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Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Fibers (Sreekumar 2008) 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Fibers (Sreekumar 2008) 

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Decreasing wood supplies and the need for formaldehyde-free particleboard have become important issues. This has led to studies about the use of raw materials other than wood, along with the manufacture of particleboard without using any synthetic adhesives. This paper presents an overview of the development of binderless boards from natural fibers...

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... fibers are normally lignocellulosic, mostly consisting of cellulose microfibrils in an amorphous matrix of lignin and hemicelluloses, together with other contents such as pectin, waxes, and fats (Joseph et al. 1999;Mohanty et al. 2000Mohanty et al. , 2005. Table 1 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of natural fibers. Table 2 shows the chemical composition of various types of natural fibers, as reported by several researchers. ...

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... Another important challenge of the WBP industry is the continuously changing raw material situation due to the global changes in the forest area, high competition, and growing demand for WBP production [1]. Therefore, agricultural lignocellulosics as nonfood by-products are very attractive from an economic and sustainability perspective for developing particleboards [6], particularly as binder-less boards [7][8][9]. This type of board consists of only a selected lignocellulosic that is mechanically processed by shredding and then hot-pressed under certain conditions at which lignin starts to melt and interact with other constituents, resulting in a binder-less composite. ...
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An attempt to reduce, replace, or even eliminate the synthetic resins from wood-based panels alongside broadening the array of raw lignocellulosics is still essential and attractive. Many pretreatments of lignocellulosics have been studied, among which steam explosion (SE) resulted in superior physical-mechanical properties of the obtained binder-less boards. However, the SE pretreatment leads to a relatively strong odor, which is even emitted from the obtained binderless boards independent of the raw lignocellulosic, raising concern about the use of the boards. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in the framework of the study from binder-less boards obtained from different SE raw lignocellulosics and SE-untreated suberinic acids-bonded particleboard. VOCs were collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for 28 days with an interval of 2 weeks. The results showed that the number of detected VOCs and their chromatographic peak area varied significantly depending on the raw lignocellulosic, board density, and post-treatment (overlayering), decreasing over time. The lowest area of detected VOCs was demonstrated by the suberinic acids-bonded particleboard, while the highest area was detected from the high-density binder-less board obtained from SE hemp shives with the main compound of furfural (up to 70%) in all board types.
... Also, Zafar [18] noted that coconuts are produced in 92 countries worldwide on more than 10 million hectares and each fruit is made up of 40% husk. This was as Tajuddin et al [19] had observed that approximately 15 to 20 million tons of coconut husk are generated yearly, making it abundant as a cheap residue from coconut production. In this study, attempts are made to explore a safe way to manage such dignified agro-waste and also make its economic value known for the purpose of creating endless sustainable construction opportunities. ...
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... Wood is the most-used raw material for energy production. Brazil has great forest potential, totaling 9.6 million hectares in 2020 [20], of which 7.5 million are dedicated to Eucalyptus plantations, although just 14% is destined for charcoal-fired steelworks [21,22]. Wood residues are commonly used for basic fuel purposes in manufacturing facilities (to produce energy through the burning of this waste) but have also been used as sources of raw material bioenergy processes, the development of wood pellets or smaller wooden articles, and for pulp and paper processes. ...
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... Two variables of pressing temperature (T) and time (t) were analyzed at three density levels: 800 kg m −3 , 1000 kg m −3 , and 1200 kg m −3 (Table 1). 163/16 162.5 16 9-11 163/11 162. 5 11 A total of eleven experimental trials were performed per one density level: four factorial trials, four axial trials, and three center point replicates (experiments [9][10][11]. The range of the board pressing temperature and time for the boards with the density of 1200 kg m −3 was selected differently based on a previous study [26]. ...
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In the current decade, based on the European Green Deal, new challenges of the wood-based panel industry have arisen, seeking for formaldehyde-free bio-based adhesives and broadening raw lignocellulosics. In order to contribute to the potential solution to the challenges, binder-less boards of steam-exploded (SE 220 °C/2 min) hemp shives and wheat straw were investigated. The objective of this study was to find out the optimal hot-pressing conditions in terms of temperature (150–200 °C) and time (5–16 min) for the boards with three density levels (800–1000–1200 kg·m−3). An experimental design was created and the influence of the variables on binder-less panels were evaluated using a randomized central composite design of the response surface methodology. Water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) during 24 h, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR) in bending test, internal bonding (IB), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were determined for the obtained boards. Each detected physical-mechanical property of the obtained boards was described by statistical models being different at each density level. The optimal conditions of the obtained binder-less boards were different depending on the raw material and density. For example, the optimal conditions of the boards from SE wheat straw with a density of 800 kg m−3 were found at T = 220 °C and t = 15 min, with the achieved properties of WA = 53%, TS = 4%, MOE = 2750 N mm−2, MOR = 15.5 N mm−2, and IB = 0.64 N mm−2. Based on the achieved properties at the optimal conditions, the boards meet the requirements of the conventional particleboard Type P3 according to EN 312.
