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Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus ( D epéret , 1892) from Atzelsdorf, Late Miocene (MN9). Scale bar equals 10 mm. 1-6  left M1/2; coll. NHMW (2008z0064/0001); 1: occlusal, 2: lingual, 3: labial, 4: basal, 5: mesial, 6: distal. 7-12  left M2; coll. S chebeczek (S. 38); 7: occlusal, 8: lingual, 9: labial, 10: basal, 11: mesial, 12: distal. 

Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus ( D epéret , 1892) from Atzelsdorf, Late Miocene (MN9). Scale bar equals 10 mm. 1-6 left M1/2; coll. NHMW (2008z0064/0001); 1: occlusal, 2: lingual, 3: labial, 4: basal, 5: mesial, 6: distal. 7-12 left M2; coll. S chebeczek (S. 38); 7: occlusal, 8: lingual, 9: labial, 10: basal, 11: mesial, 12: distal. 

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... (fig. 3, tab. 2) T y p e l o c a l i t y : La Grive (France); Middle Miocene (MN7/8). L o c a l i t y : Atzelsdorf in Lower Austria, Hollabrunn-Mistelbach Formation; Late Miocene (Early Pannonian, letter zone C; Early Vallesian, ...
Context 2
... e s c r i p t i o n : M1/2 ( fig. 3/1-6) is an unerupted first or second left molar lack ing roots. It has four high cusps with sharp to subrounded apices, forming nearly sym metrical labio-lingual pairs. The lingual cusps are slightly more distally positioned than the labial ones. There is a strongly developed rounded central pillar positioned between the main cusps, and contacting the mesial surfaces of metacone and hypocone. It is ac companied by three small conules, two of them positioned mesial and one distal of it. A well developed crest descending from the mid-labial aspect of the protocone meets a similar crest descending from the paracone. The tooth has a strong, almost continuous cingulum, most heavily developed mesially and distally where it is presented as a bead ed shelf. The mesial cingular shelf has a prominent conule lodged between paracone and protocone. There is also a swollen conule on the distal cingular shelf. Labially and lingually the cingulum is partly interrupted. The lingual, labial, mesial and distal views (fig. 3/2-3, 5-6) reveal that the main cusps are almost equal in elevation. M2 (fig. 3/7-12) has high cusps that are slightly worn at their apices and a semi-contin uous cingulum. The cingulum is very well developed mesially and distally; the distal shelf is beaded. The lingual and labial cingulum is semi-continuous, as in the previously described specimen, except for the lingual base of the hypocone where there is an accen tuated bulge. The distal beaded cingulum is extended continuously mesialward between metacone and hypocone closely approaching the central pillar. The central pillar itself is not rounded as in M1/2 (fig. 3/1), but angular and trenchant mesialward (fig. 3/7). The paracone-protocone and metacone-hypocone are almost symmetrically aligned. The placement and development of the various conules and crests is also similar to M1/2 (fig. 3/7). The lingual roots are clearly separated. D i s c u s s i o n : The left M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf compare well with Albano- hyus pygmaeus from La Grive (France; MN7/8) figured by van der M ade (1996: fig. 2 Aa, Ab, Ac; right M1-3 specimen numbers LGr1559, LGr1560 and fig. 2 Ba, Bb, Bc, Bd; right M2 specimen number LGr 1563, also provided to us as digital photographs by O rliac ). The teeth from Atzelsdorf and La Grive share the details of cusp and cingu lum morphology and the placement of the accessory mesial conule, central pillar, distal conule, and the root numbers. The dimensions of M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf are within the size range of M2 from La Grive, whereas M1 from La Grive is smaller ( van der M ade 1996: fig. 5). V an der M ade (1996) has provided a useful review of the genus Albanohyus and its distinction from Taucanamo . G insburg (1974) was the first to recognize, and name Al- banohyus from Artenay and La Grive. He gave a number of arguments for distinguish ing Taucanamo and Albanohyus. G olpe P osse (1977) recognized a peccary at Castell de Barbera, which she referred to Barberahyus castellensis . C hen (1984) tentatively recognized Barberahyus castellensis from Przeworno 2 which had previously been referred to Taucanamo sansaniense by K ubiak (1981). V an der M ade (1996) referred these collections of “ Barberahyus ” to Albanohyus. Albanohyus is very easily mistaken as being Taucanamo. Taucanamo species differ from Albanohyus in their tendency for molars to become quasi lophodont and elongate, whereas Albanohyus M1 and M2 are more quadrate. Also, the Atzelsdorf M1/2 and M2 compare closely with Albanohyus in their well individualized mesial conule (= paraconule of O rliac , pers. Commun.) being clearly distinct from the mesial cingulum. Also, Albanohyus has, as a rule, a more continuous cingulum around the base of the molar teeth than Taucanamo. Finally, as in Albanohyus but not Taucanamo , the Atzelsdorf M2 has roots that are not fused below the base of the crown. Clearly, Albanohyus and Taucanamo are distinct taxa, apparently belonging to separate families of Suoidea. According to O rliac et al. (2006: figure 12) Albanohyus belongs to a subfamily incertae sedis. F ortelius et al. (1996) have calculated the body mass of Taucanamo grandaevum as being 9 kg, which would be the approximate (or slightly less) the size of the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeum . The NOW database lists two species: the larger Albanohyus castellensis ( G olpe P osse , 1977) from Castell de Barbera (Spain; MN 7-8), Nombrevilla I (Spain; MN 9) and Doué-la-Fontaine (France; MN 9) and the smaller Albanohyus pygmaeus is listed as oc curring at La Grive St. Alban (France; MN7-8), Przeworno 2 (Poland; MN7-8) and Four (France; MN 6). If most closely related to the Albanohyus pygmaeus lineage as appears here, the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus would represent the latest stratigraphic occurrence of the taxon. The association of Anchitherium + Hippotherium + Albanohyus is therefore characteristic of the Central European basal MN 9 – Pannonian C ...
