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A typical body-powered upper limb prosthesis.

A typical body-powered upper limb prosthesis.

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This chapter shall provide a brief introduction to the prostheses and their development in the current advance technological era. The prosthesis design, control, and architecture completely changed with the change in the amputation level. The transradial amputee stump design, electronics, battery, and circuit placement change significantly with the...

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... types of prostheses consist of a tendon or a cable that is attached with the person's body and by pulling that cable, the body-powered prosthesis performs the desired operation [10]. A typical body-powered upper limb prosthesis consists of socket, wrist, control cable, harness, and terminal device as shown in Figure 5 [11]. The socket is worn on the residual limb, while the harness is worn on the opposite shoulder. ...

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... Levels of upper limb amputation[3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prosthetic arms are designed to assist amputated individuals in the performance of the activities of daily life. Brain machine interfaces are currently employed to enhance the accuracy as well as number of control commands for upper limb prostheses. However, the motion prediction for prosthetic arms and the rehabilitation of amputees suffering from transhumeral amputations is limited. In this paper, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based approach for the recognition of human intention for six upper limb motions is proposed. The data were extracted from the study of fifteen healthy subjects and three transhumeral amputees for elbow extension, elbow flexion, wrist pronation, wrist supination, hand open, and hand close. The fNIRS signals were acquired from the motor cortex region of the brain by the commercial NIRSport device. The acquired data samples were filtered using finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Furthermore, signal mean, signal peak and minimum values were computed as feature set. An artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to these data samples. The results show the likelihood of classifying the six arm actions with an accuracy of 78%. The attained results have not yet been reported in any identical study. These achieved fNIRS results for intention detection are promising and suggest that they can be applied for the real-time control of the transhumeral prosthesis.
Article
Extrinsically powered prosthetic hands offer the potential to replicate the capabilities of a human hand and thus enable an upper limb amputee to complete activities of daily living. Over the past 20 years however, amputees have consistently indicated that several user needs have not been met. Many of these user needs are related to the hardware of the prosthetic hand, and in particular, its actuators and transmissions. These needs include reduced weight and improved dexterity, hand speed, hand strength, and functionality. To understand why these user needs have not been adequately addressed, we first seek to investigate the state of the art in extrinsically powered prosthetic hands through a comprehensive review of the research, commercial, and open-source literature. This review focuses specifically on actuation of the prosthetic hands because actuation is central to addressing the above user needs. This review, based on actuation strategies, enables a characterization and exploration of the actuation design space. We also compare the performance of the reviewed prosthetic hands with both the human hand and ideal recommendations for prosthetic hands to conclude that existing prosthetic hands do not adequately address user needs. This systematic characterization of the actuation design space helps identify that improvements to transmission pathways are the most promising avenue of further research and innovation to enable future prosthetic hands that adequately address user needs.