... There was reported that formaldehyde emissions have the greatest impact on human toxicity since they contaminate approximately 7.8 Mm 3 of air per m 2 of particleboard produced (Dos Santos et al., 2014). The development of lignocellulosic-based binder-less boards solves these problems looking for suitable agricultural crops to at least partially substitute wood making new composites without hazardous synthetic adhesives (Tajuddin et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2015). There is a wide interest to develop WBP from abundant and different Agri-Resources without any external binder or with bio-based adhesives, like flax shives and sunflower bark (Mahieu et al., 2021(Mahieu et al., , 2019, Jatropha curcas after oil extraction (Hidayat et al., 2014), leaf plantain (Alvarez et al., 2015), corn (Theng et al., 2017(Theng et al., , 2015, hemp shives (Almusawi et al., 2016), etc. (Tajuddin et al., 2016). ...
... The development of lignocellulosic-based binder-less boards solves these problems looking for suitable agricultural crops to at least partially substitute wood making new composites without hazardous synthetic adhesives (Tajuddin et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2015). There is a wide interest to develop WBP from abundant and different Agri-Resources without any external binder or with bio-based adhesives, like flax shives and sunflower bark (Mahieu et al., 2021(Mahieu et al., , 2019, Jatropha curcas after oil extraction (Hidayat et al., 2014), leaf plantain (Alvarez et al., 2015), corn (Theng et al., 2017(Theng et al., , 2015, hemp shives (Almusawi et al., 2016), etc. (Tajuddin et al., 2016). However, the main drawbacks of these attempts of binder-less or bio-adhesives-based particleboards are unsatisfactory water resistance, too long pressing times and high pressure. ...
... In comparison, TS and WA values of binder-less boards with a density of 0.8-1.0 g/cm 3 were reported to have a wide ranges of 20-150 % and 41-275 %, respectively, depending on raw material and processing conditions (Tajuddin et al., 2016). ...
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Non-catalysed steam explosion (SE) pre-treatment was used to valorise agricultural residues of hemp shives and wheat straw obtaining fibre bundles with self-bonding property. Three industrial hemp varieties of Futura75, Uso31 and Finola were used in the study. The crops were pre-treated at SE conditions temperature (℃)/time (min) of 200/1, 200/3, 220/2, 240/1 and 240/3. The influence of SE pre-treatment on the crops was evaluated by the particle size fractionation, scanning electron microscopy, cellulose content and its degree of polymeri-zation (DP). Binder-less board samples with a thickness of 6 mm and a density of 900 kg/m 3 were obtained from pre-treated crops at a temperature of 175 ℃. The influence of SE pre-treatment on the obtained binder-less boards was evaluated by the properties of thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA), modulus of elasticity (MOE), bending strength (MOR) and internal bonding strength (IB). The results show that increasing SE severity significantly decreased particle size and cellulose DP. Both factors of SE temperature and time significantly influence the obtained binder-less boards properties improving WA and IB up to SE240/3, and bending properties up to SE240/1. The best evaluation of binder-less boards was achieved by the crops pre-treated at SE conditions between 220/2 and 240/1 with the average property values of TS 9 %, WA 35 %, MOE 4482 N/mm 2 , MOR 22.1 N/mm 2 and IB 0.54 N/mm 2. The observed differences between the properties of the binder-less boards from pre-treated hemp shives indicate to the structural differences of the hemp varieties the most suitable being Uso31.
... Regarding the structural features, stronger material bonds and mechanical properties would possibly be achieved if different pressure was applied during moulding stage, although that could mean higher costs [63]. Still, a range of distinct factors can affect the dimensional stability of the produced particleboard. ...
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Corn cob is considered an agricultural bio-waste that can be reused and incorporated in the building industry as a thermal insulation material. However, more research is required to obtain a more detailed analysis in what concerns building materials' thermal performance using this waste as raw material and, consequently, their sustainability profile. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the thermal behaviour and the environmental impact of two different corn cob particleboards using two types of glue binders: Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) and Fabricol AG222 (FAG222). An experimental study was performed to analyse the particleboards’ thermal performance, allowing the estimation of the thermal transmission coefficient. A sustainability analysis was carried out using a lifecycle assessment (LCA) tool according to ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. The functional unit “mass of material required to provide a thermal resistance (R) of 1 m2°C/W″ was considered for the calculation of the environmental impacts. The production and disposal phases (incineration and landfill) were considered. The results revealed that both corn cob particleboards have potential to be used as a sustainable building material for the thermal insulation of walls, considering the values obtained for the thermal performance parameters. Average values of 1.33 W/m2°C and 0.052 W/m°C were achieved for the thermal transmission coefficient and thermal conductivity of the PVA particleboard. For FAG222, those values corresponded to 1.92 W/m2°C and 0.087 W/m°C, showing similarities with the current insulation materials. Both options display environmentally friendly profiles, although the particleboard with PVA offers enhanced results when landfill is the preferred disposal method. This research work is thus a contribution to the scientific knowledge regarding the valorisation of agriculture wastes and by-products as potential eco-friendly building materials. Furthermore, applying this bio-waste as insulation material reveals a consistent path on circular economy.
