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Abuse Conditions that Lead to Battery Failure The failure of lithium-ion batteries can be caused by mechanical abuse, electrical abuse, and thermal abuse. The underlying mechanism is the electrochemical abuse, which is regarded as a new category of abuse condition.

Abuse Conditions that Lead to Battery Failure The failure of lithium-ion batteries can be caused by mechanical abuse, electrical abuse, and thermal abuse. The underlying mechanism is the electrochemical abuse, which is regarded as a new category of abuse condition.

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Fire accidents involving electric vehicles can raise questions regarding the safety of lithium-ion batteries. This article aims to answer some common questions of public concern regarding battery safety issues in an easy-to-understand context. The issues addressed include (1) electric vehicle accidents, (2) lithium-ion battery safety, (3) existing...

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... other words, we are reaching the limit of the electrochemical system of lithium-ion batteries. Recent results indicate that a new type of abuse condition, electrochemical abuse, is the underlying mechanism for the emerging causes of battery failure, as shown in Figure 2. Electrochemical abuse refers to conditions in which the electrochemical material is forced to exceed its working limit during usage, and this is regarded as a new category of abuse condition. ...
Context 2
... other words, we are reaching the limit of the electrochemical system of lithium-ion batteries. Recent results indicate that a new type of abuse condition, electrochemical abuse, is the underlying mechanism for the emerging causes of battery failure, as shown in Figure 2. Electrochemical abuse refers to conditions in which the electrochemical material is forced to exceed its working limit during usage, and this is regarded as a new category of abuse condition. ...

