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Amino acid profile of banana pseudostem and banana flower 

Amino acid profile of banana pseudostem and banana flower 

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Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile,...

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... These findings suggest that B. heteropoda fruit might be considered helpful for controlling blood pressure. The EAA:NEAA ratio was 0.47, which does not meet the ideal protein condition proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization [43]. Therefore, this fruit is not recommended as a high-quality protein food. ...
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... (fermented fish) are consumed by the Garo weekly, while the pseudostem of banana is an essential daily ingredient ( Table 2). The high nutritional qualities of by-products of banana and the low cost of its production promote their use as a food resource with high nutrition and pharmaceutical values (Ramu et al., 2017). About 92% of the households also raised chickens in the backyard. ...
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... Our results are in alignment with a previous study reporting that M. paradisiaca stem extract improved the hematological indices in rats by increasing erythropoietin, which in turn stimulated RBCs regeneration [28]. Ramu et al. (2017) investigated the protective effect of M. paradisiaca against free radical-induced damage in erythrocytes by phytosterols [29]. This was correlated with hepatic tissue damage and increased liver enzymes due to accumulation of Cd in hepatic tissues, which resulted in accumulation of lipid peroxides. ...
... Our results are in alignment with a previous study reporting that M. paradisiaca stem extract improved the hematological indices in rats by increasing erythropoietin, which in turn stimulated RBCs regeneration [28]. Ramu et al. (2017) investigated the protective effect of M. paradisiaca against free radical-induced damage in erythrocytes by phytosterols [29]. This was correlated with hepatic tissue damage and increased liver enzymes due to accumulation of Cd in hepatic tissues, which resulted in accumulation of lipid peroxides. ...
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... The nutritional components of the flower has been repeatedly estimated such as moisture, ash, protein, fiber and carbohydrates (Krishnan, 2016), (Elaveniya et al., 2014) (Olusegun and Eniade, 2014) using different standard methods which states that the flower is a rich source of fiber (70%), carbohydrates (53.78%) and Protein (19.60%) (Ramu et al., 2017). Being a rich source of fiber, it Source: https://www.floraqueen.com/blog/the-banana-blossom ...
... Blossoms are found to be rich in various minerals including potassium, sodium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc (Sheng et al., 2017 andElaveniya et al., 2014). Mineral analysis by a study revealed that the flower is rich in macro and micro minerals in the order of K>Ca>Mg>P>Na (Ramu et al., 2017). ...
... Blossoms are abundant source of bioactive compounds like superoxide dismutase (19.08), catalase (7.86), ascorbate peroxidase (0.49), glutathione reductase (1.53) (Ramu et al., 2017). Beside this, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, steroids (Mahmood et al., 2011) (Loganayaki, et al., 2010. ...
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India is one of the biggest producers of banana, producing 29 million tonnes per year on an average between 2010 and 2017, followed by China at 11 million tones on an average per year. Banana flower also known as banana male bud or banana blossom is the edible by product of banana cultivation which due to its good nutritional value is consumed in many Asian countries like Sri lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and India. Banana blossoms are usually thrown away by producers, producing huge post harvest waste. They contain various bioactive compounds like flavanoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins which are known to possess antioxidant, antivirus, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Blossoms are good source of crude fiber with some biologically active compounds like vitamin C, tannins, myoinositol phosphates, and alpha tocopherols. The flower is used to treat ulcers, dysentery, bronchitis, alleviating menstrual bleeding problems, facilitates lactation, helps in overcoming diabetes, helpful in weight loss and is good for gastrointestinal health. The flower being a rich source of phytochemicals imparting antioxidant activity can be used to prepare various detoxifying beverages and products incorporating ginger, mint, carrot, wheatgrass, spirulina, gooseberries and lemon to enhance the antioxidant activity and acceptability.
... Sugars being the bio-available source of energy, flower is found to be rich in sugars like maltose, sucrose, arabinose, glucose and fructose. Classes of phytochemical which include amount of tannins, saponins, flavonoids are also reported in banana bracts [10]. ...
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Banana flower is a banana male bud which is the by-product of banana plant. It is a large dark maroon color flower grown from the end of bunch of bananas. In the present research work, the flower was studied for its proximate composition and functional properties. Moisture, ash, total fiber, fat, carbohydrate, Iron, phosphorous, calcium and vitamin C of the flower were analyzed and it was found that the flower is a good source of fiber and can be used to develop fiber rich food products. The flower was also assessed for its antioxidant and phytochemical properties as, it is a rich source of a class of bioactive compounds i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds and hence the flower is known to possess various bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antivirus and anti-cancer. The functional properties of the flower were also analyzed which included bulk density, oil and water holding capacity, swelling power and solubility. The bulk density of the flower was found to be low which showed that banana flower powder can be incorporated in various food products to enhance the antioxidant profile and fiber content.