Context 3
... e s c r i p t i o n : M1/2 ( fig. 3/1-6) is an unerupted first or second left molar lack ing roots. It has four high cusps with sharp to subrounded apices, forming nearly sym metrical labio-lingual pairs. The lingual cusps are slightly more distally positioned than the labial ones. There is a strongly developed rounded central pillar positioned between the main cusps, and contacting the mesial surfaces of metacone and hypocone. It is ac companied by three small conules, two of them positioned mesial and one distal of it. A well developed crest descending from the mid-labial aspect of the protocone meets a similar crest descending from the paracone. The tooth has a strong, almost continuous cingulum, most heavily developed mesially and distally where it is presented as a bead ed shelf. The mesial cingular shelf has a prominent conule lodged between paracone and protocone. There is also a swollen conule on the distal cingular shelf. Labially and lingually the cingulum is partly interrupted. The lingual, labial, mesial and distal views (fig. 3/2-3, 5-6) reveal that the main cusps are almost equal in elevation. M2 (fig. 3/7-12) has high cusps that are slightly worn at their apices and a semi-contin uous cingulum. The cingulum is very well developed mesially and distally; the distal shelf is beaded. The lingual and labial cingulum is semi-continuous, as in the previously described specimen, except for the lingual base of the hypocone where there is an accen tuated bulge. The distal beaded cingulum is extended continuously mesialward between metacone and hypocone closely approaching the central pillar. The central pillar itself is not rounded as in M1/2 (fig. 3/1), but angular and trenchant mesialward (fig. 3/7). The paracone-protocone and metacone-hypocone are almost symmetrically aligned. The placement and development of the various conules and crests is also similar to M1/2 (fig. 3/7). The lingual roots are clearly separated. D i s c u s s i o n : The left M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf compare well with Albano- hyus pygmaeus from La Grive (France; MN7/8) figured by van der M ade (1996: fig. 2 Aa, Ab, Ac; right M1-3 specimen numbers LGr1559, LGr1560 and fig. 2 Ba, Bb, Bc, Bd; right M2 specimen number LGr 1563, also provided to us as digital photographs by O rliac ). The teeth from Atzelsdorf and La Grive share the details of cusp and cingu lum morphology and the placement of the accessory mesial conule, central pillar, distal conule, and the root numbers. The dimensions of M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf are within the size range of M2 from La Grive, whereas M1 from La Grive is smaller ( van der M ade 1996: fig. 5). V an der M ade (1996) has provided a useful review of the genus Albanohyus and its distinction from Taucanamo . G insburg (1974) was the first to recognize, and name Al- banohyus from Artenay and La Grive. He gave a number of arguments for distinguish ing Taucanamo and Albanohyus. G olpe P osse (1977) recognized a peccary at Castell de Barbera, which she referred to Barberahyus castellensis . C hen (1984) tentatively recognized Barberahyus castellensis from Przeworno 2 which had previously been referred to Taucanamo sansaniense by K ubiak (1981). V an der M ade (1996) referred these collections of “ Barberahyus ” to Albanohyus. Albanohyus is very easily mistaken as being Taucanamo. Taucanamo species differ from Albanohyus in their tendency for molars to become quasi lophodont and elongate, whereas Albanohyus M1 and M2 are more quadrate. Also, the Atzelsdorf M1/2 and M2 compare closely with Albanohyus in their well individualized mesial conule (= paraconule of O rliac , pers. Commun.) being clearly distinct from the mesial cingulum. Also, Albanohyus has, as a rule, a more continuous cingulum around the base of the molar teeth than Taucanamo. Finally, as in Albanohyus but not Taucanamo , the Atzelsdorf M2 has roots that are not fused below the base of the crown. Clearly, Albanohyus and Taucanamo are distinct taxa, apparently belonging to separate families of Suoidea. According to O rliac et al. (2006: figure 12) Albanohyus belongs to a subfamily incertae sedis. F ortelius et al. (1996) have calculated the body mass of Taucanamo grandaevum as being 9 kg, which would be the approximate (or slightly less) the size of the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeum . The NOW database lists two species: the larger Albanohyus castellensis ( G olpe P osse , 1977) from Castell de Barbera (Spain; MN 7-8), Nombrevilla I (Spain; MN 9) and Doué-la-Fontaine (France; MN 9) and the smaller Albanohyus pygmaeus is listed as oc curring at La Grive St. Alban (France; MN7-8), Przeworno 2 (Poland; MN7-8) and Four (France; MN 6). If most closely related to the Albanohyus pygmaeus lineage as appears here, the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus would represent the latest stratigraphic occurrence of the taxon. The association of Anchitherium + Hippotherium + Albanohyus is therefore characteristic of the Central European basal MN 9 – Pannonian C ...
