| A snapshot of global ocean observations generated by JCOMMOPS (JCOMM, 2018).

| A snapshot of global ocean observations generated by JCOMMOPS (JCOMM, 2018).

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Since OceanObs’09, the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) has evolved from its traditional focus on the ocean’s role in global climate. GOOS now also encompasses operational services and marine ecosystem health, from the open ocean into coastal environments where much of the world’s population resides. This has opened a field of opportunity for n...

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... addition to coordinated regional observing systems such as the GRAs discussed earlier, internationally, the WMO/IOC JCOMM serves as a focal point for coordinating worldwide in situ observations and data management. A snapshot of the worldwide observing system monitored by the JCOMM in situ Observations Programme Support Centre (JCOMMOPS) is shown in Figure 4. ...

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... last access: 31 March 2022), together with Eu-roGOOS, is part of the 13 Global Regional Alliances of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) that aims to develop both sustained ocean monitoring and tailored services to meet regional and national priorities, aligning the global goals of GOOS (https://www.goosocean.org/, last access: 31 March 2022) with the implementation of fit-for-purpose applications to satisfy local requirements (Moltmann et al., 2019). At the European level, MONGOOS plays a key role as one of the five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) of EuroGOOS, helping to bridge the gap between the northern (Europe) and southern (Africa) shores of the Mediterranean Sea. ...
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Due to the semi-enclosed nature of the Mediterranean Sea, natural disasters and anthropogenic activities impose stronger pressures on its coastal ecosystems than in any other sea of the world. With the aim of responding adequately to science priorities and societal challenges, littoral waters must be effectively monitored with high-frequency radar (HFR) systems. This land-based remote sensing technology can provide, in near-real time, fine-resolution maps of the surface circulation over broad coastal areas, along with reliable directional wave and wind information. The main goal of this work is to showcase the current status of the Mediterranean HFR network and the future roadmap for orchestrated actions. Ongoing collaborative efforts and recent progress of this regional alliance are not only described but also connected with other European initiatives and global frameworks, highlighting the advantages of this cost-effective instrument for the multi-parameter monitoring of the sea state. Coordinated endeavors between HFR operators from different multi-disciplinary institutions are mandatory to reach a mature stage at both national and regional levels, striving to do the following: (i) harmonize deployment and maintenance practices; (ii) standardize data, metadata, and quality control procedures; (iii) centralize data management, visualization, and access platforms; and (iv) develop practical applications of societal benefit that can be used for strategic planning and informed decision-making in the Mediterranean marine environment. Such fit-for-purpose applications can serve for search and rescue operations, safe vessel navigation, tracking of marine pollutants, the monitoring of extreme events, the investigation of transport processes, and the connectivity between offshore waters and coastal ecosystems. Finally, future prospects within the Mediterranean framework are discussed along with a wealth of socioeconomic, technical, and scientific challenges to be faced during the implementation of this integrated HFR regional network.
... Information and communication technologies have become increasingly integrated across all sectors of society (Silverstone 2017). These emerging technologies have huge potential for engaging and educating groups about the ocean and in particular, for sharing and developing ocean knowledge; e.g., online resources can further current engagement and education activities (Benway et al. 2019;Moltmann et al. 2019). ...
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Improved public understanding of the ocean and the importance of sustainable ocean use, or ocean literacy, is essential for achieving global commitments to sustainable development by 2030 and beyond. However, growing human populations (particularly in mega-cities), urbanisation and socio-economic disparity threaten opportunities for people to engage and connect directly with ocean environments. Thus, a major challenge in engaging the whole of society in achieving ocean sustainability by 2030 is to develop strategies to improve societal connections to the ocean. The concept of ocean literacy reflects public understanding of the ocean, but is also an indication of connections to, and attitudes and behaviours towards, the ocean. Improving and progressing global ocean literacy has potential to catalyse the behaviour changes necessary for achieving a sustainable future. As part of the Future Seas project (https://futureseas2030.org/), this paper aims to synthesise knowledge and perspectives on ocean literacy from a range of disciplines, including but not exclusive to marine biology, socio-ecology, philosophy, technology, psychology, oceanography and human health. Using examples from the literature, we outline the potential for positive change towards a sustainable future based on knowledge that already exists. We focus on four drivers that can influence and improve ocean literacy and societal connections to the ocean: (1) education, (2) cultural connections, (3) technological developments, and (4) knowledge exchange and science-policy interconnections. We explore how each driver plays a role in improving perceptions of the ocean to engender more widespread societal support for effective ocean management and conservation. In doing so, we develop an ocean literacy toolkit, a practical resource for enhancing ocean connections across a broad range of contexts worldwide.
