AIDA total score, Discontinuity and Incoherence scale as well as their subscale scores among gender-referred and adolescent psychiatric outpatient samples of Finnish adolescents [mean (sd)].

AIDA total score, Discontinuity and Incoherence scale as well as their subscale scores among gender-referred and adolescent psychiatric outpatient samples of Finnish adolescents [mean (sd)].

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Adolescence is an important period for identity formation and identity consolidation is one of the main developmental tasks. Gender identity is an essential aspect of identity but so far little is known about its development. Neither has the identity development of adolescents with features of gender dysphoria (GD) been extensively studied so far....

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... Lambda = 0.631, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.37]. The genderreferred adolescents scored lower, indicating more favorable identity development, than the adolescent psychiatric outpatients on all AIDA scores ( Table 3). Due to the very small number of males in the outpatient sample, this analysis could not be stratified by sex, but post-hoc analysis among only adolescents with female sex confirmed the systematic differences between the groups, all statistically significant at level p < 0.001. ...

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... There are no large-scale longitudinal studies indicating gender identity trajectories for autistic YP throughout development, although of 22 autistic YP meeting criteria for Gender Dysphoria at the beginning of one longitudinal study, two identified as cisgender after 22 months (Strang, Powers, et al., 2018). Identity development is conceptualised as a task of adolescence, although there is limited evidence about gender identity developmental trajectories, and one recent study suggests that YP with features of gender dysphoria do not have impaired identity development (Karvonen, Goth, Eloranta, & Kaltiala, 2022). Nonetheless, ideas about developmental trajectories of identity development may influence differences in opinion between those supporting adults compared to YP, with more concerns from YP clinicians and parents that YP may have different identities by adulthood. ...
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Background: Autistic people are overrepresented in gender clinic settings, but limited evidence is available to guide clinical decision making for this patient group. We aimed to generate a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenology of gender dysphoria in autistic people. Methods: We conducted a multi-perspectival interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), from five different perspectives; autistic young people and adults with experience of gender dysphoria, parents of young people, and clinicians working with autistic people with gender dysphoria in both adult and young person settings (n = 68). Results: IPA analysis resulted in two themes, 'discovering gender identity' and 'the complexities of moving towards gender comfort'. Participants agreed that there was often an interaction between gender dysphoria and features of autism such as sensory sensitivities. There was relative consensus across groups about the need for autism adaptations to be made in gender clinics. Autistic adults were more likely to see autism as an important identity than young people, but both groups were clear that autism did not impair their understanding of gender. In contrast, some parents and clinicians working with young people expressed concern that autism did impact self-understanding. Discussion: While the groups tended to agree on the ways in which particular features of autism can compound gender dysphoria, there were a range of perspectives on the ways in which autism impacted on self-knowledge. Conclusion: Recommendations for adaptations when working with autistic people with gender dysphoria are presented.