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4 A view from inside part of reservoir hydropower plant (from HowStuffWorks 2001)  

4 A view from inside part of reservoir hydropower plant (from HowStuffWorks 2001)  

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Thermal pollution is the change in the water temperatures of lakes, rivers, and oceans caused by man-made structures. These temperature changes may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems especially by contributing to the decline of wildlife populations and habitat destruction. Any practice that affects the equilibrium of an aquatic environment may alt...

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“Diversity and toxicological evaluation of fish as contamination indicators for mercury, lead, cadmium, copper and arsenic in Tucumán province, Argentina”. The deterioration of water quality in natural environments is inherent to any human activity. Mining activities impact on water bodies, causing the accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic biota....

Citations

... Vibrations related to electrical faults are due to imbalanced electromagnetic forces on the rotor and stator. This imbalance is due to air gap eccentricity, broken rotor bars, unequal distribution of air gap flux, inter-turn faults, shorted or open stator and rotor windings, unequal phase currents, magnetostriction and oscillations of torque [16], [17]. ...
... The second possibility is the non-hazardous condition, where the data is sent to the computer to be analyzed through the MATLAB program, through which the system is monitored by drawing the temperature and vibration signal using GUI, and based on it there are two possibilities: i) The first case is the natural situation, where the system will measure the vibration and temperature again; and ii) The second case is a non-max danger situation, where the signal will be sent to trigger the alarm and give control to the observer who can close and open the gates of the turbines, and then re-process to measure the vibration and temperature again and monitor changes. Minimum risk dangerous: i) The dangerous vibration state of turbine is 5 mm/s [17]; and ii) The dangerous temperature state of turbine 80 C o [17]. The alarm devices are placed in the control unit of the generation unit in the machinery room as well as the central control room. ...
... The second possibility is the non-hazardous condition, where the data is sent to the computer to be analyzed through the MATLAB program, through which the system is monitored by drawing the temperature and vibration signal using GUI, and based on it there are two possibilities: i) The first case is the natural situation, where the system will measure the vibration and temperature again; and ii) The second case is a non-max danger situation, where the signal will be sent to trigger the alarm and give control to the observer who can close and open the gates of the turbines, and then re-process to measure the vibration and temperature again and monitor changes. Minimum risk dangerous: i) The dangerous vibration state of turbine is 5 mm/s [17]; and ii) The dangerous temperature state of turbine 80 C o [17]. The alarm devices are placed in the control unit of the generation unit in the machinery room as well as the central control room. ...
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The core of a typical hydroelectric power plant is the turbine. Vibration and overheating in a turbine occur when water flows through it, and with increased vibration and high temperature, it will cause the turbine blade to break. In this study, the control and monitoring system is designed to predict and avoid any error before it occurs. This process is achieved by measuring vibration and temperature using sensors and sending signals through the Arduino to the graphical user interfaces (GUI), the system compares the signals taken from the sensors with the permissible limits, and when the permissible limits are exceeded, the processor takes appropriate measures to open and close the turbine gates, where the data is displayed in matrix laboratory graphical user interfaces (MATLAB’s GUI) screen. In this way, monitoring is done, and the appropriate action are taken to avoid mistakes.
... The source of thermal pollution is frequently found in the activity of power plants. The negative effect is then shown on soil erosion or on fish that exhibit thermal shock, metabolism alterations, and reproductive dysfunction [30,31]. Another water-related contaminant causing physical pollution is foaming. ...
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Natural processes along with increased industrial production and the irresponsible behavior of mankind have resulted in environmental pollution. Environmental pollutants can be categorized based on their characteristics and appearance into the following groups: physical, biological, and chemical. Every single one of them represents a serious threat to the male reproductive tract despite the different modes of action. Male gonads and gametes are especially vulnerable to the effect of exogenous factors; therefore, they are considered a reliable indicator of environmental pollution. The impact of xenobiotics or radiation leads to an irreversible impairment of fertility displayed by histological changes, modulated androgen production, or compromised spermatozoa (or germ cells) quality. The present article reviews the exogenous threats, male reproductive system, the mode of action, and overall impact on the reproductive health of humans and animals.
... The applied set of markers has allowed to differentiate the particularity and severity of this impact. Whereas the HPPs per se do not cause the chemical pollution, the disturbing of the water flow (water abstraction/flow depletion) and correspondent changes in oxygen demand, accumulation of pollution and thermal changes (Anderson et al. 2015;Bobat 2015) could be the indirect reasons for their impact on the aquatic life. Expectedly, the impact can be different between the small HPP equipped with the reservoir and runof-the river micro HPPs (Opperman 2018). ...