Context 4
... e s c r i p t i o n : M1/2 ( fig. 3/1-6) is an unerupted first or second left molar lack ing roots. It has four high cusps with sharp to subrounded apices, forming nearly sym metrical labio-lingual pairs. The lingual cusps are slightly more distally positioned than the labial ones. There is a strongly developed rounded central pillar positioned between the main cusps, and contacting the mesial surfaces of metacone and hypocone. It is ac companied by three small conules, two of them positioned mesial and one distal of it. A well developed crest descending from the mid-labial aspect of the protocone meets a similar crest descending from the paracone. The tooth has a strong, almost continuous cingulum, most heavily developed mesially and distally where it is presented as a bead ed shelf. The mesial cingular shelf has a prominent conule lodged between paracone and protocone. There is also a swollen conule on the distal cingular shelf. Labially and lingually the cingulum is partly interrupted. The lingual, labial, mesial and distal views (fig. 3/2-3, 5-6) reveal that the main cusps are almost equal in elevation. M2 (fig. 3/7-12) has high cusps that are slightly worn at their apices and a semi-contin uous cingulum. The cingulum is very well developed mesially and distally; the distal shelf is beaded. The lingual and labial cingulum is semi-continuous, as in the previously described specimen, except for the lingual base of the hypocone where there is an accen tuated bulge. The distal beaded cingulum is extended continuously mesialward between metacone and hypocone closely approaching the central pillar. The central pillar itself is not rounded as in M1/2 (fig. 3/1), but angular and trenchant mesialward (fig. 3/7). The paracone-protocone and metacone-hypocone are almost symmetrically aligned. The placement and development of the various conules and crests is also similar to M1/2 (fig. 3/7). The lingual roots are clearly separated. D i s c u s s i o n : The left M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf compare well with Albano- hyus pygmaeus from La Grive (France; MN7/8) figured by van der M ade (1996: fig. 2 Aa, Ab, Ac; right M1-3 specimen numbers LGr1559, LGr1560 and fig. 2 Ba, Bb, Bc, Bd; right M2 specimen number LGr 1563, also provided to us as digital photographs by O rliac ). The teeth from Atzelsdorf and La Grive share the details of cusp and cingu lum morphology and the placement of the accessory mesial conule, central pillar, distal conule, and the root numbers. The dimensions of M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf are within the size range of M2 from La Grive, whereas M1 from La Grive is smaller ( van der M ade 1996: fig. 5). V an der M ade (1996) has provided a useful review of the genus Albanohyus and its distinction from Taucanamo . G insburg (1974) was the first to recognize, and name Al- banohyus from Artenay and La Grive. He gave a number of arguments for distinguish ing Taucanamo and Albanohyus. G olpe P osse (1977) recognized a peccary at Castell de Barbera, which she referred to Barberahyus castellensis . C hen (1984) tentatively recognized Barberahyus castellensis from Przeworno 2 which had previously been referred to Taucanamo sansaniense by K ubiak (1981). V an der M ade (1996) referred these collections of “ Barberahyus ” to Albanohyus. Albanohyus is very easily mistaken as being Taucanamo. Taucanamo species differ from Albanohyus in their tendency for molars to become quasi lophodont and elongate, whereas Albanohyus M1 and M2 are more quadrate. Also, the Atzelsdorf M1/2 and M2 compare closely with Albanohyus in their well individualized mesial conule (= paraconule of O rliac , pers. Commun.) being clearly distinct from the mesial cingulum. Also, Albanohyus has, as a rule, a more continuous cingulum around the base of the molar teeth than Taucanamo. Finally, as in Albanohyus but not Taucanamo , the Atzelsdorf M2 has roots that are not fused below the base of the crown. Clearly, Albanohyus and Taucanamo are distinct taxa, apparently belonging to separate families of Suoidea. According to O rliac et al. (2006: figure 12) Albanohyus belongs to a subfamily incertae sedis. F ortelius et al. (1996) have calculated the body mass of Taucanamo grandaevum as being 9 kg, which would be the approximate (or slightly less) the size of the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeum . The NOW database lists two species: the larger Albanohyus castellensis ( G olpe P osse , 1977) from Castell de Barbera (Spain; MN 7-8), Nombrevilla I (Spain; MN 9) and Doué-la-Fontaine (France; MN 9) and the smaller Albanohyus pygmaeus is listed as oc curring at La Grive St. Alban (France; MN7-8), Przeworno 2 (Poland; MN7-8) and Four (France; MN 6). If most closely related to the Albanohyus pygmaeus lineage as appears here, the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus would represent the latest stratigraphic occurrence of the taxon. The association of Anchitherium + Hippotherium + Albanohyus is therefore characteristic of the Central European basal MN 9 – Pannonian C ...
