding technique where 5-bit can be embedded per embeddable location, which is very rare in text steganography, and the utilization of multilingual forms of English alphabets gives this technique a superior performance.
... So, it secures these sensitive data more than ever before. Moreover, the authors consider invisibility, security, robustness, and embedding capacity parameters while creating this text steganographic scheme [14]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, as communication through different internet mediums is increasing rapidly, information security is a huge concern among people of all backgrounds. Text steganography is the method of ensuring data security by concealing any secret message using cover media in such a way that no naked eyes can identify the modification of cover texts. This paper proposes a Bit-Level Embedding Technique, a variant of text steganography, to hide secret messages in the cover medium by manipulating the white spaces available in a text medium and utilizing various Latin alphabets while assuring its confidentiality not attracting suspicion from its appearance. Finally, several experiments and comparisons have been conducted to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme in terms of embedding capacity, invisibility, robustness, and security that make this a standard text steganographic method. The authors propose a data hiding technique where 5-bit can be embedded per embeddable location, which is very rare in text steganography, and the utilization of multilingual forms of English alphabets gives this technique a superior performance.
... The degree of imperceptibility was obtained by comparing the cover message and the cover message after a message was embedded into it. The difference between those two messages was calculated using Jarro distance [14,15,16] (see equation 6). ...
... Suppose the number of embedded locations in the cover message was and the length of the cover message was . Thus, the ( ) = / and the ( ) can be calculated as follows [14,15,16]: ...
Article
Headstega (Head steganography) is a noiseless steganography that used email headers as a cover for concealing messages. However, it has less embedding capacity and it raises suspicion. For overcoming the problem, bitwise operation is proposed. In the proposed method, the message was embedded into the cover by converting the message and the cover into binary representation based on a mapping table that was already known by the sender and the receiver. Furthermore, XOR bitwise operations were applied to the secret message and cover bits based on random numbers that were generated using a modular function. Moreover, the result was converted into characters that represent the secret message bits. After embedding the message into the cover, an email alias was generated to camouflage the secret message characters. Finally, the sender sends the embedded cover and the email alias to the recipient. Using the proposed method, the embedding capacity is 89% larger than using the original Headstega. For reducing the adversary’s suspicion, the existing email address was used instead of creating a new email address.
... Four evaluation criteria must be considered when a researcher develops a text steganography [4], i.e., capacity, invisibility, robustness, and security, where some of these criteria can be evaluated by calculation while others can be visualized [115]. High embedding performance is achieved by making a tradeoff between these criteria [116]. Most text steganography methods focus on increasing the embedding capacity. ...
... At the same time, robustness prevents the attacker from tampering the hidden message. The security of the modern text steganography method can be defined as its ability and strength to resist any attack to remove or destroy the hidden data [116,141]. It is achieved by increasing the level of algorithm complexity, such as random or non-sequence embedding positions [106,142], randomly selecting secret bits [143][144][145], and generating a strong stego key [116,121,[144][145][146][147][148]. ...
... The security of the modern text steganography method can be defined as its ability and strength to resist any attack to remove or destroy the hidden data [116,141]. It is achieved by increasing the level of algorithm complexity, such as random or non-sequence embedding positions [106,142], randomly selecting secret bits [143][144][145], and generating a strong stego key [116,121,[144][145][146][147][148]. As a result, using one or more of these complexity techniques makes the hidden data extremely difficult to extract. ...
Article
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Protecting sensitive information transmitted via public channels is a significant issue faced by governments, militaries, organizations, and individuals. Steganography protects the secret information by concealing it in a transferred object such as video, audio, image, text, network, or DNA. As text uses low bandwidth, it is commonly used by Internet users in their daily activities, resulting a vast amount of text messages sent daily as social media posts and documents. Accordingly, text is the ideal object to be used in steganography, since hiding a secret message in a text makes it difficult for the attacker to detect the hidden message among the massive text content on the Internet. Language’s characteristics are utilized in text steganography. Despite the richness of the Arabic language in linguistic characteristics, only a few studies have been conducted in Arabic text steganography. To draw further attention to Arabic text steganography prospects, this paper reviews the classifications of these methods from its inception. For analysis, this paper presents a comprehensive study based on the key evaluation criteria (i.e., capacity, invisibility, robustness, and security). It opens new areas for further research based on the trends in this field.
... Capacity: The quantity of data in the hidden message that is able to hide by embedding the hidden message in the text. The capacity data could be classified with size bit, number bit, and length of the text in performing the text steganography [25,50] The three relations are anticipated as an indicator to achieve the expected performance in steganography. However, the implementation is more dominant in achieving the high capacity rather than robustness and security in the feature-based of text steganography as shown in Figure 2. the comparison among the performances of robustness, security and capacity in the feature-based of text steganography method based on previous researchers in last decade. ...
Article
The implementation of steganography in text domain is one the crutial issue that can hide an essential message to avoid the intruder. It is caused every personal information mostly in medium of text, and the steganography itself is expectedly as the solution to protect the information that is able to hide the hidden message that is unrecognized by human or machine vision. This paper concerns about one of the categories in steganography on medium of text called text steganography that specifically focus on feature-based method. This paper reviews some of previous research effort in last decade to discover the performance of technique in the development the feature-based on text steganography method. Then, ths paper also concern to discover some related performance that influences the technique and several issues in the development the feature-based on text steganography method.
... • (Aman et al., 2017), word replacement (Ahvanooey et al., 2018), etc., that mainly aim to transmit the message without being exposed. ...