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Citations

... However, due to the manufacturing process, materials, use environment, and other LIB problems, fire accidents caused by battery combustion and explosion frequently occur [14][15][16][17]. Reality according to survey results, there are more than 30 safety accidents of LIB ESSs in South Korea during 2017 to 2019 [18]. ...
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Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used in electric vehicles (EV) and energy storage stations (ESS). However, combustion and explosion accidents during the thermal runaway (TR) process limit its further applications. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the uncontrolled TR exothermic reaction for safe battery system design. In this study, different LIBs are tested by lateral heating in a closed experimental chamber filled with nitrogen. Moreover, the relevant thermal characteristic parameters, gas composition, and deflagration limit during the battery TR process are calculated and compared. Results indicate that the TR behavior of NCM batteries is more severe than that of LFP batteries, and the TR reactions becomes more severe with the increase of energy density. Under the inert atmosphere of nitrogen, the primarily generated gases are H2, CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons. The TR gas deflagration limits and characteristic parameter calculations of different cathode materials are refined and summarized, guiding safe battery design and battery selection for power systems.
... a) Action Pruning: The exploration of reinforcement learning is often based on the random selection of actions or sampling of policy distributions. Such actions are potentially dangerous in MPS-EV energy management problems, where excessive charging or discharging of the battery at low or high SOC states can easily reduce the battery life, and overcharging of the battery may even trigger abnormal battery operation [136]. Therefore, filtering or masking some of the control actions of the agent that may lead to dangerous states during training and deployment of reinforcement learning is an intuitive disaster avoidance method, which is often referred to as action pruning or action masking. ...
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The high emission and low energy efficiency caused by internal combustion engines (ICE) have become unacceptable under environmental regulations and the energy crisis. As a promising alternative solution, multi-power source electric vehicles (MPS-EVs) introduce different clean energy systems to improve powertrain efficiency. The energy management strategy (EMS) is a critical technology for MPS-EVs to maximize efficiency, fuel economy, and range. Reinforcement learning (RL) has become an effective methodology for the development of EMS. RL has received continuous attention and research, but there is still a lack of systematic analysis of the design elements of RL-based EMS. To this end, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of the current research on RL-based EMS (RL-EMS) and summarizes the design elements of RL-based EMS. This paper first summarizes the previous applications of RL in EMS from five aspects: algorithm, perception scheme, decision scheme, reward function, and innovative training method. The contribution of advanced algorithms to the training effect is shown, the perception and control schemes in the literature are analyzed in detail, different reward function settings are classified, and innovative training methods with their roles are elaborated. Finally, by comparing the development routes of RL and RL-EMS, this paper identifies the gap between advanced RL solutions and existing RL-EMS. Finally, this paper suggests potential development directions for implementing advanced artificial intelligence (AI) solutions in EMS.
... Electrolytes, as one of the most important components in LIBs, facilitate the movement of lithium ions during charging and discharging the battery [5][6][7]. Nowadays, a liquid electrolyte consisting of 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate and linear carbonate solvents is used as a commercial material in LIBs because of its high ionic conductivity (10 −2 S cm −1 ) and cyclical stability at RT [8][9][10]. However, the flammability, volatilization and leakage of organic solvents at high temperatures and operating voltage also increase the safety concerns for the liquid electrolyte [11][12][13]. ...
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... These challenges are discussed in [39]. There are various new battery chemistries researched, and some of the latest popular batteries are the sodium-ion batteries [40], bio-inspired material for the secondary application of batteries [41], anionic battery [42], rechargeable Zn-air battery [43], potassium ion batteries [44], batteries related to particular applications such as EVs [45,46], non-aqueous, rechargeable aluminum batteries [47,48], and flexible zinc battery [49]. BMS plays a major role in state monitoring, energy management, communication between hardware and software and the protection of batteries from fault. ...
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... The formation of the Li metal on anode surfaces during the Li insertion process into anode materials could result in serious capacity fade [8,9]. In addition, the dendrite growth of Li metal could cause safety problems by short-circuiting cells [10][11][12][13]. Zhang et al. investigated the microstructural changes of layered oxide/graphite cells during a cycling test [14]. ...
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Since flexible devices are being used in various states of charge (SoCs), it is important to investigate SoCs that are durable against external mechanical deformations. In this study, the effects of a mechanical fatigue test under various initial SoCs of batteries were investigated. More specifically, ultrathin pouch-type Li-ion polymer batteries with different initial SoCs were subjected to repeated torsional stress and then galvanostatically cycled 200 times. The cycle performance of the cells after the mechanical test was compared to investigate the effect of the initial SoCs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze the interfacial resistance changes of the anode and cathode in the cycled cells. When the initial SoC was at 70% before mechanical deformation, both electrodes well maintained their initial state during the mechanical fatigue test and the cell capacity was well retained during the cycling test. This indicates that the cells could well endure mechanical fatigue stress when both electrodes had moderate lithiation states. With initial SoCs at 0% and 100%, the batteries subjected to the mechanical test exhibited relatively drastic capacity fading. This indicates that the cells are vulnerable to mechanical fatigue stress when both electrodes have high lithiation states. Furthermore, it is noted that the stress accumulated inside the batteries caused by mechanical fatigue can act as an accelerated degradation factor during cycling.
... In particular, many studies are being conducted to improve the energy density, which is the core of lithium-ion batteries technology [8][9][10][11]. However, the stability problem caused by the battery separator is still an unavoidable problem [12][13][14][15][16]. The battery separator is one of the main factors influencing the safety since it directly contributes to the thermal stability of the overall battery system. ...
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... However, with the large-scale popularization of electric vehicles, electric vehicle safety accidents are becoming more and more frequent [14,15]. Most safety accidents are caused by battery thermal runaway [16,17]. Generally, the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries is caused by abuse conditions, including mechanical abuse, electrical abuse, and thermal abuse [18][19][20]. ...
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... The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is commonly used as the main power source of electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years due to its high specific energy, light weight, long life cycles, low selfdischarge rate, and low memory effect comparing to lead-acid battery and nickel-based battery [1][2][3]. However, the internal temperature of LIB becomes higher when operated on high charge/discharge rate, leading to thermal runaway (TR) which is a rapid and unstoppable increase of temperature in a sort of chain reaction and battery fire explosion [4][5]. ...
... Putting out the LIB fire is not only to suppress the fire from LIB but also require an effort to stop the chemical reactions inside LIB [2]. Water-based extinguishants can both extinguish the fire and cool down the burned surface, but it cannot inhibit LIB chemical reactions which is just prolongs burning process resulting in battery re-ignition. ...
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Lithium-ion battery (LIB) fires are dangerous and usually occur after a failure of battery. We demonstrate submersion of fully charged LIB in synthetic seawater, DI water and tap water, aiming to enlighten the knowledge on LIB fire suppression. The experiments were carried out by submersing full coverage of LIB cells. The voltage reduction was measured, and thermal runaway (TR) was observed throughout the experiment. Then, the sediment in covered liquid were analyzed using XRD and FTLR to characterize products from experiment and organic electrolyte leakage. The results showed that Liquid-Submerged Technique has a possibility to suppresses fire from LIB.
... Since then, to meet such ever-growing energy demand, rechargeable batteries based on either lithium-ion or sodium-ion have been widely probed through both experimental and computational approaches [4][5][6]. In spite of their promise as a new chemistry, Li-ion batteries (LIBs) remain plagued by a number of limitations, most notably their limited specific capacity, affordability concerns, along with safety issues [7][8][9]. On the other hand, Na-ion batteries (SIBs) are inhibited by insufficient capacity as well as by severe volume expansion and electrode breakdown [10,11]. ...
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... 14,24 For large-scale battery applications such as electric vehicles, even a single battery level failure rate is as low as 0.1 ppm, the expected failure rate for electric vehicles can be 1 over 10,000 (100 ppm). 25 A quality control process is necessary to maintain consistency during the manufacturing process of LIBs. ...
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Lithium-ion batteries must undergo a series of quality control tests before being approved for sale. In this study, quality control tests were carried out on two types of lithium-ion pouch batteries, here denoted as type A (with stacked electrode configuration) and type B (with a jelly-roll arrangement) to assess the effectiveness of the tests. Electrochemical tests, which included capacity and impedance measurements, found that both types of batteries met the specifications. However, computed tomography (CT) scan, disassembly, and material characterization revealed quality concerns in battery assembly and material composition. Results showed that, for an A cell, the cathode extended past the anode at the top and bottom of the roll, and a CT scan revealed inhomogeneities in the electrode near the corners. Similarly, analysis of a B cell revealed gaps in the winding structure and cathode material discrepancies. More specifically, the lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) material specified by the battery manufacturer turned out to be lithium cobalt oxide (LCO). These findings indicate that systematic quality control tests are needed to properly identify defects in batteries before they are used in products.