A simplified process scheme for the production of vinyl acetate monomer from a fatty acid or triacyl glyceride-based oil via non-catalytic cracking.  

A simplified process scheme for the production of vinyl acetate monomer from a fatty acid or triacyl glyceride-based oil via non-catalytic cracking.  

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Valuable chemical by-products can increase the economic viability of renewable transportation fuel facilities while increasing the sustainability of the chemical and associated industries. A study was performed to demonstrate that commercial quality chemical products could be produced using the non-catalytic cracking of crop oils. Using this decomp...

Citations

... The increasing demand for the commodity from producers worldwide of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is expected to continue to be a key driver of market growth. The compound finds its use as a condiment and acidity control in the food industry (Jones et al., 2015). British Petroleum Chemicals and Celanese companies are internationally the chemical's main suppliers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Among the agro-based industries, the cashew industry utilizes only about 30% of the total fruit as food material, and the rest goes as a waste. Valorizing the generated waste into value-added products is the better option to address the waste. The waste generated from these industries needs to be valorized into value-added products. Anacardium occidentale, cashew, has a booming market worldwide. Being a tropical tree, small farmers are the major source of cultivation in countries that come to light, and capitalization on cashew by-product has colossal potential that can benefit agribusiness. Many value-added products like reducing sugars, bioethanol, xylitol, organic acids, and biohydrogen are produced lately. Looking at the feasibility of producing value-added products, commercializing the biorefineries on an industrial scale is in the burgeoning phase around the globe. Upgrading the laboratory phase research to a larger commercial scale has been the key research. A total of 2376 patent publications and 586 scientific publications were available on cashew apple and nuts among the available publications to date. The potentiality of the cashew in the biorefinery concept is put front by these statistics. The present review focuses on spotlighting the use of cashew and their potential use in agribusiness.
... Soybean protein is also among plant proteins of best quality because it contains essential amino acids and holds the potential to replace proteins of animal origin [1]. Recently, the soybean has been claimed as a potential weapon against chronic diseases [2][3][4][5][6][7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed to optimize the total polyphenol content (TPC) extracted from soybean sprout powder under different experimental parameters, including ethanol concentration (60–100% v/v), extraction temperature (40–80 °C), extraction time (15–150 min), material:solvent ratio (1:4–1:10 g/mL), the number extraction cycles (1, 2 and 3 times), the age of sprout (0–7 days), and the used part of the sprout (cotyledon, hypocotyl, or radicle). The obtained results were used in response surface methodology, in combination with a central composite design, to model the total polyphenol content (TPC) with respect to three variables, including ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and material:solvent ratio. The experimental conditions for optimal recovery of TPC consisted of ethanol concentration of 88% (v/v), extraction temperature of 59 °C, material:solvent ratio of 1:6.5 g/mL, extraction time of 60 min, and 2 cycles of maceration. In addition, for maximal TPC, the sprout should undergo the germination of 5 days and the radicle fraction should be used. Based on the suggested optimum conditions, the obtained and verified TPC was 19.801 mg genistein (GE)/g dry weight (d.w.). The obtained dried extract also exhibited low antioxidant activity.
Article
The ever-growing production of non-recyclable plastic products causes plastic pollution to be the one of most pressing environmental issues. The transition of petrochemical-based plastic with eco-friendly biodegradable plastic has become the promising solution to overcome the plastic pollution crisis. Recent research addressed the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), which is a class of bioplastic through the valorisation of wastewater sludge. However, the high production cost and limited process feasibility studies hinder the commercialisation of the waste-derived PHA synthesis process. Since there is a lack of exploration on material integration by implementing an industrial symbiosis network that could potentially enhance the sustainability of waste-derived PHA production, this paper proposes the optimisation of bioplastic production by creating a carbon-hydrogen-oxygen industrial symbiosis network (CHOSYN) to solve sludge management and resources consumption problem concurrently. The atomic targeting approach is used to benchmark the resources and waste discharge from the model. The findings indicate that the proposed process framework attains sustainability improvement in economic and environmental aspects as compared to the conventional PHA synthesis process. An optimal biorefinery eco-industrial park (EIP) design with the involvement of PHA production is presented and the implication of results obtained is also discussed in this article.
