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A ‘‘top-down’’ explanation of ‘‘omics.’’ Genomics is the study of the complete set of hereditary genetic information in an organism. With the advent of microarray technology and next-generation sequencing, numerous applications have arisen from the field of genomics, including pathogen discovery, epidemiologic advances, and a variety of molecular techniques that allow for precise manipulation of microbial genomes. As DNA begets RNA and protein, so do the fields of transcriptomics and proteomics follow logically from genomics. Transcriptomics, which is a subset of the field of genomics and concerns the collection of messenger RNA transcripts expressed within an organism, has emerged as a result of more sophisticated techniques that allow for the highly sensitive determination of low-abundance mutations, transcripts, and SNPs. Proteomics is the next major ‘‘omics’’ field after genomics, and it focuses on the complement of proteins, their modifications, and their interactions within an organism. With the aid of analytical techniques such as 2-DE, MS/MS, and shotgun proteomics, the field of proteomics has found useful application for the identification of biomarkers and mapping of epitopes that may provide targets for antimicrobial drug development. The field of metabolomics is a natural offshoot of proteomics as it uses many of the same MS techniques. A major difference, however, is that whereas genomics and proteomics provide insight into the potential of cellular processes, metabolomics gives an instantaneous snapshot of what is actually happening in a cell. Each one of these ‘‘omics’’ fields generates massive amounts of rich, detailed data that surpass the capabilities of manual data analysis. This therefore necessitates the incorporation of bioinformatics for the development of computer algorithms that are used to analyze and model data. (Color version of figure is available online.) 

A ‘‘top-down’’ explanation of ‘‘omics.’’ Genomics is the study of the complete set of hereditary genetic information in an organism. With the advent of microarray technology and next-generation sequencing, numerous applications have arisen from the field of genomics, including pathogen discovery, epidemiologic advances, and a variety of molecular techniques that allow for precise manipulation of microbial genomes. As DNA begets RNA and protein, so do the fields of transcriptomics and proteomics follow logically from genomics. Transcriptomics, which is a subset of the field of genomics and concerns the collection of messenger RNA transcripts expressed within an organism, has emerged as a result of more sophisticated techniques that allow for the highly sensitive determination of low-abundance mutations, transcripts, and SNPs. Proteomics is the next major ‘‘omics’’ field after genomics, and it focuses on the complement of proteins, their modifications, and their interactions within an organism. With the aid of analytical techniques such as 2-DE, MS/MS, and shotgun proteomics, the field of proteomics has found useful application for the identification of biomarkers and mapping of epitopes that may provide targets for antimicrobial drug development. The field of metabolomics is a natural offshoot of proteomics as it uses many of the same MS techniques. A major difference, however, is that whereas genomics and proteomics provide insight into the potential of cellular processes, metabolomics gives an instantaneous snapshot of what is actually happening in a cell. Each one of these ‘‘omics’’ fields generates massive amounts of rich, detailed data that surpass the capabilities of manual data analysis. This therefore necessitates the incorporation of bioinformatics for the development of computer algorithms that are used to analyze and model data. (Color version of figure is available online.) 

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In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technologic evolution after the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biolog...

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... Metabolomics uses the systematic analysis of the complete set of chemical fingerprints left behind by certain cellular processes to determine key aspects of the function and regulation of those processes. 15 To- gether, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics com- prise the 3 major systems biology approaches at the forefront of translational research (Fig 1). ...
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... Be- cause HCV, which almost invariably leads to a chronic disease with liver failure in approximately 70% of indi- viduals, is treated most effectively during the acute phase of the disease, this study was a significant step to- ward allowing physicians to predict spontaneous clear- ance accurately and to identify a subgroup of patients that will benefit from early treatment. 208 Microarray technology has paved the way for the de- velopment of the field of transcriptomics, which is the large-scale profiling of all RNA transcripts in a cell to characterize gene expression (Fig 1). Transcriptomics has been applied widely to the study of the host response and identification of biomarkers after an infection or treatment. ...

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Chapter
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