A simplified food web that includes Aedes and its predators in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Blue and white arrows show the direction of energy flow from prey to predator. In the center of the figure, the life cycle (dark brown arrows) of Aedes shows that adult female mosquitoes lay eggs, which develop into larvae that will pupate, after which adult mosquitoes will emerge. In these different life cycle stages, Aedes spp. are exposed to different predators in the terrestrial (upper gray area) and aquatic (lower blue area) environments. 

A simplified food web that includes Aedes and its predators in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Blue and white arrows show the direction of energy flow from prey to predator. In the center of the figure, the life cycle (dark brown arrows) of Aedes shows that adult female mosquitoes lay eggs, which develop into larvae that will pupate, after which adult mosquitoes will emerge. In these different life cycle stages, Aedes spp. are exposed to different predators in the terrestrial (upper gray area) and aquatic (lower blue area) environments. 

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The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases is governed by a structured array of correlative and causative factors, including landscape (for example, rural versus urban), abiotic (for example, weather), and biotic (for example, food web) factors. Studies of mosquito-borne diseases rarely address these multiple factors at large spatial scales, which l...

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... Semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) are an important group of insects commonly found in a wide range of freshwater bodies, with some clades that transitioned to terrestrial life or even to marine habitats (e.g., Andersen 1982). They are predators that can potentially be used in the control of pests or disease vectors, or as bioindicators of environmental quality (Ignacimuthu 2002;Weterings et al. 2018;Cunha et al. 2020). ...
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... Stimulating copepod predation, among other predators, on aquatic vectors of mosquito borne viruses has been proved to be an effective control strategy for human diseases such as dengue fever, malaria and chikungunya (Nam et al., 1998(Nam et al., , 2012Moore et al., 2010;Baldacchino et al., 2015). Weterings et al. (2018) showed the importance of Aedes predation and the interaction of landscape, abiotic and biotic factors with the complex food web structures of the terrestrial and aquatic life stages of the mosquito to control dengue fever. ...
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... This is expected to disturb the currently settled network of ecological interactions, which are well-known to drive species abundance and geographical distribution [46][47][48][49]. Food-web dynamics will likely undergo shifts that may have complex consequences on the abundance of Aedes mosquitos [50]. Resource competition between mosquito species is also expected to have equally significant effects on abundance. ...
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Introduction We are witnessing an alarming increase in the burden and range of mosquito-borne arboviral diseases. The transmission dynamics of arboviral diseases is highly sensitive to climate and weather and is further affected by non-climatic factors such as human mobility, urbanization, and disease control. As evidence also suggests, climate-driven changes in species interactions may trigger evolutionary responses in both vectors and pathogens with important consequences for disease transmission patterns. Areas covered Focusing on dengue and chikungunya, we review the current knowledge and challenges in our understanding of disease risk in a rapidly changing climate. We identify the most critical research gaps that limit the predictive skill of arbovirus risk models and the development of early warning systems, and conclude by highlighting the potentially important research directions to stimulate progress in this field. Expert opinion Future studies that aim to predict the risk of arboviral diseases need to consider the interactions between climate modes at different timescales, the effects of the many non-climatic drivers, as well as the potential for climate-driven adaptation and evolution in vectors and pathogens. An important outcome of such studies would be an enhanced ability to promulgate early warning information, initiate adequate response, and enhance preparedness capacity.
... Even though previous studies of aquatic insects in tropical Southeast Asia, especially in paddy fields, have investigated mosquito species composition (Mogi and Miyagi 1990, Ohba et al. 2013, Ohba et al. 2015, few studies have focused on the relationships between predatory aquatic insects and mosquito density (Lundkvist et al. 2003, Mogi 2007, Weterings et al. 2018, especially with regard to the wetlands, pools, and artificial lentic habitats in urban and suburban areas. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between predatory aquatic insects (i.e., the OCH group) and mosquito larvae in mosquito-rich habitats in the urban and suburban residential areas of Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. ...
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... Mosquito populations are naturally regulated by a range of predators, both aquatic and terrestrial (Reiskind and Wund 2009;Shaalan and Canyon 2009;Weterings et al. 2014aWeterings et al. , 2018. Several of these predators are very well-adapted to life in urban residential environments, where the contact between dengue vectors and humans is most frequent (Canyon and Hii 1997;Strickman et al. 1997;Thavara et al. 2001;Weterings et al. 2014b). ...
... Several of these predators are very well-adapted to life in urban residential environments, where the contact between dengue vectors and humans is most frequent (Canyon and Hii 1997;Strickman et al. 1997;Thavara et al. 2001;Weterings et al. 2014b). In Thailand, for example, residential mosquito predator communities comprise mainly spiders (Weterings et al. 2018;Strickman et al. 1997) and house geckos (Weterings et al. 2018;Tkaczenko et al. 2014). House geckos (e.g., Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus and Gehyra mutilata) are primarily nocturnal and often forage around artificial lights, feeding on phototactic insects, including certain mosquito species (Tkaczenko et al. 2014). ...
... Several of these predators are very well-adapted to life in urban residential environments, where the contact between dengue vectors and humans is most frequent (Canyon and Hii 1997;Strickman et al. 1997;Thavara et al. 2001;Weterings et al. 2014b). In Thailand, for example, residential mosquito predator communities comprise mainly spiders (Weterings et al. 2018;Strickman et al. 1997) and house geckos (Weterings et al. 2018;Tkaczenko et al. 2014). House geckos (e.g., Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus and Gehyra mutilata) are primarily nocturnal and often forage around artificial lights, feeding on phototactic insects, including certain mosquito species (Tkaczenko et al. 2014). ...
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Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that has undergone a marked rise in incidence since the 1950s, throughout the world’s tropical regions. Here, we present a hypothesis that this rise in incidence may have been exacerbated by the invasion of house geckos, due to their role in the mosquito vector food web. Previous research has shown that in the absence of a top predator, house geckos reach high densities, directly affecting spider densities and indirectly resulting in higher Aedes-mosquito densities. Hence, we expect that in areas where house geckos are invasive and an effective top predator is lacking, Aedes densities will be higher, resulting in a higher dengue fever incidence rate. We perform a preliminary test of this hypothesis by looking for patterns in secondary country-level data to estimate the global range of invasive house gecko species over time. We related these estimated ranges to variation in the number of per capita dengue cases in 80 different countries. The incidence of dengue was significantly higher in countries where house geckos were introduced, when compared with countries where it was either native or absent. In addition, in countries where house geckos were introduced earlier and had time to become naturalized, dengue fever incidence rates were higher than for countries where house geckos were introduced more recently. These results suggest that house geckos could indeed have played a role in the rise of dengue in tropical countries. Here, we present a framework for the required experimental research to test the mechanism underlying these observations.