Context 5
... e s c r i p t i o n : M1/2 ( fig. 3/1-6) is an unerupted first or second left molar lack ing roots. It has four high cusps with sharp to subrounded apices, forming nearly sym metrical labio-lingual pairs. The lingual cusps are slightly more distally positioned than the labial ones. There is a strongly developed rounded central pillar positioned between the main cusps, and contacting the mesial surfaces of metacone and hypocone. It is ac companied by three small conules, two of them positioned mesial and one distal of it. A well developed crest descending from the mid-labial aspect of the protocone meets a similar crest descending from the paracone. The tooth has a strong, almost continuous cingulum, most heavily developed mesially and distally where it is presented as a bead ed shelf. The mesial cingular shelf has a prominent conule lodged between paracone and protocone. There is also a swollen conule on the distal cingular shelf. Labially and lingually the cingulum is partly interrupted. The lingual, labial, mesial and distal views (fig. 3/2-3, 5-6) reveal that the main cusps are almost equal in elevation. M2 (fig. 3/7-12) has high cusps that are slightly worn at their apices and a semi-contin uous cingulum. The cingulum is very well developed mesially and distally; the distal shelf is beaded. The lingual and labial cingulum is semi-continuous, as in the previously described specimen, except for the lingual base of the hypocone where there is an accen tuated bulge. The distal beaded cingulum is extended continuously mesialward between metacone and hypocone closely approaching the central pillar. The central pillar itself is not rounded as in M1/2 (fig. 3/1), but angular and trenchant mesialward (fig. 3/7). The paracone-protocone and metacone-hypocone are almost symmetrically aligned. The placement and development of the various conules and crests is also similar to M1/2 (fig. 3/7). The lingual roots are clearly separated. D i s c u s s i o n : The left M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf compare well with Albano- hyus pygmaeus from La Grive (France; MN7/8) figured by van der M ade (1996: fig. 2 Aa, Ab, Ac; right M1-3 specimen numbers LGr1559, LGr1560 and fig. 2 Ba, Bb, Bc, Bd; right M2 specimen number LGr 1563, also provided to us as digital photographs by O rliac ). The teeth from Atzelsdorf and La Grive share the details of cusp and cingu lum morphology and the placement of the accessory mesial conule, central pillar, distal conule, and the root numbers. The dimensions of M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf are within the size range of M2 from La Grive, whereas M1 from La Grive is smaller ( van der M ade 1996: fig. 5). V an der M ade (1996) has provided a useful review of the genus Albanohyus and its distinction from Taucanamo . G insburg (1974) was the first to recognize, and name Al- banohyus from Artenay and La Grive. He gave a number of arguments for distinguish ing Taucanamo and Albanohyus. G olpe P osse (1977) recognized a peccary at Castell de Barbera, which she referred to Barberahyus castellensis . C hen (1984) tentatively recognized Barberahyus castellensis from Przeworno 2 which had previously been referred to Taucanamo sansaniense by K ubiak (1981). V an der M ade (1996) referred these collections of “ Barberahyus ” to Albanohyus. Albanohyus is very easily mistaken as being Taucanamo. Taucanamo species differ from Albanohyus in their tendency for molars to become quasi lophodont and elongate, whereas Albanohyus M1 and M2 are more quadrate. Also, the Atzelsdorf M1/2 and M2 compare closely with Albanohyus in their well individualized mesial conule (= paraconule of O rliac , pers. Commun.) being clearly distinct from the mesial cingulum. Also, Albanohyus has, as a rule, a more continuous cingulum around the base of the molar teeth than Taucanamo. Finally, as in Albanohyus but not Taucanamo , the Atzelsdorf M2 has roots that are not fused below the base of the crown. Clearly, Albanohyus and Taucanamo are distinct taxa, apparently belonging to separate families of Suoidea. According to O rliac et al. (2006: figure 12) Albanohyus belongs to a subfamily incertae sedis. F ortelius et al. (1996) have calculated the body mass of Taucanamo grandaevum as being 9 kg, which would be the approximate (or slightly less) the size of the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeum . The NOW database lists two species: the larger Albanohyus castellensis ( G olpe P osse , 1977) from Castell de Barbera (Spain; MN 7-8), Nombrevilla I (Spain; MN 9) and Doué-la-Fontaine (France; MN 9) and the smaller Albanohyus pygmaeus is listed as oc curring at La Grive St. Alban (France; MN7-8), Przeworno 2 (Poland; MN7-8) and Four (France; MN 6). If most closely related to the Albanohyus pygmaeus lineage as appears here, the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus would represent the latest stratigraphic occurrence of the taxon. The association of Anchitherium + Hippotherium + Albanohyus is therefore characteristic of the Central European basal MN 9 – Pannonian C ...
Context 6
... e s c r i p t i o n : M1/2 ( fig. 3/1-6) is an unerupted first or second left molar lack ing roots. It has four high cusps with sharp to subrounded apices, forming nearly sym metrical labio-lingual pairs. The lingual cusps are slightly more distally positioned than the labial ones. There is a strongly developed rounded central pillar positioned between the main cusps, and contacting the mesial surfaces of metacone and hypocone. It is ac companied by three small conules, two of them positioned mesial and one distal of it. A well developed crest descending from the mid-labial aspect of the protocone meets a similar crest descending from the paracone. The tooth has a strong, almost continuous cingulum, most heavily developed mesially and distally where it is presented as a bead ed shelf. The mesial cingular shelf has a prominent conule lodged between paracone and protocone. There is also a swollen conule on the distal cingular shelf. Labially and lingually the cingulum is partly interrupted. The lingual, labial, mesial and distal views (fig. 3/2-3, 5-6) reveal that the main cusps are almost equal in elevation. M2 (fig. 3/7-12) has high cusps that are slightly worn at their apices and a semi-contin uous cingulum. The cingulum is very well developed mesially and distally; the distal shelf is beaded. The lingual and labial cingulum is semi-continuous, as in the previously described specimen, except for the lingual base of the hypocone where there is an accen tuated bulge. The distal beaded cingulum is extended continuously mesialward between metacone and hypocone closely approaching the central pillar. The central pillar itself is not rounded as in M1/2 (fig. 3/1), but angular and trenchant mesialward (fig. 3/7). The paracone-protocone and metacone-hypocone are almost symmetrically aligned. The placement and development of the various conules and crests is also similar to M1/2 (fig. 3/7). The lingual roots are clearly separated. D i s c u s s i o n : The left M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf compare well with Albano- hyus pygmaeus from La Grive (France; MN7/8) figured by van der M ade (1996: fig. 2 Aa, Ab, Ac; right M1-3 specimen numbers LGr1559, LGr1560 and fig. 2 Ba, Bb, Bc, Bd; right M2 specimen number LGr 1563, also provided to us as digital photographs by O rliac ). The teeth from Atzelsdorf and La Grive share the details of cusp and cingu lum morphology and the placement of the accessory mesial conule, central pillar, distal conule, and the root numbers. The