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A screen to choose as a candidate component. 

A screen to choose as a candidate component. 

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Nowadays, Internet of Things technology has garnered a great amount of interest because it can make our life much easier, convenient, and even safer. Internet of Things devices can be connected to the Internet or to each other whenever and wherever in order to collect, process, and share information to support various services. In order to provide...

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... chosen components become candidate components that we want to reuse. Figure 3 shows the screen that can be used to choose a component as a candidate. ...

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... This can be seen by considering the IoT stack [22], which divides the IoT network into four main layers that consist of perception layer, network layer, middleware layer and application layer as it is illustrated in fig. 2 [23]. The perception (or sensing) layer relates to the various physical components or hardware devices such as sensors, actuators, computers, or industrial equipment, where each one of these devices may have a unique purpose and operate based on different platforms [24]. The second layer is the network (or communication) layer, which is a common abstraction in network design, that is intended to provide access environment for physical components via wired or wireless communication channels. ...
... The limited resources of most IoT devices may lead to performance issues, such as a late response time. These issues should be carefully considered when developing software systems to derive IoT devices [24]. High maintainability also needs to be assured especially when developing complex and expensive systems where the system cannot be easily replaced. ...
... Because of these limitations, a direct implementation of traditional security mechanisms in IoT objects tends to be very difficult without some modifications. This is why a new breed of lightweight IoT security techniques and protocols (e.g., a secure system of uploading and replicating IoT data suggested in [10]) has been developed [11,12]. The second reason, which motivates us to conduct this work, is the lack of widely-accepted security and privacy guidelines for IoT at data at rest, along with their appropriate mitigation techniques. ...
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The Internet of Things (IoT) makes our lives much easier, more valuable, and less stressful due to the development of many applications around us including smart cities, smart cars, and smart grids, offering endless services and solutions. Protecting IoT data of such applications at rest either on the objects or in the cloud is an indispensable requirement for achieving a symmetry in the handling and protection of the IoT, as we do with data created by persons and applications. This is because unauthorised access to such data may lead to harmful consequences such as linkage attacks, loss of privacy, and data manipulation. Such undesired implications may jeopardise the existence of IoT applications if protection measures are not taken, and they stem from two main factors. One is that IoT objects have limited capabilities in terms of memory capacity, battery life, and computational power that hamper the direct implementation of conventional Internet security solutions without some modifications (e.g., traditional symmetric algorithms). Another factor is the absence of widely accepted IoT security and privacy guidelines for IoT data at rest and their appropriate countermeasures, which would help IoT stakeholders (e.g., developers, manufacturers) to develop secure IoT systems and therefore enhance IoT security and privacy by design. Toward this end, we first briefly describe the main IoT security goals and identify IoT stakeholders. Moreover, we briefly discuss the most well-known data protection frameworks (e.g., General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Health Insurance Portability (HIPAA)). Second, we highlight potential attacks and threats against data at rest and show their violated security goals (e.g., confidentiality and integrity). Third, we review a list of protection measures by which our proposed guidelines can be accomplished. Fourth, we propose a framework of security and privacy guidelines for IoT data at rest that can be utilised to enhance IoT security and privacy by design and establish a symmetry with the protection of user-created data. Our framework also presents the link between the suggested guidelines, mitigation techniques, and attacks. Moreover, we state those IoT stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, developers) who will benefit most from these guidelines. Finally, we suggest several open issues requiring further investigation in the future, and we also discuss the limitations of our suggested framework.
... One is that IoT objects are equipped with limited resources in terms of energy consumption, memory capacity and computational power [2]. Such limited capabilities may impede the direct implantation of conventional Internet techniques like the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) into the IoT [3,4]. End-to-end secure communications in rich-resource objects such as laptops, tablets and phones, for instance, can be accomplished by either transport layer through Transport layer security (TLS) or network layer through Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). ...
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As Internet of Things (IoT) involvement increases in our daily lives, several security and privacy concerns like linkability, unauthorized conversations, and side-channel attacks are raised. If they are left untouched, such issues may threaten the existence of IoT. They derive from two main reasons. One is that IoT objects are equipped with limited capabilities in terms of computation power, memory, and bandwidth which hamper the direct implementation of traditional Internet security techniques. The other reason is the absence of widely-accepted IoT security and privacy guidelines and their appropriate implementation techniques. Such guidelines and techniques would greatly assist IoT stakeholders like developers and manufacturers, paving the road for building secure IoT systems from the start and, thus, reinforcing IoT security and privacy by design. In order to contribute to such objective, we first briefly discuss the primary IoT security goals and recognize IoT stakeholders. Second, we propose a comprehensive list of IoT security and privacy guidelines for the edge nodes and communication levels of IoT reference architecture. Furthermore, we point out the IoT stakeholders such as customers and manufacturers who will benefit most from these guidelines. Moreover, we identify a set of implementation techniques by which such guidelines can be accomplished, and possible attacks against previously-mentioned levels can be alleviated. Third, we discuss the challenges of IoT security and privacy guidelines, and we briefly discuss digital rights management in IoT. Finally, through this survey, we suggest several open issues that require further investigation in the future. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this work is the first survey that covers the above-mentioned objectives.