... Approximately 7.8 Mm 3 of air are contaminated by formaldehyde emissions per m 2 of particleboard produced making the greatest impact on human toxicity [6]. The development of lignocellulosicbased binder-less boards aims to solve these problems looking for suitable agricultural crops to at least partially substitute wood making new composites without hazardous synthetic adhesives [7]. ...
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Steam explosion (SE) is one of the competitive technologies successfully introduced in the biorefinery platform capable to disrupt a lignocellulosic raw material to fibrous biomass with a self-bonding property. A huge quantity of agricultural residues like straw and woody shives are still available to be converted to value added products. The SE pretreatment was used in the study to convert raw wheat straw and hemp shives to fibrous biomass for binder-less fibreboard production. The crops were pretreated at SE conditions temperature (℃)/time (min) of 200/1, 200/3, 220/2, 240/1 and 240/3. For the first-time the yield of the residual biomass was estimated and binder-less fibreboards obtained under the certain conditions varying SE temperature, fibre moisture content and size fraction, board density, pressing temperature and time. The results show that it is possible to obtain binder-less fibreboards from the SE crops with the physical-mechanical properties met the requirements for specified mechanical and swelling properties of non-load-bearing boards for use in humid conditions (EN 312 P3). The yield of the crops pre-treated at optimal SE conditions (220/2-240/1) was in the range of 87.4-82.0 % and 89.1-85.2 % for wheat straw and hemp shives, respectively.
... This cuts the production cost and avoids the use of harmful chemicals utilised as adhesives (Shen 1986). The mechanical and physical properties of binderless boards depend on the divergence of different wood material (Tajuddin et al. 2016). The bonding mechanism of binderless boards, which has been reviewed by others (Pintiaux et al. 2015;Zhang et al. 2015;Tajuddin et al. 2016;Hubbe et al. 2018), mostly involves one or more of the following factors: ...
... The mechanical and physical properties of binderless boards depend on the divergence of different wood material (Tajuddin et al. 2016). The bonding mechanism of binderless boards, which has been reviewed by others (Pintiaux et al. 2015;Zhang et al. 2015;Tajuddin et al. 2016;Hubbe et al. 2018), mostly involves one or more of the following factors: ...
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Most industrially used synthetic wood adhesives release formaldehyde, which is carcinogenic for humans. Adhesiveless bonding of wood can be achieved using heat treatment by either hot-pressing method, suitable mainly for wood particles and fibres or by wood welding. Welding of wood, which relies on the heat generated via friction, can be used for bonding two or more solid wood pieces together. The process can be carried out either by linear or rotational wood welding. This review first considers the manufacturing of binderless wood-based panels by hot-pressing. Then this is followed by an in-depth outlook of wood welding and its application in the wood industry. The effects of varying wood welding parameters, such as applied pressure, vibrational frequency and amplitude, holding pressure, holding time, welding time in linear wood welding, and relative diameter difference between the substrate and the dowel in rotational wood welding to obtain joints with optimal mechanical and physical properties is reviewed and discussed. Wood products made by heat treatment (hot-pressing and wood welding) are environmentally friendly, and the brief curing times needed for their manufacture represent a great advantage compared with the usage of wood adhesives to bind pieces of wood.
... Another alternative is offered by panels manufactured without the application of an adhesive. However, except for the older wet fiberboard forming systems, the current adhesive-free wood bonding systems have not been implemented on a broader scale due to the required application of high pressure and high pressing temperature [24,25]. Natural-origin adhesives are an alternative to such solutions. ...
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In this study, the possibility of using adhesives of natural origin for the manufacture of wood fiber-based lightweight panels was investigated. The boards, of a density ranging from 150 to 250 kg/m3, were glued together using commercial urea–formaldehyde resin (control board), solutions of rye flour and potato starch and two types of starch: oxidized and gelatinized. The density and density profile, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, acoustic properties and thermal conductivity were determined in the produced boards. These studies show that when food components are used as binding agents in the manufacture of lightweight wood fiberboards, the properties obtained can be comparable with those of commercial boards manufactured using synthetic agents.
... Fiberboard and particleboard can be produced from Miscanthus and used as insulation and paneling (Tajuddin et al., 2016). Particleboard from this crop has good qualities when produced by hot pressing and steam processes. ...
... This was the approach employed by Velasquez et al. (2002) and Salvadó et al. (2003). An example of hot-pressing conditions is 180°C and 5.3 MPa for 10 minutes, yielding a board thickness of 5 mm and product density of 1.0 g cm −3 (Tajuddin et al., 2016). In a comparison with other natural fibers, Miscanthus had the largest value of modulus of rup ture at 61 MPa. ...