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The impact of the hydropower plants (HPPs) on the aquatic life is expected, but the biochemical markers of ecotoxicity have not been investigated in relation to HPP proximity. The aim of this study was to compare the responses of mollusk Unio tumidus from the small HPP (reservoir (Ku) and downstream of the dam (Kd)) and micro HPP (upstream (Zu) and downstream of the dam (Zd)). In total, 11 indexes (n) from digestive gland, hemocytes (lysosomal integrity), and gonads (alkali-labile phosphates, ALP) were analyzed. The mollusks from the reservoir demonstrate the typical signs of toxic impact: cholinesterase and glutathione depletion, the highest glutathione S-transferase activity, and ratio of extralysosomal cathepsin D compare to all other groups. The specimens from the micro HPP have the highest levels of glutathione (Zd) and lipid peroxidation (Zu) and lesser Cu/Zn-SOD activity (Zu) than other groups. These indications of stressful conditions may derive from the regular oscillations in the water flow regimes at the micro HPP. For both HPPs, the responses of upstream and downstream groups are distinct. The calculated IBR/n (4.17, 3.85, 3.12, and 0.26 for Ku, Kd, Zu, and Zd correspondingly) gives a quantitative basis for the evaluation of environmental impact of HPPs. Graphical abstract.
... В таких умовах спостерігаються нетипові для природних річок добові коли-вання рівня води й швидкості течії [6; 7]. Скиди ГЕС впливають на температуру води в нижньому б'єфі, а саме: у випадку глибинного скиду відзначається зниження температури води у весняно-літній і підвищення в осінньо-зимовий період [15]. Крім того, глибинні води водосховища часто бувають збіднені на розчинений кисень [4; 11; 22], мають нижче значення показника pH [23]. ...
... One of the most significant disturbances of the aquatic environment is thermal pollution defined as an excessive raising or lowering of water temperature above or below normal seasonal ranges (Gangstad, 2017). In the narrower sense, thermal pollution refers to excessive warming of water and its main anthropogenic source are hydropower plants using lake or river water for the cooling system (Dodds & Whiles, 2010;Bobat, 2015). Thermally polluted lakes in the region of temperate zone constitute a unique ecosystem, resembling the model of global warming considered in local-scale, in which thermal tolerance of hosts and parasites determines their survival and stability in the ecosystem. ...
Article
Abstract 1. Thermal disturbance of aquatic ecosystems directly and/or indirectly affects interspecific interactions, including parasitism. Both hosts and parasites respond differently to environmental changes, thus, predicting how host–parasite systems behave under the influence of disturbance remains a challenge. The aim of the study was to check how the differences in thermal conditions of lakes affect lifehistory traits of hosts and the level of parasitism, using a Viviparus contectus–digenean trematodes model. 2. Overall, we examined 480 individuals of V. contectus collected from a thermally polluted lake (TPL) and a natural lake (NL). Host features, including body size and fecundity, as well as the prevalence and species richness of digenean trematodes in snail populations were investigated. 3. We found that V. contectus from the TPL were significantly larger, heavier, and females were more fertile than snails collected from the NL. A total of 20.4% of the collected snails were infected with digenean larvae. The species richness of parasites was twice as high in the NL compared to the TPL (six and three species, respectively). A significant difference in the percentage of snails infected with parasites was identified between both types of lakes, with a higher prevalence of V. contectus in the NL (31.3%) compared to the TPL (7.3%). 4. These results indicate that host–parasite systems follow the environmental changes in lakes due to thermal pollution by increasing fertility and metabolism rate of viviparid hosts and by decreasing the prevalence and diversity of digenean trematodes. K E Y W O R D S Caenogastropoda, cercariae, temperature, life-history traits, prevalence
... To eliminate the damage to the sh fauna passing through the machines, new constructive provisions are considered[Boy+18]. To maintain the water quality, innovative devices are implemented to exclude the use of pollutant uid, such as oil, in machine parts in direct contact with water and nally to optimize the water quality[Bob15];[WCW19]. ...
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This thesis is dealing with the optimal control of variable speed hydro-electric plants. The control law is rst tested by the dynamic o-line simulation and then experimentally by a validation on an hybrid physical benchmark based on a real-time Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) scheme. The simulation part concerns the modelling of dierent elements such as the hydraulic turbine, the generator, the power electronics interface. The development of control laws has been performed as well by simulation. In the control design, the Active Disturbance Rejection control is implemented to the rotational speed control loop and the DC-link voltage control loop in order to improve the control robustness and the disturbancerejection ability. Besides, a Generalized Integrator-Extended State Observer (GI-ESO) is proposed for disturbed regimes. Further, a GI-ESO-based Phase-Lock-Loop is then proposed to mitigate uctuated errors appearing in the estimated phase angle under power quality degradation issues. Finally, a forward dynamic programming approach is used to optimally manage the pumping and generating operation time for a hybrid pumped-storage system.
... Both have the same data type (polygon vector data). Suppose that for purposes of estimating hydroelectric energy potentials, we are interested in the water volume of all lakes as well as in the temperature of the water, in order to assess to what extent heating up by the power plant may lead to ecological damage downstream (Bobat 2015). For a skilled analyst, it is intuitively clear that total volume can be obtained by summing up lake volumes, whereas each measured temperature value needs to be weighted by the volume of the respective lake to arrive at a reliable estimate of the water's average temperature. ...