dimensions of M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf are within the size range of M2 from La Grive, whereas M1 from La Grive is smaller ( van der M ade 1996: fig. 5). V an der M ade (1996) has provided a useful review of the genus Albanohyus and its distinction from Taucanamo . G insburg (1974) was the first to recognize, and name Al- banohyus from Artenay and La Grive. He gave a number of arguments for distinguish ing Taucanamo and Albanohyus. G olpe P osse (1977) recognized a peccary at Castell de Barbera, which she referred to Barberahyus castellensis . C hen (1984) tentatively recognized Barberahyus castellensis from Przeworno 2 which had previously been referred to Taucanamo sansaniense by K ubiak (1981). V an der M ade (1996) referred these collections of “ Barberahyus ” to Albanohyus. Albanohyus is very easily mistaken as being Taucanamo. Taucanamo species differ from Albanohyus in their tendency for molars to become quasi lophodont and elongate, whereas Albanohyus M1 and M2 are more quadrate. Also, the Atzelsdorf M1/2 and M2 compare closely with Albanohyus in their well individualized mesial conule (= paraconule of O rliac , pers. Commun.) being clearly distinct from the mesial cingulum. Also, Albanohyus has, as a rule, a more continuous cingulum around the base of the molar teeth than Taucanamo. Finally, as in Albanohyus but not Taucanamo , the Atzelsdorf M2 has roots that are not fused below the base of the crown. Clearly, Albanohyus and Taucanamo are distinct taxa, apparently belonging to separate families of Suoidea. According to O rliac et al. (2006: figure 12) Albanohyus belongs to a subfamily incertae sedis. F ortelius et al. (1996) have calculated the body mass of Taucanamo grandaevum as being 9 kg, which would be the approximate (or slightly less) the size of the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeum . The NOW database lists two species: the larger Albanohyus castellensis ( G olpe P osse , 1977) from Castell de Barbera (Spain; MN 7-8), Nombrevilla I (Spain; MN 9) and Doué-la-Fontaine (France; MN 9) and the smaller Albanohyus pygmaeus is listed as oc curring at La Grive St. Alban (France; MN7-8), Przeworno 2 (Poland; MN7-8) and Four (France; MN 6). If most closely related to the Albanohyus pygmaeus lineage as appears here, the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus would represent the latest stratigraphic occurrence of the taxon. The association of Anchitherium + Hippotherium + Albanohyus is therefore characteristic of the Central European basal MN 9 – Pannonian C ...
Context 7
... e s c r i p t i o n : M1/2 ( fig. 3/1-6) is an unerupted first or second left molar lack ing roots. It has four high cusps with sharp to subrounded apices, forming nearly sym metrical labio-lingual pairs. The lingual cusps are slightly more distally positioned than the labial ones. There is a strongly developed rounded central pillar positioned between the main cusps, and contacting the mesial surfaces of metacone and hypocone. It is ac companied by three small conules, two of them positioned mesial and one distal of it. A well developed crest descending from the mid-labial aspect of the protocone meets a similar crest descending from the paracone. The tooth has a strong, almost continuous cingulum, most heavily developed mesially and distally where it is presented as a bead ed shelf. The mesial cingular shelf has a prominent conule lodged between paracone and protocone. There is also a swollen conule on the distal cingular shelf. Labially and lingually the cingulum is partly interrupted. The lingual, labial, mesial and distal views (fig. 3/2-3, 5-6) reveal that the main cusps are almost equal in elevation. M2 (fig. 3/7-12) has high cusps that are slightly worn at their apices and a semi-contin uous cingulum. The cingulum is very well developed mesially and distally; the distal shelf is beaded. The lingual and labial cingulum is semi-continuous, as in the previously described specimen, except for the lingual base of the hypocone where there is an accen tuated bulge. The distal beaded cingulum is extended continuously mesialward between metacone and hypocone closely approaching the central pillar. The central pillar itself is not rounded as in M1/2 (fig. 3/1), but angular and trenchant mesialward (fig. 3/7). The paracone-protocone and metacone-hypocone are almost symmetrically aligned. The placement and development of the various conules and crests is also similar to M1/2 (fig. 3/7). The lingual roots are clearly separated. D i s c u s s i o n : The left M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf compare well with Albano- hyus pygmaeus from La Grive (France; MN7/8) figured by van der M ade (1996: fig. 2 Aa, Ab, Ac; right M1-3 specimen numbers LGr1559, LGr1560 and fig. 2 Ba, Bb, Bc, Bd; right M2 specimen number LGr 1563, also provided to us as digital photographs by O rliac ). The teeth from Atzelsdorf and La Grive share the details of cusp and cingu lum morphology and the placement of the accessory mesial conule, central pillar, distal conule, and the root numbers. The dimensions of M1/2 and M2 from Atzelsdorf are within the size range of M2 from La Grive, whereas M1 from La Grive is smaller ( van der M ade 1996: fig. 5). V an der M ade (1996) has provided a useful review of the genus Albanohyus and its distinction from Taucanamo . G insburg (1974) was the first to recognize, and name Al- banohyus from Artenay and La Grive. He gave a number of arguments for distinguish ing Taucanamo and Albanohyus. G olpe P osse (1977) recognized a peccary at Castell de Barbera, which she referred to Barberahyus castellensis . C hen (1984) tentatively recognized Barberahyus castellensis from Przeworno 2 which had previously been referred to Taucanamo sansaniense by K ubiak (1981). V an der M ade (1996) referred these collections of “ Barberahyus ” to Albanohyus. Albanohyus is very easily mistaken as being Taucanamo. Taucanamo species differ from Albanohyus in their tendency for molars to become quasi lophodont and elongate, whereas Albanohyus M1 and M2 are more quadrate. Also, the Atzelsdorf M1/2 and M2 compare closely with Albanohyus in their well individualized mesial conule (= paraconule of O rliac , pers. Commun.) being clearly distinct from the mesial cingulum. Also, Albanohyus has, as a rule, a more continuous cingulum around the base of the molar teeth than Taucanamo. Finally, as in Albanohyus but not Taucanamo , the Atzelsdorf M2 has roots that are not fused below the base of the crown. Clearly, Albanohyus and Taucanamo are distinct taxa, apparently belonging to separate families of Suoidea. According to O rliac et al. (2006: figure 12) Albanohyus belongs to a subfamily incertae sedis. F ortelius et al. (1996) have calculated the body mass of Taucanamo grandaevum as being 9 kg, which would be the approximate (or slightly less) the size of the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeum . The NOW database lists two species: the larger Albanohyus castellensis ( G olpe P osse , 1977) from Castell de Barbera (Spain; MN 7-8), Nombrevilla I (Spain; MN 9) and Doué-la-Fontaine (France; MN 9) and the smaller Albanohyus pygmaeus is listed as oc curring at La Grive St. Alban (France; MN7-8), Przeworno 2 (Poland; MN7-8) and Four (France; MN 6). If most closely related to the Albanohyus pygmaeus lineage as appears here, the Atzelsdorf Albanohyus cf. pygmaeus would represent the latest stratigraphic occurrence of the taxon. The association of Anchitherium + Hippotherium + Albanohyus is therefore characteristic of the Central European basal MN 9 – Pannonian C ...