... As a result, a new discipline (Green Computing) has recently emerged, which aims to promote energy-aware designs and implementations to ensure that the resulting software makes efficient use of the hardware resources. Therefore, the developer should not only consider the modularization, performance or maintainability of the software, but must also take into account energy savings [12,33] The majority of the studies on software energy efficiency are empirical studies that focus on those parts of the code that consume most energy ('energy-consumers' or hotspots [8,22,23]), or on the energy consumption of several alternatives [2,7,15,20,32]. We have found studies that compare energy consumption measured at runtime; networking of Android devices [21], of data centres [3], or of Java Collections [15]; other studies simulate rather than measure the energy consumption of applications, such as Android applications [14] with eCalc, Java Enterprise Edition (EE) applications [4], or audio compression [20,33] with Palladio PCA. ...
... The authors discuss the difficulty of performing energy-data analysis using a specific case study, for which, they define an Energy Modeller that allows them to restrict the search results of the repository. In [22] an Internet of Things (IoT) components repository is proposed instead of a generic repository. It specifies a repository to search for components that consume less, providing a required and supplied interface as specified in the architecture of an IoT service. ...
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The impact of energy consumption on the environment and the economy is raising awareness of “green” software engineering. HADAS is an eco-assistant that makes developers aware of the influence of their designs and implementations on the energy consumption and performance of the final product. In this paper, we extend HADAS to better support the requirements of users: researchers, automatically dumping the energy-consumption of different software solutions; and developers, who want to perform a sustainability analysis of different software solutions. This analysis has been extended by adding Pearson’s chi-squared differentials and Bootstrapping statistics, to automatically check the significance of correlations of the energy consumption, or the execution time, with any other variable (e.g., the number of users) that can influence the selection of a particular eco-efficient configuration. We have evaluated our approach by performing a sustainability analysis of the most common web servers (i.e. PHP servers) using the time and energy data measured with the Watts Up? Pro tool previously dumped in HADAS. We show how HADAS helps web server providers to make a trade-off between energy consumption and execution time, allowing them to sell different server configurations with different costs without modifying the hardware.
... Software developers need to be aware of the impact that their design and implementation decisions have on the energy expenditure of their systems [3,4]. Recently, several experimental studies [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] have been developed with the aim of providing information about the energy consumed by different APIs, programming language frameworks, etc. However, this kind of data is rarely accessible through existing Integrated Development Environments (IDEs). ...
... The survey has been developed with an instance of LimeSurvey hosted in the Universidad de Málaga. 11 The specific results and statistics can be consulted at. 12 Regarding population profile, the average age was 32 for both genders. ...
... As the first prototype of HADAS, it was deployed in our faculty intra-net, and evaluated with Windows web servers and back-end of web pages consumption. In [11] authors propose an Internet of Things (IoT) components repository instead of a generic repository like HADAS4CPS. This article uses a repository for components that consume less, supplying a 'required and provided' interface as specified in the architecture of an IoT service. ...
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... For this reason, it is highly important that software developers are aware of the impact that their design and implementation decisions has on the energy expenditure of pervasive computing applications [2], [3]. Although there are recently many experimental studies [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] providing information about the energy consumed by different programming APIs, frameworks, etc., this information is not directly accessible through existing software development environments. Unfortunately, this makes energy information unnoticeable for software developers, making it difficult to reuse this knowledge in their applications [2], [3]. ...
... They present an architecture compliant with a standard cloud architecture where energy efficiency is addressed specifically at all layers of the cloud software stack and during the complete cloud application lifecycle. In [10] authors propose an Internet of Things (IoT) components repository instead of a generic repository like HADAS. This article uses one repository to search for components that consume less, providing a required and provided interface as specified in the architecture of an IoT service. ...
... Energy efficiency (or sustainability) analysis is part of our approach, and although the objective of this paper is not to provide a full set of experimental results about energy efficiency such as the example shown in Section 5, the energy information of different recurrent functionalities is important for analysis in our approach. Thus, we can consider several papers that provide the energy experimental information as a repository [8,[30][31][32] in order to use the information gathered in our approach and generate the configuration based on that energy data. The main problem is that none of these repositories provide experimental results on energy efficiency of FQAs, but rather on other functionalities, like, for example, for the Internet of Things (IoT) components [32], or Java collection classes [33]. ...
... Thus, we can consider several papers that provide the energy experimental information as a repository [8,[30][31][32] in order to use the information gathered in our approach and generate the configuration based on that energy data. The main problem is that none of these repositories provide experimental results on energy efficiency of FQAs, but rather on other functionalities, like, for example, for the Internet of Things (IoT) components [32], or Java collection classes [33]. ...