... Integration has been a general concern in ocean science for at least 20 years and particularly since OceanObs'09 (Fischer et al., 2010), since it is essential for the creation of valueadded products combining multiple data streams. Moreover, it is crucial for the ocean observing system to fulfill the observational requirements of a wide range of users (e.g., Lindstrom et al., 2012;Moltmann et al., 2019). It is also now widely recognized that enhanced integration is needed to deliver more complete, consistent and sustained observations globally and better address the new and emerging scientific Grand Challenges [e.g., National Research Council, 2011;International Oceanographic Commission (IOC)-UNESCO, 2017;European Marine Board, 2019;OceanObs'19, 2019;Tanhua et al., 2019a]. ...
... Significant coordination has been established in areas such as metrics, standards and best practices, with the elaboration of the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Re-usable) Data Principles (Wilkinson et al., 2016;Tanhua et al., 2019b) and the establishment of the Ocean Best Practices System (OBPS, Pearlman et al., 2019). Considerable progress has also been made by GOOS toward enhanced collaboration among national systems, regional alliances, global networks, and in situ observing and remote sensing (Moltmann et al., 2019). All this has contributed in making substantial advancement in the process of integrating multi-platform and multi-disciplinary data and modeling for the creation of valueadded products. ...
... To implement integration, we rely on the goodwill of the various actors in creating harmonious and effective coordination and fostering open science. At a global level, the GOOS Observations Coordination Group has been successful in enhancing the capabilities of the individual observing networks (Argo, OceanSITES, SVP drifters, OceanGliders, HFRadar, etc.), and significant coordination has been established in areas such as metrics, standards and best practices, new technologies, and data (Moltmann et al., 2019). However, as mentioned above, these networks have not yet reached the same level of maturity and do not yet fully exploit their complementarities. ...
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Understanding and sustainably managing complex environments such as marine ecosystems benefits from an integrated approach to ensure that information about all relevant components and their interactions at multiple and nested spatiotemporal scales are considered. This information is based on a wide range of ocean observations using different systems and approaches. An integrated approach thus requires effective collaboration between areas of expertise in order to improve coordination at each step of the ocean observing value chain, from the design and deployment of multi-platform observations to their analysis and the delivery of products, sometimes through data assimilation in numerical models. Despite significant advances over the last two decades in more cooperation across the ocean observing activities, this integrated approach has not yet been fully realized. The ocean observing system still suffers from organizational silos due to independent and often disconnected initiatives, the strong and sometimes destructive competition across disciplines and among scientists, and the absence of a well-established overall governance framework. Here, we address the need for enhanced organizational integration among all the actors of ocean observing, focusing on the occidental systems. We advocate for a major evolution in the way we collaborate, calling for transformative scientific, cultural, behavioral, and management changes. This is timely because we now have the scientific and technical capabilities as well as urgent societal and political drivers. The ambition of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) and the various efforts to grow a sustainable ocean economy and effective ocean protection efforts all require a more integrated approach to ocean observing. After analyzing the barriers that currently prevent this full integration within the occidental systems, we suggest nine approaches for breaking down the silos and promoting better coordination and sharing. These recommendations are related to the organizational framework, the ocean science culture, the system of recognition and rewards, the data management system, the ocean governance structure, and the ocean observing drivers and funding. These reflections are intended to provide food for thought for further dialogue between all parties involved and trigger concrete actions to foster a real transformational change in ocean observing.
... The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) is the organization responsible for marine science within the United Nations. The IOC allows the Member States to coordinate ocean research and services, as well as related activities regarding oceanographic measurements focused on sustained ocean observing and data management activities, encompassed in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and carrying out regional activities through GOOS Regional Alliances [210], the observing program area of the Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM), and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). The implementation of the international program is carried out by the Member States through their operational structures, such as government agencies, navies, and oceanographic research institutes. ...
