Figure 6 - uploaded by Jacqueline Stavros
Content may be subject to copyright.
1. AI 5-D Cycle 

1. AI 5-D Cycle 

Source publication
Chapter
Full-text available
A ppreciative Inquiry (AI) is a theory and practice of inquiry-and-change that shifts the perspective of organization development (OD) methods by suggesting that the very act of asking generative questions has profound impact in organizational systems. Inquiry and change are not separate moments. Our questions focus our attention on what is " there...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
One of the recognized means of protecting employees from injuries is through acci­ dent prevention, and one of the key elements of accident prevention is effective incident root cause investigation (RCI). Most root cause analysis (RCA) models focus on identifying flaws, errors, and mistakes, often pointing the finger of culpability at workers. Empl...

Citations

... The following questions were adapted for team discussions on thriving from five classic appreciative inquiry questions (Stavros et al., 2016): ...
Article
Chronic stress and burnout affect many professionals from physicians to lawyers to educators; one group that is also impacted but underexplored is accountants. These professionals, and particularly auditors, experience unique challenges, such as lengthy busy seasons, periodic surprise inspections, disconnect from the beneficiary of their service, and a lack of meaning. This paper reviews the literature on antecedents of burnout in public accountants and efficacious interventions from positive psychology that may be useful with this population. Literature reveals that identifying and using one’s character strengths, connecting with one’s purpose and the meaning of their work, and cultivating skills to adapt to stress (i.e. resilience skills) are effective ways to increase protective factors associated with resilience. Synthesizing this literature, this paper proposes these three pathways to resilience be combined into a “C.P.A. Plan.” The paper proposes sixteen practical interventions that those interested in increasing their colleagues’ (and their) well-being, or “well-being ambassadors”, can use to increase resilience. One contribution of this paper is adding to the lack of literature on auditor resilience. A broader contribution is calling for a mindset shift in public accounting from habitually identifying what's wrong to leveraging what's strong. Finally, it provides a new value proposition for firms wishing to attract and retain talent.
... Appreciative Inquiry is a model and protocol for large group interventions to stimulate transformational change in organizations. Interventions focus on creating a safe space for people to express and explore their values, shared meanings, and accomplishments by focusing on positive, asset-based conversations(Cooperrider & Whitney, 2001;Stavros et al., 2015;Wall et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis presents a new model for developing and implementing strategy in open networks. Most of the strategy literature, indeed virtually all of it, addresses the challenge of one organization attempting to survive and thrive in the world. Over the last 30 years, since the 1990s, strategic management has had to make two big adjustments. First, the environments in which we operate have become far more turbulent. Second, our organizations have become more porous, more networked, and less hierarchical. The enormous impact of the Internet has accelerated both trends.
... Such learning can also stimulate and sustain diversity, social inclusion and citizenship (Elliot, 2013). Moreover, when the positive design and methodology of AI (Cooperrider et al., 2008;Stavros, Godwin & Cooperrider, 2016) is applied to guide the scholarship of engagement, PALAR is placed in a positive context. The application of PALAR calls participants to continuously and critically reflect on the quality of their practice for enabling holistic (affective, social and cognitive) and emergent professional learning and development (Zuber-Skerritt et al., 2015) in a CHEP. ...
... As a whole system change strategy (Stavros et al., 2016), AI is about the discovery of the positive core in people, their organisations and the strengths-filled, innovative, opportunity-rich world around them. AI "is not so much a shift in the methods and models of organisational change, but a fundamental shift in the overall perspective taken throughout the entire change process to see the wholeness of the human system and to inquire into that system's strengths, possibilities, and successes." ...
Chapter
In order to understand the relationship between social innovation and the reimagining of the knowledge economy necessary to reorient higher education most fully towards the public good, we must draw from the experiences of those working on the front lines of change. This collection represents diverse voices and disciplines, drawing together the critical reflections of academics, students and community partners from across South Africa. The book seeks to bring together theoretical and practical lessons about how research methods can be used in socially innovative ways to challenge the ‘apartheids’ of knowledge in higher education and to promote the democratisation of the knowledge economy.