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Context: Quality attributes play a critical role in the architecture elicitation phase. Software Sustainability and energy efficiency is becoming a critical quality attribute that can be used as a selection criteria to choose from among different design or implementation alternatives. Energy efficiency usually competes with other non-functional requirements, like for instance, performance. Objective: This paper presents a process that helps developers to automatically generate optimum configurations of functional quality attributes in terms of energy efficiency and performance. Functional quality attributes refer to the behavioral properties that need to be incorporated inside a software architecture to fulfill a particular quality attribute (e.g., encryption and authentication for the security quality attribute, logging for the usability quality attribute). Method: Quality attributes are characterized to identify their design and implementation variants and how the different configurations influence both energy efficiency and performance. A usage model for each characterized quality attribute is defined. The variability of quality attributes, as well as the energy efficiency and performance experiment results, are represented as a constraint satisfaction problem with the goal of formally reasoning about it. Then, a configuration of the selected functional quality attributes is automatically generated, which is optimum with respect to a selected objective function. Results: Software developers can improve the energy efficiency and/or performance of their applications by using our approach to perform a richer analysis of the energy consumption and performance of different alternatives for functional quality attributes. We show quantitative values of the benefits of using our approach and discuss the threats to validity. Conclusions: The process presented in this paper will help software developers to build more energy efficient software, whilst also being aware of how their decisions affect other quality attributes, such as performance.
... A plethora of experimental studies [4,6,7,[10][11][12]15] have been published since last decade, trying to identify the parts of a software that in uence the most in the total energy consumption of a software system. Nonetheless, these studies only focus on one speci c concern (e.g., Java collections [7]) evaluating the power consumption of a limited set of design and/or implementation alternatives (e.g., Java Trove Collections Framework). ...
... The authors comment the complication of performing energy data analysis of a speci c use case, for which, they de ne an Energy modeler that allows to restrict the repository search results. In [11] is proposed an Internet of Things (IoT) components repository instead of a generic one like HADAS propose. This article uses one repository to search for components that consume less, providing a required and provided interface as speci ed into the architecture of an IoT service. ...
Conference Paper
Energy is a critical resource, and designing a sustainable software architecture is a non-trivial task. Developers require energy metrics that support sustainable software architectures reflecting quality attributes such as security, reliability, performance, etc., identifying what are the concerns that impact more in the energy consumption. A variability model of different designs and implementations of an energy model should exist for this task, as well as a service that stores and compares the experimentation results of energy and time consumption of each concern, finding out what is the most eco-efficient solution. The experimental measurements are performed by energy experts and researchers that share the energy model and metrics in a collaborative repository. HADAS confronts these tasks modelling and reasoning with the variability of energy consuming concerns for different energy contexts, connecting HADAS variability model with its energy efficiency collaborative repository, establishing a Software Product Line (SPL) service. Our main goal is to help developers to perform sustainability analyses finding out the eco-friendliest architecture configurations. A HADAS toolkit prototype is implemented based on a Clafer model and Choco solver, and it has been tested with several case studies.
... The majority of the work on software energy efficiency are empirical studies that focus on the parts of the code that consume more energy [1], [2], [3], or on the energy consumption of several alternative solutions [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]. There are papers that compare energy consumption measured at runtime; Networking in Android devices [9], in servers [10], or Java collections [6]; other works do not measure but simulate the energy consumption such as, of Android applications [11] with eCalc, of Java Enterprise Edition (EE) applications [12], or audio compression [7], [13] with Palladio PCA. ...
... The authors comment the difficulty of performing energy data analysis of a specific use case, for which, they define an Energy modeler that allows them to restrict the search results of the repository. In [2] is proposed an Internet of Things (IoT) components repository instead of a generic repository like HADAS. This article uses one repository to search for components that consume less, providing a required and provided interface as specified in the architecture of an IoT service. ...
... Recently, the National Institute of Standards and Technology confirmed this point of view in [33]. However, they do not fit well in IoT scenario due to their constrained resources as energy and real time execution, as explained and experimentally proved in [34], through a comparison of estimated energy of three different ciphers. ...
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Unquestionably, communicating entities (object, or things) in the Internet of Things (IoT) context are playing an active role in human activities, systems and processes. The high connectivity of intelligent objects and their severe constraints lead to many security challenges, which are not included in the classical formulation of security problems and solutions. The Security Shield for Internet of Things has been identified by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) as one of the four projects with a potential impact broader than the Internet itself. To help interested researchers contribute to this research area, an overview of the IoT security roadmap overview is presented in this paper based on a novel cognitive and systemic approach. The role of each component of the approach is explained and interactions with the other main components, and their impact on the overall. A case study is presented to highlight the components and interactions of the systemic and cognitive approach. Then, security questions about privacy, trust, identification, and access control are discussed. According to the novel taxonomy of the IoT framework, different research challenges are highlighted, important solutions and research activities are revealed, and interesting research directions are proposed. In addition, current standardization activities are surveyed and discussed to the ensure the security of IoT components and applications.