Figure 7- - uploaded by Hamidreza (Kasra) Kazemi
Content may be subject to copyright.
An Application of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paver in Louisville, KY 

An Application of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paver in Louisville, KY 

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... gaps between individual concrete pavers are usually, but not necessarily, filled with small-sized aggregates. The permeable pavers with aggregates between their joints are referred to as Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICP), as shown in Figure 7. The joints and openings typically compromise 5% to 15% percent of pavers' ...
Context 2
... is completed by estimating the escalation (rise) and infiltration rates, while considering the inter-event exfiltration. Figure 37 shows the changes of water level for both controls 19G and 19H for a specific rain event, and as it can be seen on the graph the water level drops as the precipitation continues. This is because the stormwater exfiltrates as more stormwater infiltrates into the GI control and sometimes for the lower intensities of rainfall, the exfiltrated volume could exceed the infiltrated volume which results in a decrease of measured water level. ...
Context 3
... total ratios of volumes captured to the total runoff volumes for controls 19G and 19H are shown in Figure 78. Control 19G has been able to capture more surface runoff from its drainage area compared to the control 19H, which is partly because of the conducted surface maintenance treatments that are explained in more detail in Chapter 6. Figure 78 also shows the ratios of intra-event exfiltration volumes and the volumes calculated from water level rise to the total captured volume. ...
Context 4
... total ratios of volumes captured to the total runoff volumes for controls 19G and 19H are shown in Figure 78. Control 19G has been able to capture more surface runoff from its drainage area compared to the control 19H, which is partly because of the conducted surface maintenance treatments that are explained in more detail in Chapter 6. Figure 78 also shows the ratios of intra-event exfiltration volumes and the volumes calculated from water level rise to the total captured volume. As it can be seen almost 37% and 24% of the volumes captured were exfiltrated from controls 19G and 19H during the storm events which indicates that excluding the intra-event exfiltration from the calculations could have caused significant errors. ...
Context 5
... excluding these data points the average baseline infiltration rates for each GI control were decided which are shown in Table 23. Following the construction of the controls 19G and 19H in December 2011, visual field inspections and the electronic data showed that clogging advanced on the surface of both GI controls from the upgradient edge toward the downgradient edge, see Figure 79. ...
Context 6
... final regression equation is: It must be noted that since all rainfall events used in this regression analysis were smaller than 2.5 inches, care must be given before applying the regression equation to rainfall events greater than 2.5 inches. The observed and modeled overflow volumes versus the rain depth values for their associated rainfall events are shown in Figure 97. Eventually the developed regression model is used to predict the overflow volumes between December 2013. ...
Context 7
... attachment used a rotating water jet to dislodge the trapped sediments which were vacuumed to the truck simultaneously. The TDR responses following this maintenance treatment indicated that clogging rate decreased to an even slower rate than baseline performance (8.06 ft/in versus baseline value of 8.95 ft/in), see Figure 87. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
This study shows that a physically decoupled but hydraulically linked design focusing on surface infiltration components (i.e., excluding underdrain and infiltration bed systems) can be the preferred way to have a low-cost and robust stormwater control measure (SCM) system. The SCM under investigation in Philadelphia, PA, is a green infrastructure...
Article
Full-text available
The Philadelphia Water Department, now known as Philadelphia Water (PW), has been coordinating with other city and private and non-profit stakeholders to install green infrastructure (GI) across the city as a means of addressing stormwater runoff as well as promoting social, economic, and environmental benefits such as improved health, job creation...
Article
An emerging green infrastructure, the bioretention basin, has been deployed world-wide to reduce peak flows, encourage infiltration, and treat pollutants. However, inadequate design of a basin impairs its treatment potential and necessitates the development and validation of a suitable hydrological model for design and analysis of bioretention basi...
Article
Full-text available
Performance of a green infrastructure (GI) tree trench comprising planters, an underground rock infiltration bed, inlet structures collecting runoff, and a perforated underdrain pipe delivering water from the inlet structure into the rock bed was evaluated. Over 23 months of monitoring, the system removed 94% of the contributing rainfall primarily...

