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A view of the baseline aircraft ECO-150-16 propulsor section and the isometric view of the fan subassembly. Adapted images provided with the kind permission of Empirical Systems Aerospace, LLC [98]. 

A view of the baseline aircraft ECO-150-16 propulsor section and the isometric view of the fan subassembly. Adapted images provided with the kind permission of Empirical Systems Aerospace, LLC [98]. 

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Article
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Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of...

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Citations

... Several literature reviews summing up challenges, opportunities, and benefits of such technologies have been already published. If readers are interested in any of these technologies, we recommend searching in the following sources: for drag reduction (including viscous drag, wave drag and induced drag) [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]; for weight savings (including advanced composites and alloys) [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]; for sustainable fuels (including biofuels and liquid-hydrogen) [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]; for next-generation propulsion technologies such as open rotors [45][46][47][48], distributed propulsion [49][50][51][52][53][54], Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) [55][56][57][58], and electric/hybrid/turboelectric aircraft [59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66]. ...
... There are appropriate reviews summarizing the most important developments in terms of aircraft propulsion technology. For example, Gohardani et al. [50,51] reported complete literature revisions of design challenges of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application on next-generation commercial aircraft. Conventional and alternative configurations were extensively reviewed, highlighting the potential application of distributed propulsion using podded and BLI technologies on BWB and HWB configurations. ...
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... The third method of thrust distribution is through the use of multiple individual engines and/or fans distributed across the wingspan of the aircraft. The precise number of propulsors required for a configuration to be classified as DP is not clearly defined [3], however it is generally accepted that 3 or more engines are sufficient [19], provided that the propulsion system is integrated with the airframe since synergistic design is a key objective of DP. There is no upper limit to the number of individual propulsors, and configurations of up to 100 have been studied [20]. ...
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Thesis
Design and integration of advanced propulsion systems play a critical role in the development of environmentally sustainable aircraft. Even though these advanced technologies, such as boundary layer ingestion, offer significant aeropropulsive benefits, their design is challenging due to the tightly coupled nature of these systems, as well as the lack of previous experience with their design. Aeropropulsive design optimization offers a promising solution to these design problems where coupled models are used to maximize the aeropropulsive benefits of these propulsion systems. Despite its advantages, the use of aeropropulsive design optimization has been limited due to the shortcomings in robustness of existing design optimization approaches. In this work, we address several key shortcomings in existing design optimization approaches and introduce robust methods for aeropropulsive design optimization. Some of these developments target the shortcomings in CFD-based design optimization such as geometric parameterization and CFD solver robustness, while the rest of the developments focus on coupled aeropropulsive model development and optimization. Using all of these developments, we performed a series of coupled aeropropulsive design optimizations to quantify the benefit of boundary layer ingestion to the STARC-ABL concept. This first of a kind design study was enabled by the robustness of the overall aeropropulsive design framework we developed herein and will be useful for guiding future design studies of boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems. The robust methods presented in this thesis are crucial for future CFD-based design optimization problems, including aeropropulsive design optimization. These advancements bring us closer to using the ever-growing power of scientific computing in the process of designing future environmentally sustainable aircraft.
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