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Sea waves constitute a natural phenomenon with a great impact on human activities, and their monitoring is essential for meteorology, coastal safety, navigation, and renewable energy from the sea. Therefore, the main measurement techniques for their monitoring are here reviewed, including buoys, satellite observation, coastal radars, shipboard observation, and microseism analysis. For each technique, the measurement principle is briefly recalled, the degree of development is outlined, and trends are prospected. The complementarity of such techniques is also highlighted, and the need for further integration in local and global networks is stressed.
... Central to understanding the earth's climate is a thorough understanding of ocean physics and how the oceans are changing. Global efforts to coordinate ocean observations are overseen by the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), created by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in March 1991(Moltmann et al., 2019. This Framework for Ocean Observing (Lindstrom et al., 2012) applies a systems approach, with Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) as a common focus. ...
... GOOS provides a formal assessment of feasibility, capacity and impact for each system component based on readiness levels, i.e., concept, pilot and mature. Enormous progress has been made in measuring the physical environment of the world's oceans using several mature networks including those supported by GOOS; the Argo global profiling float array, GO-SHIP (repeat hydrography), SOOP (ships of opportunity), DBCP (drifters and buoys), OceanSITES (fixed moorings), and virtual constellations of satellites measuring sea surface temperature, ocean color, ocean surface topography, ocean surface vector winds, and ocean surface salinity (Moltmann et al., 2019). ...
... For this "Blue Economy" to be sustainable and to ensure that rapidly expanding marine developments do not compromise the socioeconomic benefits and essential ecosystem services humanity derives from the ocean, managers and policy makers need to be informed by comprehensive monitoring of the ocean (Rayner et al., 2019;Brodie Rudolph et al., 2020). The oceanographic observations AniBOS collects contributes along with the other GOOS (Moltmann et al., 2019) networks to the information needed by the global community to benefit from and sustainably manage the ocean. ...
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Marine animals equipped with biological and physical electronic sensors have produced long-term data streams on key marine environmental variables, hydrography, animal behavior and ecology. These data are an essential component of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The Animal Borne Ocean Sensors (AniBOS) network aims to coordinate the long-term collection and delivery of marine data streams, providing a complementary capability to other GOOS networks that monitor Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), essential climate variables (ECVs) and essential biodiversity variables (EBVs). AniBOS augments observations of temperature and salinity within the upper ocean, in areas that are under-sampled, providing information that is urgently needed for an improved understanding of climate and ocean variability and for forecasting. Additionally, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and dissolved oxygen concentrations are emerging. The observations AniBOS provides are used widely across the research, modeling and operational oceanographic communities. High latitude, shallow coastal shelves and tropical seas have historically been sampled poorly with traditional observing platforms for many reasons including sea ice presence, limited satellite coverage and logistical costs. Animal-borne sensors are helping to fill that gap by collecting and transmitting in near real time an average of 500 temperature-salinity-depth profiles per animal annually and, when instruments are recovered (∼30% of instruments deployed annually, n = 103 ± 34), up to 1,000 profiles per month in these regions. Increased observations from under-sampled regions greatly improve the accuracy and confidence in estimates of ocean state and improve studies of climate variability by delivering data that refine climate prediction estimates at regional and global scales. The GOOS Observations Coordination Group (OCG) reviews, advises on and coordinates activities across the global ocean observing networks to strengthen the effective implementation of the system. AniBOS was formally recognized in 2020 as a GOOS network. This improves our ability to observe the ocean’s structure and animals that live in them more comprehensively, concomitantly improving our understanding of global ocean and climate processes for societal benefit consistent with the UN Sustainability Goals 13 and 14: Climate and Life below Water. Working within the GOOS OCG framework ensures that AniBOS is an essential component of an integrated Global Ocean Observing System.
... The development of innovative, compact, and low-power sensors, coupled with the need for understanding the impact of climate changes that have characterized the past few decades, has modified the way oceans are monitored. Great efforts have been made to deploy fixed or mobile platforms that can ensure simultaneous measurements of multiple parameters (atmospheric, physical, chemical, and biological) on long-term with high temporal resolution and quality [1][2][3][4]. ...
... Path loss = 69.55 + 26.16· log 10 f ·10 −6 −13.82· log 10 (h B ) − C H + 44.9 − 6.55· log 10 h B · log 10 d·10 −3 −4.78· log 10 f ·10 −6 2 + 18.33· log 10 f ·10 −6 − 40.94 (4) where h B is the altitude of the base station antenna (meters) and C H represents the antenna height correction factor. An approximation of the value of C H for a semi-urban environment, such as the one in which the experiment was performed, can be expressed by the following equation: ...