Citations

... The taxonomy of European Tetraconodontinae has been the subject of intense debate over the last couple of decades, with radically different classifications proposed (Bernor et al., 2004a;Fortelius et al., 2005;Daxner-Höck and Bernor, 2009;Pickford, 2014Pickford, , 2016Pickford and Laurent, 2014; Van der Made et al., 2014; Van der Made, 2020). Historically, most samples have been included within Conohyus simorrensis (Lartet, 1851), occasionally evidencing differences from C. steinheimensis (Fraas, 1870) (Stehlin, 1899;Thenius, 1952); it is only after Chen (1984) that the separation of the two forms has been widely accepted. ...
Article
The Suidae from the late Miocene of Alsótelekes (northeastern Hungary, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county) are described and assigned to Propotamochoerus palaeochoerus (Suinae) and cf. Parachleuastochoerus (Tetraconodontinae). The co-occurrence of these two taxa agrees with a reference to the early Vallesian (MN 9), as previously indicated from biochronological correlation of the small mammal fauna, and suggests the presence of woodland environments, with abundance of below-ground resources and direct access to water. This fits well with the diverse wetlands and riparian forests that characterized Lake Pannon ~10 Ma, as documented in the geographically close site of Rudabánya. The convoluted taxonomy of European Tetraconodontinae is discussed.
... The boundary between the European Land Mammal Mega-Zones (ELMZ), termed the Astaracian (MN 6 and MN 7/8) and the Vallesian zones (MN 9 and MN 10;Steininger, 1999;Hilgen et al., 2012; Table 1) is dated at about 11.5 Ma and thus corresponds to the boundary between the middle and upper Miocene (Steininger, 1999;Hilgen et al., 2012). The transition between these two ELMZs is defined by a major faunal turnover marked by the arrival of Hippotherium primigenium (Bernor, 1993;Daxner-Höck and Bernor, 2009) facilitated by a distinct sea level drop that opened the Bering Strait (Rögl, 1998). Taxonomic changes also seen in the mammalian order Carnivora through the first occurrences of many new genera as, e.g., Indarctos, Simocyon, Eomellivora, Machairodus, or Paramachaerodus at several European localities, even though these mostly benefitted from the opened Balkan-Dinarid dispersal route and thus had Asian or African ancestors (Fig. 1). ...
Article
We analyse the evolution of carnivoran guilds (body mass, locomotor pattern, and diet preference) across the Middle to Upper Miocene boundary based on a comparison of the carnivoran fauna from Steinheim (Mammal Neogene zone MN 7/8; Servallian to early Tortonian), and from the Eppelsheim Formation (Mammal Neogene zone MN 9/10; mid-Tortonian), Germany. Results reveal a massive faunal turnover between these two communties due to taxonomic differences up to the family level. Guild structures of both carnivoran faunas were similar, implying that Late Miocene taxa replaced Middle Miocene taxa in their respective niches rather than new ecological strategies being added to the guild. This is not surprising, as (1) the majority of Late Miocene taxa were derived from European Middle Miocene ancestors and mostly share their paleoecology, (2) of the few undisputed Late Miocene immigrant taxa (Eomellivora, Simocyon, Sivaonyx), only Eomellivora adds new ecological strategies to the guild, and (3) both faunas occupied the same kind of partly open woodland paleoenvironment. Our paper supports previous studies, suggesting that ecological diversity remains stable across the Middle to Upper Miocene boundary and that similar environments produce similar carnivoran guild structures irrespective of taxonomical composition
... The large-sized genera Hypohippus and Megahippus and the medium-sized Kalobatippus are exclusively known from the Miocene faunas of North America (MacFadden 1998), whereas the dispersal of the medium-sized Anchitherium through the Bering Strait into Eurasia occurs in the early Miocene (MN3) and could be associated with the timing of a global sea-level fall around 19.5 Ma (e.g. Abusch-Siewert 1983;MacFadden 1992MacFadden , 2001Woodburne and Swisher 1995;Steininger 1999;Daxner-Höck and Bernor 2009). This genus is the most common Anchitheriinae in the mid-Miocene of Europe, displaying a great diversity of species, and became extinct in the basal late Miocene (MN9, ca. ...
... 11.0 Ma) after a short coexistence with the hipparionine horse Hippotherium primigenium (e.g. Tleuberdina and Forsten 2001;Daxner-Höck and Bernor 2009;Rotgers et al. 2011). During the early late Miocene of Europe (MN9-10; Iberian Peninsula, France, Turkey), the large-sized Asian Anchitheriinae Sinohippus co-occured with the last representatives of Anchitherium and H. primigenium (Salesa et al. 2004). ...
