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Abb. 2: Grundrezeptur der analysierten Gläser im Dreieck CaO – K 2 O – Na 2 O; dunkelgraue Dreiecke: Chevronglas Neulautern; offene Dreiecke: Glasstangen Neulautern; offene Dreiecke Spitze: Schmelzreste Neulautern; graue Quadrate: Chevronglas Walkersbach; offene Quadrate +Kreuz: Glasstangen Walkersbach; rote Quadrate: rote Tiegelreste Neulautern.  

Abb. 2: Grundrezeptur der analysierten Gläser im Dreieck CaO – K 2 O – Na 2 O; dunkelgraue Dreiecke: Chevronglas Neulautern; offene Dreiecke: Glasstangen Neulautern; offene Dreiecke Spitze: Schmelzreste Neulautern; graue Quadrate: Chevronglas Walkersbach; offene Quadrate +Kreuz: Glasstangen Walkersbach; rote Quadrate: rote Tiegelreste Neulautern.  

Citations

... Rosette beads are one of the most luxurious and known Venetian beads due to its complex production process. Some authors defend that the rosette canes made to decorate glassware and to make beads were produced in the same glasshouses, with the same technique and the same raw materials (Barovier, 2005;Gradmann et al., 2013). ...
... In Neulautern the glass is of soda-lime silica type, compatible with the Venetian Vitrum blanchum; in Walkersbach they used a mixed alkali glass type. As mentioned early, rosetta was also one of the most exclusive and wanted glass bead pattern having a huge importance, from 15th century owners, in European expansions (Dubin, 2009;Gradmann et al., 2013). For this reason, the work of Gradmann and co-authors (2013) was gathered to this review: Fig. 12. Summary of the colours that were found in the body glass of archaeological fragments with splashing decoration. ...
... These crystals were identified by Raman microscopy in eight, out of ten, white glass layers found in Santa Clara-a-Velha Monastery (Lima et al., 2012) due to the presence of the characteristic peaks at 633 and 775 cm − 1 and, frequently, a smaller peak at 474 cm − 1 . Tin and lead oxides were also detected in German rosette beads [3.9 wt% > SnO 2 > 9.7 wt% and 9.4 wt% > PbO > 18.1 wt%] (Gradmann et al., 2013) and in splashed fragment from Santa Maria da Victória (Teixiera, 2014) which can indicate that these oxides were intentionally added to the batch glass. Beyond cassiterite, the calcium antimonate (a less common Venetian opacifier) in its Ca 2 Sb 2 O 7 form was also identified by Raman microscopy in two white glass from Santa Clara-a-Velha Monastery (Lima et al., 2012) due to the presence of the characteristic peaks at 480 and 633 cm − 1 . ...
Article
This paper provides an overview of an important glass decorative technique of the Renaissance: the pick-up decoration, including millefiori and splashed technique. Different subjects of investigation are linked: I) history and nomenclature, II) production technique, III) a survey of literature on archaeological findings, and IV) chemical composition. The results of an exhaustive survey on available data concerning the archaeological contexts where glass fragments decorated with this technique were found are presented, in order to establish the possibility of the use of decorative patterns as an indicator of provenance. This work also proposes a uniformed nomenclature to be applied to pick-up techniques. Comparing the artefacts that were found in archaeological contexts with the objects displayed in museums one can note that the first ones do not follow the same trend than the last, either in forms or in colours’ selection. So far, Portugal is the country with more studied archaeological contexts where glass fragments decorated with this technique were uncovered and different and unique patterns for murrine were identified. This work brings new and exciting insights about the production and trading of glass with pick-up decoration in Europe during the Renaissance period.
... Therefore, the integration of additional analytical tools for structural characterization like µ-Raman spectroscopy and µ-XRF for chemical information into such a µ-XRD 2 -device allows a high locally resolved, fast, nondestructive and comprehensive structural and chemical characterization of archeological artefacts at one glance. Not only crystalline components but also amorphous components like glasses can now be analyzed as well as organic compounds thus opening a broad spectrum of possible samples from ceramics to rocks, metals, glasses, paintings, ... (3,4,5) . ...
... Here a 50µm-polycapillary optic (2) was used to identify the crystalline content of the thin glass layer in a mediveal chevron bead from the Glasswork Neulautern in the swabianfrankonian forest (3) . Also in this example the advantage of the combination of both, a large 2-dimensional detector image with the integrated diffraction pattern, is obvious. ...
... More examples demonstrating the potential of such a coupling of methods will be shown in the talk. Fig. 3 Highly local resolved µ-XRD 2 measurement using a 50µmpolycapillary X-ray optic of a white coloured glass layer in a mediveal chevron bead (3) . The fine crystalline colouring agent Cassiterite is clearly visible by its Debye rings and the glassy matrix by the glass bump around 35°2θ (3) . ...