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The growing need for interoperability among the different oceanic monitoring systems to deliver services able to answer the requirements of stakeholders and end-users led to the development of a low-cost machine-to-machine communication system able to guarantee data reliability over marine paths. In this framework, an experimental evaluation of the performance of long-range (LoRa) technology in a fully operational marine scenario has been proposed. In-situ tests were carried out exploiting the availability of (i) a passenger vessel and (ii) a research vessel operating in the Ligurian basin (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) both hosting end-nodes, and (iii) gateways positioned on mountains and hills in the inland areas. Packet loss ratio, packet reception rate, received signal strength indicator, signal to noise, and expected signal power ratio were chosen as metrics in line of sight and not the line of sight conditions. The reliability of Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) transmission over the sea has been demonstrated up to more than 110 km in a free space scenario and for more than 20 km in a coastal urban environment.
... The images show various habitat and substrate distributions, including kelp (A), a registered essential ocean variable, and rocky reefs (B) -(E), which can form habitats for various conservation targets such as coral and sponges [24]. The original resolution of the images is 1,360 × 1,024. ...
Article
Camera equipped Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are now routinely used in seafloor surveys. Obtaining effective representations from the images they collect can enable perception-aware robotic exploration such as information-gain-guided path planning and target-driven visual navigation. This letter develops a novel self-supervised representation learning method for seafloor images collected by AUVs. The method allows deep-learning convolutional autoencoders to leverage multiple sources of metadata to regularise their learning, prioritising features observed in images that can be correlated with patterns in their metadata. The impact of the proposed regularisation is examined on a dataset consisting of more than 30 k colour seafloor images gathered by an AUV off the coast of Tasmania. The metadata used to regularise learning in this dataset consists of the horizontal location and depth of the observed seafloor. The results show that including metadata in self-supervised representation learning can increase image classification accuracy by up to 15% and never degrades learning performance. We show how effective representation learning can be applied to achieve class balanced representative image identification for summarised understanding of imbalanced class distributions in an unsupervised way.
... Johnson et al., 2010). Alongside satellite observations, Argo arguably provides the most valued contribution to global operational oceanography and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS, Moltmann, 2019). Within coastal waters, however, the drifting nature of such floats combined with shallow water makes them less effective. ...
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Marine robots have the potential to enhance WIO marine research to improve regional adaptation to the challenges presented by climate change by providing enhanced research capacity that bypasses the requirement for expensive infrastructure, such as large research vessels. This paper tests this potential and assesses the readiness of WIO communities to adopt autonomous technologies to meet its marine research priorities. We apply a range of analyses to a marine robots case study undertaken in waters around the island of Pemba, part of the Zanzibar archipelago, in Tanzania in 2019. The campaign formed part of a multinational project focused on increasing WIO capacity to meet food security and ocean sustainability challenges. A community engagement programme with six Tanzanian coastal communities resulted in positive changes in attitudes towards marine robots with reported increases in understanding and acceptance of such technologies. Suspicion of the robots was reduced and a lower risk of removing operational equipment was recorded following the provision of educational material. Cost, risk and benefit analysis shows that marine robots are perceived to provide high level benefits, but come at a high cost that is difficult to achieve using national or regional funding. An assessment of the capacity of WIO marine institutes to adopt such technologies shows that prior to this work, few skills or infrastructure related to marine robots were available to researchers and further confirmed that funding opportunities were perceived to be largely unavailable at institutional, national, regional or international levels. Responses from regional partners following completion of the case study however, revealed an uplift in perceived capacity, particularly related to access to infrastructure and expertise as well as support and opportunities for funding at each level. The presented case study is shown to have been a valuable demonstrator of the benefits of using marine robots to meet WIO coastal ocean research requirements and regional capacity was shown to be substantially increased within the broad range of marine institutes surveyed throughout the case study period. This study demonstrates that taking early steps towards adopting marine autonomous robots has increased WIO regional marine research capacity and increased the confidence and willingness of local researchers to seek alternative solutions to ongoing marine research challenges. Recommendations for future action that will continue to increase the capacity and readiness for regional adoption of marine robots include investment at local, national and regional levels to provide accessible training opportunities and to facilitate regional and international collaborations; investment in a regional hub, or centre of excellence for marine robotic technology; early adoption of newly emerging smaller, cheaper autonomous technologies; investment in local skills and support facilities to aid local buy-in and acceptance while supporting regional capacity.