Article
The early middle Miocene (European Land Mammal Zone MN5-earliest MN6) locality Gračanica (Bugojno Basin, Bosnia-Herzegovina) has yielded numerous well-preserved dental remains of two Anchitheriinae species: Anchitherium hippoides and Anchitherium ezquerrae. This anchithere assemblage is typical of the Orleanian European Land Mammal Age and is recorded for the first time in Southeastern Europe.
... Though some re-worked fossils from the Middle Miocene might also be present in the Eppelsheim Formation (Klähn 1922;Böhme et al. 2012), the fauna from Eppelsheim is considered to be mainly of Vallesian age, MN 9 (Kullmer et al. 2008;Sommer et al. 2009;Pickford and Pourabrishami 2013), and may reach into MN 10 (Franzen et al. 2003). The absolute age of the Eppelsheim sediments thus spans from 11.1 Ma (beginning of MN 9, Steininger 1999), demonstrated by a molar of Hippotherium primigenium (see Bernor 1993;Franzen et al. 2003;Daxner-Höck and Bernor 2009 for discussions on the restriction of this taxon to MN 9) found close to the base of the sediments, to at least 9.7. Ma (end of MN 9, Steininger 1999). ...
Article
We present the first record of the mustelid Trochictis from the Late Miocene (MN 9/10) of Germany, a partial mandible with p4, m1, and m2 from Eppelsheim. Trochictis peignei sp. nov. is characterised by the combination p4 with a distal accessory cuspid and a basal lingual enlargement, m1 with a length/width index larger than 2.5, a rounded lingual wall of the paraconid, an entoconulid present, the metaconid as high as the paraconid, and cuspules present on the posterior talonid edge, and m2 with a very reduced talonid. Comparison to similar sized Middle and Late Miocene mustelids and a stratocladistic analysis place T. peignei sp. nov. closest to T. narcisoi from MN 9 of Can Llobateras, T. depereti from several MN 6 to MN 7/8 European localities, and cf. Trochictis sp. from MN 9 of Rudabánya. We also suggest synonymy of T. carbonaria and T. artenensis and verify that m2 of Trochictis occasionally is double-rooted. The analysis does not corroborate a close relationship of Trochictis to Taxodon or the subfamily Ictonychinae, but can also not discard confidently such an assignment. With a body mass of about 3 kg, Trochictis peignei sp. nov. represents the hitherto smallest described carnivoran of the Eppelsheim Formation.
... The presence of the bivalve Congeria partschi, the more plesiomorphic dental morphology of Hippotherium sp. (Woodburne, 2009), and the co-occurrence of the two equids, Hippotherium (FAD) and Anchitherium (LAD), in Gaiselberg (Thenius, 1950;Daxner-Höck and Bernor, 2009) indicate an early Pannonian age, corresponding to the biozones earliest Pannonian C and earliest MN9, respectively (Figure 1). ...
Article
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We re-evaluated the Austrian material for Hadrictis fricki Pia, 1939, from the localities Wien XII-Altmannsdorf and Gaiselberg (MN9, Vallesian, Late Miocene), concluding that Hadrictis can be considered as a synonymy of Eomellivora Zdansky, 1924; we therefore named it as Eomellivora fricki. This species is one of the earliest representatives of the genus, together with E. piveteaui Ozansoy, 1965. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Eomellivora forms a monophyletic group, establishing the sister clade of the large and derived Late Miocene Ekorus ekakeran. Eomellivora fricki shows a primitive dental morphology and is the largest species of the genus. This species shows the complexity of the genus Eomellivora, in which large and small species coexisted since the beginning of the Late Miocene
... After the first discoveries early in the 20th century, more than 30,400 fossils were collected by wet screening bulk samples. Numerous publications provide comprehensive information on these small mammal assemblages (Angelone, 2009;Angelone and Veitschegger, 2015;Bachmayer and Wilson, 1970, 1978, 1980Daxner, 1967;Daxner-Höck, 1972a, 1972b, 1977, 1980, 2004a, 2004bDaxner-Höck and Bernor, 2009;Höck, 2009, 2015;Harzhauser et al., 2011;Rabeder, 1973Rabeder, , 1985Rabeder, , 1998Rögl et al., 1993;Van Weers and Montoya, 1996;Ziegler, 2006;Ziegler and Daxner-Höck, 2005 and references therein). The larger part of this material is housed in the collections of the Natural History Museum Vienna, Geological-Paleontological Department, smaller parts in the University of Vienna, Geocenter (Palaeontology). ...
... Nevertheless, only twenty small mammal species represented by 92 specimens are recorded from this interval. For detailed data on stratigraphy, sedimentology, taphonomy and taxonomy of these localities see Daxner-Höck (1996, 2004a, Daxner-Höck and Bernor (2009), Harzhauser (2009), Harzhauser et al. (2003, Nehyba and Roetzel (2004), Steininger (1999). ...
... After the first discoveries early in the 20th century, more than 30,400 fossils were collected by wet screening bulk samples. Numerous publications provide comprehensive information on these small mammal assemblages (Angelone, 2009;Angelone and Veitschegger, 2015;Bachmayer and Wilson, 1970, 1978, 1980Daxner, 1967;Daxner-Höck, 1972a, 1972b, 1977, 1980, 2004a, 2004bDaxner-Höck and Bernor, 2009;Höck, 2009, 2015;Harzhauser et al., 2011;Rabeder, 1973Rabeder, , 1985Rabeder, , 1998Rögl et al., 1993;Van Weers and Montoya, 1996;Ziegler, 2006;Ziegler and Daxner-Höck, 2005 and references therein). The larger part of this material is housed in the collections of the Natural History Museum Vienna, Geological-Paleontological Department, smaller parts in the University of Vienna, Geocenter (Palaeontology). ...