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Banana flower is a banana male bud which is the by-product of banana plant. It is a large dark maroon color flower grown from the end of bunch of bananas. In the present research work, the flower was studied for its proximate composition and functional properties. Moisture, ash, total fiber, fat, carbohydrate, Iron, phosphorous, calcium and vitamin C of the flower were analyzed and it was found that the flower is a good source of fiber and can be used to develop fiber rich food products. The flower was also assessed for its antioxidant and phytochemical properties as, it is a rich source of a class of bioactive compounds i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds and hence the flower is known to possess various bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antivirus and anti-cancer. The functional properties of the flower were also analyzed which included bulk density, oil and water holding capacity, swelling power and solubility. The bulk density of the flower was found to be low which showed that banana flower powder can be incorporated in various food products to enhance the antioxidant profile and fiber content.
... Since we are yet to focus on individual compounds, we conducted a literature search and retrieved available details on banana pseudostem (Bhaskar et al., 2012) and flower phytoconstituents. Also, we retrieved the phytochemical data from our previous work which involved the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the pseudostem EE and flower EF (Ramu et al., 2017a). Further, we chose to proceed with the in silico initiative before the isolation of specific compounds from banana pseudostem because they are advantageous for reducing the time as well as the cost of developing ideas for new targets and potential lead compounds (Agamah et al., 2020). ...
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The amelioration of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic conditions could be accomplished by the inhibition of a-glucosidases, a set of intestinal carbohydrate digestive enzymes responsible for starch hydrolysis and its absorption. The ethnopharmacological profile of banana depicts the usage of different plant parts in conventional medicinal formulations. The antidiabetic studies of the plant have demonstrated their ability to inhibit a-glucosidase. Besides, our research group has reported the a-glucosidase inhibitory potential of the banana pseudostem and flower extracts in previous studies. In this study, we deliberate on the specific phytoconstituents of banana pseudostem and flower to evaluate their antidiabetic effects through an in silico perspective for the a-glucosidase inhibition. In this context, several phytoconstituents of banana pseudostem and flower identified through GC-MS analysis were retrieved from chemical databases. These phytochemicals were virtually screened through the molecular docking simulation process, from which only two flavonoids (catechin and quercetin) were selected based on their binding affinity and extent of interaction with the a-glucosi-dase target protein. The lower binding affinities of catechin and quercetin in comparison with that of acarbose as a control proved their binding efficiency with the target protein. In addition, acarbose showed subservient molecular interaction, forming an unfavourable acceptor-acceptor bond. The molecular dynamics simulations also depicted the effective binding and stability of the complexes formed with catechin and quercetin, in comparison with that of acarbose. Further, PASS analysis, dru-glikeliness, and pharmacokinetic assessments showed that both catechin and quercetin edge over acarbose in terms of drug-score and pharmacokinetic properties. With the positive results obtained from contemporary strategies, the two flavonoids from banana pseudostem and flower might be established as a considerable phototherapeutic approach to inhibit a-glucosidase.
... Apart from the antioxidant phytobioactives, enzymatic biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (PER), glutathione S-transferase (GST), contribute against redox reaction, stress, and inflammation respectively (Gopal et al., 2009). Besides, metabolic enzymes such as alanine-glyoxlate aminotransferase, oxalyl-coA decarboxylase, D-glycerate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) regulate a crucial role in stone formation (Ramu et al., 2017). Elucidation of the mechanism of action of these biomarkers in urolithiasis is very much essential. ...
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... Due to the way bananas are harvested, the amount of waste generated in the plantations reaches 80% of the total biomass (Padam et al., 2014), constituting both an environmental problem related to soil toxicity and elevated carbon print (Adsal et al., 2020) and a food safety problem derived from food waste management (Campos et al., 2020). Interest in banana residues has been renewed in recent times mostly due to their variety of bioactive compounds (Lau et al., 2020), apart from the emerging uses of banana plant fibre in several industries (Ortega et al., 2016;Rodr ıguez et al., 2020); all these usages and its processes generate waste as a secondary byproduct after processing. The utilisation of these secondary by-products fit with the current FAO ODS actions on the Circular Economy (FAO, 2018). ...
... The overall profile for DBF agreed with that described in another study (Lau et al., 2020), although other authors described a lower proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (Vilela et al., 2014). DBPS composition differs from the one described by Ramu et al. (2017), where palmitic acid content was lower while linoleic acid was higher than in this preliminary study. Regarding the potential benefits of fatty acids present in these residues, since DBPS exhibits a low amount of lipids in this product, the actual impact on health would be irrelevant. ...
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Banana flower and banana pseudo‐stem are by‐products discarded after the harvest and the processing of banana fruit and banana plant. This study aimed to determine whether these banana by‐products could be good candidates as new functional ingredients. Both dried banana flower and pseudo‐stem showed an interesting nutritional composition, like proteins in the case of pseudo‐stem and proteins and fatty acids in the flower. Regarding phenolic compound analysis, dried banana flower emerged as a relevant source of these compounds, with 90% belonging to the class of non‐extractable proanthocyanidins. In the case of the banana pseudo‐stem, polyphenols were present as non‐extractable polyphenols. Detailed HPLC‐MS analysis allowed the identification of individual compounds such as protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid. In conclusion, this study provides new data that suggest the potential of dried banana flower and dried banana pseudo‐stem for their use as food ingredients due to the proximate composition of both by‐products and the phenolic profile of dried banana flower.