Citations

... Pressure transducers have also been used in permeable pavement parking lots that were designed with underlying reservoirs or storage galleries. Pressure transducers are able to record the depth of water ponding inside the storage gallery [14,15,30]. It is then possible to calculate the capture rates and hydraulic head inside the storage gallery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding clogging mechanisms in permeable pavements can help optimize the required maintenance regime. In this review paper, methods for investigating clogging mechanisms are described. These include surface infiltration methods, the use of embedded sensors and the development of modelling tools. Previously conducted surface infiltration tests indicate the importance of the age of a permeable pavement system and also local climatic conditions, including rainfall intensity. The results indicate that porous concrete generally has the highest infiltration capacity and this is followed by permeable interlocking concrete pavement and then porous asphalt. The measured infiltration rates decreased significantly even within two years of installation. There was an indirect relationship between surface infiltration rates and the age of the pavements. It was also found that the rainfall characteristics are important in selecting the type of pavement. Sensor technologies have been used mainly in the United States and there has been a reluctance to use such technologies in other parts of the world. Few studies have been conducted into modelling the changing performance of permeable pavement systems over time and there is a need to develop more general models. Various methods and machinery have been developed for cleaning and maintaining permeable pavements and there is no universally preferred approach currently available. Indeed several of the commonly used maintenance methods have been shown to be relatively ineffective.
... Some of the short-term studies explored BMP efficiency changes over short time periods (e.g., Ahmed et al., 2015;Emerson and Traver, 2008;Emerson et al., 2010;Hunt et al., 2006;Kazemi, 2014;Lewellyn et al., 2016;Paus et al., 2015;Syversen, 2005). ...
... 14 significantly seasonally, partially due to lower evapotranspiration rate in the winter compared to other seasons, and that the type of fill media was important for the removal of pollutants. Kazemi (2014) studied the hydrological performance of permeable pavements systems, and found seasonal changes in infiltration performance that were possibly due to changes in temperature which resulted in variation of the dynamic viscosity of water. Lewellyn et al. (2016) evaluated seasonal runoff volume reduction of an infiltration trench at a Villanova green infrastructure site, and found that infiltration rates varied for various temperatures in the lower ponding depths. ...
... Based on the above review of short-term efficiencies of BMPs, BMP efficiency by type showed that multiple BMPs of the same type have variable efficiencies (e.g., Ahiablame et al., 2012;Dietz, 2007;Emerson and Traver, 2008;Emerson et al., 2010;Hoffmann et al., 2009;Hunt et al., 2006;Kazemi, 2014;Lewellyn et al., 2016;Paus et al., 2015). This may be due to local design standards, installation quality and local conditions (soils, climate and vegetation type) differences. ...
Article
Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to address hydrology and water quality issues in both agricultural and urban areas. Increasing numbers of BMPs have been studied in research projects and implemented in watershed management projects, but a gap remains in quantifying their effectiveness through time. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about BMP efficiencies, which indicates that most empirical studies have focused on short-term efficiencies, while few have explored long-term efficiencies. Most simulation efforts that consider BMPs assume constant performance irrespective of ages of the practices, generally based on anticipated maintenance activities or the expected performance over the life of the BMP(s). However, efficiencies of BMPs likely change over time irrespective of maintenance due to factors such as degradation of structures and accumulation of pollutants. Generally, the impacts of BMPs implemented in water quality protection programs at watershed levels have not been as rapid or large as expected, possibly due to overly high expectations for practice long-term efficiency, with BMPs even being sources of pollutants under some conditions and during some time periods. The review of available datasets reveals that current data are limited regarding both short-term and long-term BMP efficiency. Based on this review, this paper provides suggestions regarding needs and opportunities. Existing practice efficiency data need to be compiled. New data on BMP efficiencies that consider important factors, such as maintenance activities, also need to be collected. Then, the existing and new data need to be analyzed. Further research is needed to create a framework, as well as modeling approaches built on the framework, to simulate changes in BMP efficiencies with time. The research community needs to work together in addressing these needs and opportunities, which will assist decision makers in formulating better decisions regarding BMP implementation in watershed management projects.
Article
Full-text available
Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary School, on Fort Riley, Kansas was selected for this study. An 80-space parking lot was built behind the school as part of an EPA collaboration with the U.S. Army. The parking lot design includes a permeable interlocking concrete pavement section along the downgradient edge. This study monitored the clogging progress of the pavement section using twelve water content reflectometers and three buried tipping bucket rain gauges. This clogging dynamic investigation was divided into three stages namely pre-clogged, transitional, and clogged. Recorded initial relative water content of all three stages were significantly and negatively correlated to antecedent dry weather periods with stronger correlations during clogged conditions. The peak relative water content correlation with peak rainfall 10-min intensity was significant for the water content reflectometers located on the western edge away from the eastern edge; this correlation was strongest during transition stage. Once clogged, rainfall measurements no longer correlated with the buried tipping bucket rain gauges. Both water content reflectometers and buried tipping bucket rain gauges showed the progress of surface clogging. For every 6mm of rain, clogging advanced 1 mm across the surface. The results generally support the hypothesis that the clogging progresses from the upgradient to the downgradient edge. The magnitude of the contributing drainage area and rainfall characteristics are effective factors on rate and progression of clogging.