... Nevertheless, only twenty small mammal species represented by 92 specimens are recorded from this interval. For detailed data on stratigraphy, sedimentology, taphonomy and taxonomy of these localities see Daxner-Höck (1996, 2004a, Daxner-Höck and Bernor (2009), Harzhauser (2009), Harzhauser et al. (2003, Nehyba and Roetzel (2004), Steininger (1999). ...
Article
The Late Miocene small mammal assemblages of the hinterland of Lake Pannon in Austrian Basins are represented by 99 species-level taxa and 30,400 specimens. The fossil-bearing localities can be grouped into eight intervals spanning about three million years from the Early Vallesian to the Middle Turolian. Each time slice is characterised by the occurrence and/or dominance of certain species. The retreat of Lake Pannon is reflected by a distinct diversification. This pattern may be a regional signal due to increasing habitat availability but may also be taphonomically biased due to a rather poor Earliest Vallesian record. Nevertheless, the overall community structure is quite stable throughout the Vallesian and no indication of a Vallesian Crisis can be detected. Instead, a moderate turnover occurs with the onset of the Turolian, reflected by the increasing abundance of xerophilic taxa.
... Though Late Miocene occurrences of Anchitherium are recorded in some European localities (see, e.g. Villalta and Crusafont 1945;Thenius 1950;Alberdi 1974;Sondaar 1971;Abusch-Siewert 1983;Hernández Fernández et al. 2003;Daxner-Höck and Bernor 2009), the species is common mainly in the Early and Middle Miocene (Abusch-Siewert 1983). In association with the other large mammal remains, it fits well in a late Middle Miocene assemblage. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although quite rare in comparison to other large mammal groups, the Perissodactyla from Gratkorn show a diverse assemblage. Besides the three rhinocerotid species, Aceratherium sp., Brachypotherium brachypus (Lartet, 1837), and Lartetotherium sansaniense (Lartet, in Laurillard 1848), the families Chalicotheriidae and Equidae are represented by Chalicotherium goldfussi Kaup, 1833 and Anchitherium sp., respectively. The perissodactyl assemblage fits well in a late Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) riparian woodland with diverse habitats from active rivers to drier more open environments, as were present at the Gratkorn locality.
... Tooth measurements: The maximum length and width are measured at both the occlusal surface and the crown basis. Daxner-Höck and Bernor (2009) use the distal and mesial width of check teeth, whereas here only the maximum width will be measured. The measurements (in mm) are given as follows: occlusal length − crown basis length × occlusal width − crown basis width. ...
... The Gratkorn material shows a number of diagnostic features of Euroxenomys minutus after Hugueney (1999) and Daxner-Höck and Bernor (2009). These include: ...
Article
Full-text available
A large sample of microvertebrates from the Sarmatian s. Str. of Gratkorn (Austria, Styria) has recently been recovered. The recovered rodent fauna is diverse and includes a few castorid remains that are described here. Such remains comprise isolated teeth, a palate and a fragmentary skull that are ascribed to the small-sized beaver Euroxenomys minutus minutus (Von Meyer, 1838). These finds are discussed with regard to the Austrian Miocene castorid record. © 2014 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
... The appearance of Hippotherium in Europe as a hypsodont, opportunistic mixed feeder put competitive pressure on the brachydont equid Anchitherium aurelianense which was feeding in the same ecological niche [110]. This may have contributed to the decline and extinction of Anchitherium in the Old World following the Mid-Vallesian crisis, with only a short period of coexistence in the upper Vallesian (MN9) [111,112]. The number of fossil sites with co-occuring H. primigenium and A. aurelianense specimens are thus limited, hampering a direct diet comparison of sympatric individuals. ...
Article
Full-text available
The equid Hippotherium primigenium, with moderately hypsodont cheek teeth, rapidly dispersed through Eurasia in the early late Miocene. This dispersal of hipparions into the Old World represents a major faunal event during the Neogene. The reasons for this fast dispersal of H. primigenium within Europe are still unclear. Based on its hypsodonty, a high specialization in grazing is assumed although the feeding ecology of the earliest European hipparionines within a pure C3 plant ecosystem remains to be investigated. A multi-proxy approach, combining carbon and oxygen isotopes from enamel as well as dental meso- and microwear analyses of cheek teeth, was used to characterize the diet of the earliest European H. primigenium populations from four early Late Miocene localities in Germany (Eppelsheim, Höwenegg), Switzerland (Charmoille), and France (Soblay). Enamel δ(13)C values indicate a pure C3 plant diet with small (<1.4‰) seasonal variations for all four H. primigenium populations. Dental wear and carbon isotope compositions are compatible with dietary differences. Except for the Höwenegg hipparionines, dental microwear data indicate a browse-dominated diet. By contrast, the tooth mesowear patterns of all populations range from low to high abrasion suggesting a wide spectrum of food resources. Combined dental wear and stable isotope analysis enables refined palaeodietary reconstructions in C3 ecosystems. Different H. primigenium populations in Europe had a large spectrum of feeding habits with a high browsing component. The combination of specialized phenotypes such as hypsodont cheek teeth with a wide spectrum of diet illustrates a new example of the Liem's paradox. This dietary flexibility associated with the capability to exploit abrasive food such as grasses probably contributed to the rapid dispersal of hipparionines from North America into Eurasia and the fast replacement of the brachydont equid Anchitherium by the hypsodont H. primigenium in Europe.