... Grounded examples from the organisation's positive past are first identified and subsequently used to portray images of the organisation's positive future (Cooperrider and Whitney 1999;Sandars and Murdoch-Eaton 2017). The appreciative inquiry approach entails an exploration of four interconnected phases that together can be used to initiate and guide organisational change: Discovery (learn about 'the best of what is'), Dream (envision possibilities for the desired future), Design (identify actions to reach the desired future), and Destiny (determine how to support and sustain future development actions) (Stavros et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of quality culture has gained increased attention in health professions education , drawing on insights that quality management processes and positive work-related attitudes of staff in synergy lead to continuous improvement. However, the directions that guide institutions from quality culture theory to educational practice have been missing so far. A prospective qualitative case study of three health professions education programmes was conducted to explore how a quality culture can be enhanced according to the experiences and perspectives of educational leaders. The data collection was structured by an appreciative inquiry approach, supported with vignette-based interviews. A total of 25 participants (a selection of course coordinators, bachelor coordinators and directors of education) reflected on quality culture themes to learn about the best of what is (Discover), envision positive future developments (Dream), identify actions to reach the desired future (Design), and determine how to support and sustain improvement actions (Destiny) within their own educational setting. The results are presented as themes subsumed under these four phases. The experiences and perspectives of educational leaders reveal that peer learning in teams and communities, attention to professional development, and embedding support and innovation networks, are at the heart of quality culture enhancement. An emphasis on human resources, (inter)relations and contextual awareness of leaders stood out as quality culture catalysts. Educational leaders are therefore encouraged to especially fuel their networking, communication, coalition building, and reflection competencies.
... Studying human systems-observing, asking questions-causes them to change. Inquiry and change happen simultaneously (Stavros, Godwin, & Cooperrider, 2015). In this same way, positive questions create positive change. ...
Article
    Employers set out to create positive cultures where employees can thrive. Despite this effort, engagement surveys find more than 60% of employees are just going through the motions at work. Disengagement affects such key workplace factors as productivity, customer satisfaction, absenteeism, safety, and turnover. What will it take to shift employees from being disengaged to bringing their best self to work? The field of positive psychology may offer promising possibilities. Mounting evidence on the use of appreciative inquiry, strengths-based development, and self-determination theory in the workplace illuminate pathways to initiate and sustain greater well-being and productivity. Managers and others who coach employees are a critical to creating and sustaining this enhanced work environment. This paper examines how the findings of current positive psychology research points to potential ways coaching conversations can foster higher levels of motivation, cultivate a sense that one’s work is valued, and strengthen a commitment to goals. This literature review identified a number of evidence-based practices managers may use when coaching to constructively develop individuals in ways that are aligned with personal values and motivation. A discussion of future directions for this work is proposed through a positive psychology coaching intervention aimed at increasing employee engagement.
    ... organizational life and reframe that bias as positive possibilities that often go under-noticed in common human systems (Dey & Thatchenkery, 2017;Sardana & Thatchenkery, 2017;Stavros, Godwin, & Cooperrider, 2016). Appreciative Inquiry asserts that asking positive questions in organizational change processes leads to organizational stakeholders creating positive images of their future, and in turn, these positive images lead to positive, long-lasting actions (Cooperrider & Whitney, 1999). ...
    Article
    While Appreciative Intelligence® – the capacity to reframe and see the potential in any situation and act on it with success – has generated a robust body of literature, scholarly advancement of this construct has been hampered by the lack of a validated instrument. Over two studies, we develop the Appreciative Intelligence® Scale (AIS), a 26-item survey organized into six factors. Study 1 explores the factor structure of the AIS using EFA. Study 2 uses hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) and hierarchical regression analyses to provide evidence for its convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity. The results support the priori six-factor structure of the AIS, indicating it is a valid measure of Appreciative Intelligence® useful in predicting proactive behavior at the individual, team, and organizational levels.
    ... Purposefully convening these groups could lay the groundwork for future meetings where more difficult topics are discussed. In addition, this could create a pathway to an eventual Appreciative Inquiry summit (Stavros, Godwin, & Cooperrider, 2016). Some other ideas of ways to increase social capital beyond the interventions in this paper are in Appendix G. ...
    Article
    Growing loneliness and incivility are on the rise across America. In Midland, Michigan, civic leaders desire to further infuse positive psychology into their community by enhancing positive citizenship through civil discourse and connection. They have identified this need after instances in their community where citizens have engaged in discourteous and unproductive speech. Informed by current psychological research, our team proposes improving civil discourse and increasing positive connections in Midland through holding community discussions using a Communication and Connections Discussion Guide. Community leaders will be trained as facilitators to lead discussions using the Discussion Guide with various groups of any type and size in Midland. We believe the citizens of Midland can and will learn to constructively engage with their fellow citizens for enhanced communities and a better future. We have every confidence that Midland leaders will persist until every sector in the community has been illuminated with the message of hope, warm communication, and strong connections offered by these principles and practices of well-being.
    ... The first area of convergence is to re-shape the way an organization looks at problems (Cameron & Spreitzer, 2012). Appreciative inquiry is the method of asking generative questions to solve organizational challenges (Stavros, Godwin, & Cooperrider, 2016). Methods like appreciative inquiry help reframe challenges from a deficit-based approach to a positive approach by using the 5D model. ...