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A most fundamental and far-reaching trait of geographic information is the distinction between extensive and intensive properties. In common understanding, originating in Physics and Chemistry, extensive properties increase with the size of their supporting objects, while intensive properties are independent of this size. It has long been recognized that the decision whether analytical and cartographic measures can be meaningfully applied depends on whether an attribute is considered intensive or extensive. For example, the choice of a map type as well as the application of basic geocomputational operations, such as spatial intersections, aggregations or algebraic operations such as sums and weighted averages, strongly depend on this semantic distinction. So far, however, the distinction can only be drawn in the head of an analyst. We still lack practical ways of automation for composing GIS workflows and to scale up mapping and geocomputation over many data sources, e.g. in statistical portals. In this article, we test a machine-learning model that is capable of labeling extensive/intensive region attributes with high accuracy based on simple characteristics extractable from geodata files. Furthermore, we propose an ontology pattern that captures central applicability constraints for automating data conversion and mapping using Semantic Web technology.
... Researchers have found that temperature elevation can increase in the abundance of temperature-tolerant taxa [11], but it also reduces the abundance of temperaturesensitive species [12,13]. Therefore, change in temperature is an important factor that results in decline of marine population and habitat destruction [14]. ...
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Background: During electricity generation of nuclear power plant, heat energy cannot be completely converted into electrical energy, and a part of it is lost in the form of thermal discharge into the environment. The thermal discharge is harmful to flora and fauna leading to environmental deterioration, biological diversity decline, and even biological extinction. Results: The present study investigated the influence of thermal discharge from a nuclear power plant on the growth and development of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas which is widely used as bio indicator to monitor environmental changes. The growth of soft part and the gonad development of oysters were inhibited due to thermal discharge. During winter season, temperature elevation caused by thermal discharge promoted the growth of oyster shells. During summer season, the growth rate of oysters in thermal discharge area was significantly lower than that of the natural sea area. Conclusions: The results of this study provided a better understanding of assessing the impact of thermal discharge on the marine ecological environment and mariculture industry. It also provided a scientific basis for defining a safe zone for aquaculture in the vicinity of nuclear power plants.
... Water temperature ranged from 26.8 ± 0.7 ∘ C to 29.0 ± 1.4 ∘ C, where it decreased significantly ( ≤ 0.05) with distance from the dam. Changes in water temperature of the downstream river of a hydropower plant occurred when warmer or colder water of a reservoir was being released into its downstream river [31,32]. Bobat [31] stated that the downstream water of dams and hydropower plants was generally warmer than upstream water because of the passing of water from pipelines, penstock, turbine, and cooling system into the downstream river. ...
... Changes in water temperature of the downstream river of a hydropower plant occurred when warmer or colder water of a reservoir was being released into its downstream river [31,32]. Bobat [31] stated that the downstream water of dams and hydropower plants was generally warmer than upstream water because of the passing of water from pipelines, penstock, turbine, and cooling system into the downstream river. However, Ling et al. [16] showed that the water temperature of river located at outflow of the Batang Ai reservoir was colder than the reservoir water. ...
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The downstream river of the tropical Batang Ai Dam is experiencing diurnal flow fluctuation due to power generation operation. Three samplings were conducted to collect the water quality and fish assemblage data and one sampling was conducted to study the hydrological characteristics of the downstream river. The results show that the downstream river is extremely shallow and moves slowly when the power generation is halted and no water is discharged from the powerhouse. Significant correlations between river flow and pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) indicated that those parameters were influenced by the water discharge regulation. Fish abundance was low in upstream segment but it gradually increased as distance from the dam increased and was significantly correlated with DO. Fish diversity in the downstream river was influenced by the river depth and chlorophyll a concentration. The most abundant fish species, Cyclocheilichthys apogon , exhibited a negative allometric growth pattern, while Hampala macrolepidota and Hemibagrus planiceps exhibited an isometric growth pattern. Fulton’s condition factor ( K ) values for 89.4% of H. planiceps were ≤1, indicating poor to extremely poor conditions.
... The reservoir water temperature is often colder than the original stream or river. On the contrary, downstream of dams and Hydropower Plants (HPPs) has generally warm water than upstream because of passing of water from pipelines, penstock, turbine and cooling system (Bobat, 2015). Despite the change in water temperature emerging from construction and operation of HPPs not as high as that in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, it is too important to affect lifecycle and survival of aquatic organisms. ...