... Coastal waters are located immediately in contact with human populations and exposed to anthropogenic disturbances, placing these resources and services under threat (e.g., Lynch et al., 2014). These concerns explain why, in several coastal regions, a rapidly increasing number of observing systems have been implemented in the last decade (Moltmann et al., 2019). Expansion of coherent and sustained coastal observations has been fragmented and driven by national and regional policies and is often undertaken through short-term research projects (Farcy et al., 2019). ...
... An extended review of the challenges for global ocean observing system is presented elsewhere (e.g., Moltmann et al., 2019). The use of best practices and recent technology for sensors and data interoperability (Buck et al., 2019), unmanned marine platforms (Testor et al., 2019), cabled observatories (Howe et al., 2019), and marine observatories (Crise et al., 2018) have all been identified to contribute toward implementation of sustainable ocean observations. ...
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Coastal observing systems are typically nationally funded and built around national priorities. As a result, there are presently significant differences between countries in terms of sustainability, observing capacity and technologies, as well as methods and research priorities. Ocean observing systems in coastal areas must now move toward an integrated, multidisciplinary and multiscale system of systems, where heterogeneity should be exploited to deliver fit-for-purpose products that answer the diversity and complexity of the requirements from stakeholders and end-users. Essential elements of such distributed observation systems are the use of machine-to-machine communication, data fusion and processing applying recent technological developments for the Internet of Things (IoT) toward a common cyberinfrastructure. This perspective paper illustrates some of the challenges for sustained coastal observations and provides details on how to address present gaps. We discuss the role of collaborative robotics between unmanned platforms in coastal areas and the methods to benefit from IoT technologies. Given present trends in cost-effective solutions in ocean sensors and electronics, and methods for marine automation and communication, we consider that a distributed observation system can effectively provide timely information in coastal regions around the world, including those areas that are today poorly observed (e.g., developing countries). Adaptation in space and time of the sensing nodes, and the flexibility in handling different sensing platforms can provide to the system the ability to quickly respond to the rapid changes in oceanic and climatic processes, as well as to promptly respond to evolving stakeholder and end-user requirements.
... Habitat loss by the end of the century (2071-2100) relative to the baseline period estimated by both the previously published metabolic indices (Penn et al. 2018, top row, Deutsch et al. 2020 and the Aerobic Growth Index (AGI) (red), the AGI (light blue) and the relevant metabolic index only (MI green in relevant row) for Atlantic blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and Australian spiny lobster (Panulirus cygnus) and common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). recognized need to improve the global O 2 observation network (Ryabinin et al., 2019;Levin & Breitburg, 2015;Keeling et al., 2010), there is hope that O 2 monitoring programs should begin filling this information gap soon (Moltmann et al., 2019;Pearlman et al., 2019). ...
Article
Ocean warming and deoxygenation are affecting the physiological performance of marine species by increasing their oxygen demand while reducing oxygen supply. Impacts on organisms (e.g., growth and reproduction) can eventually affect entire populations, altering macroecological dynamics and shifting species’ distribution ranges. To quantify the effect of warming and deoxygenation on marine organisms, Penn et al., 2018, Deutsch et al., 2020 developed two metabolic indices that integrate physiological, biogeographic and climatic data. Here, we develop an alternative index, referred to as Aerobic Growth Index (AGI) based on an approach that integrates the von Bertalanffy growth theory and metabolic theory. We compare the results derived from the application of AGI with those of the two previously published metabolic indices for six species: Atlantic blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), Sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Australian spiny lobster (Panulirus cygnus), Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). The baseline (1971-2000) habitat suitability values of AGI are significantly and positively correlated with both metabolic indices (R² ≥ 0.96). All three indices also show similar spatial patterns and magnitudes of viable habitat loss by the end of the 21st century (2071-2100) relative to baseline conditions under a high greenhouse gas concentration trajectory (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). Our results support the applicability and use of AGI to better understand the impacts of warming and deoxygenation on global marine fishery resources. Given the uncertainties surrounding mechanisms linking temperature, oxygen and biogeography, there is a need for different indicators to account for these uncertainties in climate change projections.