    ... By sharing One Good Thing, we are reframing our meetings to start on a positive note as opposed to a deficit-based approach. This is an example of appreciative inquiry which is the method of asking generative questions to solve organizational challenges (Stavros, Godwin, & Cooperrider, 2016). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The Travis Manion Foundation is a 501c(3) foundation dedicated to serving military veterans and their families, as well as fostering character in our nation’s youth. Travis Manion Foundation (TMF) promotes positive psychology by asking employees to take various introductory courses and take the VIA Signature Strengths test. While staff take the VIA Signature Strengths test, they do not learn how to apply their signature strengths. As such, we recommend a workshop that uses Character Strengths Interventions with the aim of increasing meaningful experiences at work. By increasing meaning at work, we predict TMF employees will experience more well-being and engagement at work.
    ... In view of the literature cited above, RC could be explained as the value generated by relationships not only with customers but also with suppliers, shareholders and other stakeholders. The process of AI and its underlying principles help in understanding various organizational phenomena especially relational capital (Stavros, Godwin, & Cooperrider, 2015). The relationship between RC and AI could easily be assessed by focusing on the following statement of Cooperrider, Whitney and Stravos (2003); "The use of AI builds on the positive core of the organization and assists both leaders and rank and file employees in co-creating shared organizational values and opportunities for relational improvement" (p. ...
    ... Boyd & Bright, 2007;Miller et al., 2005;Miller et al., 2002;Stavros et al., 2015 etc). Stavros et al. (2015), for example, explain that AI is a co-operative and co-evolutionary search for the best in people, their organizations, and the environment in which they operate. So, by carrying forward this argument, it could be inferred that in AI the main focus is on 'what is working well'. ...
    ... In the current study, as identified by the participants, it is their relational capital which is working well and have enabled them to compete in the market. Therefore, based on the recommendations of researchers such as Bushnell et al (2002) and Stavros et al. (2015) as well as the results of our own interventions for affirmative topic selection, this study aims at accentuating RC with AI intervention. ...
    Article
    Relational Capital (RC) is referred as intangible asset that an organization acquires while sustaining effective relations with suppliers, customers or business partners. Prior research suggests that enhanced RC could significantly improve organizational performance. Therefore, for accentuating the role of RC in a manufacturing concern, an organizational development intervention called Appreciative Inquiry (AI) was conducted in this study. The primary objective of this action-oriented study was to develop relational capital, which was identified by respondents as one of their strengths, through the application of appreciative inquiry. The study was carried out by involving 26 participants from procurement and sales departments in 4-D cycle of AI. Post-intervention survey revealed improved RC and more friendly exchanges among stakeholders. Findings of this study would be useful to inform practitioners about the effectiveness of AI and would set new directions for appreciating the strengths of employees and other stakeholders.
    ... Appreciative inquiry is a research methodology that provides a framework for identifying effective practices and developing innovations in collaboration with stakeholders. It consists of a cycle of phases referred to as the '5 Ds' (Stavros et al 2015): Appreciative inquiry identifies core strengths in practice -such as the skills of an individual nurse or the commitment of the workforce as a whole -and uses these strengths to reshape practice by co-creating methods of working that can be contextualised to specific practices and environments. For example, in nursing homes, appreciative inquiry could lead to improved methods of working -in this case, through the implementation of DHT -to support compassionate care or improve the quality of care (Dewar andNolan 2013, Curtis et al 2017). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Digital health technology (DHT), which includes digital algorithms and digital records, is transforming the way healthcare services are delivered. In nursing homes, DHT can enhance communication and improve the identification of residents' health risks, but its implementation has so far been inconsistent. Therefore, the LAUNCH (Leadership of digitAl health technology Uptake among Nurses in Care Homes) study was undertaken to identify factors that may affect DHT implementation in these settings. Aim: To identify the factors that enable nurses to implement DHT in nursing homes and to co-design a nurse-led stepped process supporting the effective implementation of DHT innovations in nursing homes. Method: An appreciative inquiry methodology was used. A total of 20 interviews with managers, residents and relatives, and nurses from five nursing homes in England were undertaken. The interview questions focused on their understanding of DHT, their experiences of it, and its potential benefits in nursing homes. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed and the emerging themes were used to inform two co-creation workshops, during which participating nurses discussed a practical, evidence-based process for DHT implementation in nursing homes. Findings: Three broad themes emerged from the interviews: improving communication; engaging with DHT and retaining humanised care; and introducing DHT and protecting data security. The co-creation workshop participants formulated the LAUNCH process model, a nurse-led, stepped approach supporting DHT implementation in nursing homes. Conclusion: The LAUNCH study identified factors enabling staff in nursing homes to introduce and sustain DHT innovations. Participating nurses co-created a three-step process for the effective implementation of DHT innovations in nursing homes, which have the potential to release staff time, improve quality of care, and have positive effects on staff recruitment and retention.