Article
The use of supercritical methanol (scMeOH) for the liquefaction of the carbohydrate-rich macroalgae Saccharina japonica was investigated at low temperature (250–300 °C). At 300 °C, almost complete conversion (98.1 wt%) and a high bio-oil yield (66.0 wt%) were achieved. These values are higher than those achieved with supercritical ethanol (scEtOH, 87.8 wt% conversion, 60.5 wt% bio-oil yield) and subcritical water (subH2O, 91.9 wt% conversion, 40.3 wt% bio-oil yield) under identical reaction conditions. The superior liquefaction in scMeOH is attributed to the beneficial physical properties of scMeOH, including its higher polarity, superior reactivity, and higher acidity. The superior reactivity of scMeOH was evident from the larger amount of esters (54.6 area%) produced in scMeOH as compared to that in scEtOH (47.2 area%), and the larger amount of methyl/methoxy-containing compounds (78.6 area%) produced in scMeOH than that of ethyl/ethoxy-containing compounds (58.2 area%) produced in scEtOH. The higher bio-oil yield combined with its higher calorific value (29.2 MJ kg⁻¹) resulted in a higher energy recovery of 135% for scMeOH as compared to those of scEtOH (118%) and subH2O (96%). When considering the amount of alcohol consumed during the liquefactions and the production of light bio-oil fractions that evaporate during bio-oil recovery, the higher methanol consumption (5.3 wt%) than that of ethanol (2.3 wt%) leads to similar bio-oil yields (∼51 wt%).
Article
A wide spectrum of triacylglyceride (TG) oils were decomposed in batch lab and continuous pilot-scale reactors to generate an extensive database, which was then used to construct a model to predict the detailed composition of products generated during non-catalytic cracking. The model was then coupled with additional simulated process steps to determine the yields of transportation products and other chemical co-products meeting specifications of their petroleum analogs as validated with laboratory testing. A statistical study was then performed to use the model to analyze the impact that changes in TG oil composition have upon target product yields. In this study, the model was used to simulate a viable suite of products for every TG oil analyzed. The model predicts minor differences in the ratio of products from various different fatty acid compositions. For example, it was found that stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), and erucic (C22:1) acids show a positive effect on fuel yields. By contrast, palmitic (C16:0), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3) acids have negative impacts on fuel yields. From these results, a hypothetical “ideal” TG oil was constructed. This oil turns out to have a composition that is very close to the composition of high oleic sunflower oil.
Article
A two-step process was developed for the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from triglyceride (TG) oils. In the first reaction step, TG (soybean) oil was noncatalytically cracked and purified by distillation to produce an organic liquid product (OLP). The resulting OLP was then converted into aromatic compounds in a second reaction using a zeolite catalyst, HZSM-5. In this second reaction, three main factors were found to influence the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons: the SiO2:Al2O3 ratio in the HZSM-5, the reaction temperature and the OLP-to-catalyst ratio. Upon cursory optimization, up to 58 w/w% aromatics were obtained. Detailed analyses revealed that most of the alkenes and carboxylic acids, and even many of the unidentified/unresolved compounds, which are characteristic products of noncatalytic TG cracking, were reformed into aromatic hydrocarbons. Instead of BTEX compounds, which are the common products of C2-C8 alkene and other feedstock reforming with HZSM-5, longer-chain alkylbenzenes dominated the reformate (along with medium-size n-alkanes). Another novel feature of the two-step process was a sizable (up to 13 w/w%) concentration of alicyclic hydrocarbons, both cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes. Thus, this novel two-step process may provide a new route for the production of renewable aromatic hydrocarbons as an important coproduct with transportation fuel products.