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A schematic representation of the types and generation of biofuels.

A schematic representation of the types and generation of biofuels.

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The wide use of fossil fuels is gradually documented as unsus-tainable due to the significant reduction of supplies and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Alternative and renewable energy sources are required to fulfill the ever increasing energy demands. Microalgae are the alternative renewable energy source as it has the pot...

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... the basis of feedstock being used for biofuel production, the following generations can be categorized (Figure 1): ...

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The rapid rise in emissions of greenhouse gases due to utilization of fossil fuels led to the increase in pollution level and climate change along with depletion of the resources. Thus, biofuels produced from microalgae provide an alternative approach toward replacing fossil fuels. Microalgae are the photosynthetic microorganisms which grow in marine and fresh water. The biofuels obtained from microalgae are more sustainable, economical, renewable, and prevent elevation of greenhouse gas emissions. The microalgal biofuels are considered under third generation of biofuels. Also, microalgae used for biofuels possess the advantage of providing nutrients such as lipid, carbohydrate along with requiring less land and water for cultivation. However, biofuels produced commercially are not sustainable due to low production and costly operating procedures. The main purpose of this chapter is to enlighten the concepts as well as technologies which are involved in evolution of biofuels such as biodiesel, biomethane, bioethanol, and biohydrogen. Also, it highlights the generations, benefits, drawbacks, global production of biofuels along with the other applications of microalgae in different areas. The usage of microalgae in the production of biofuels proves to be a novel and scientific outlook in reducing environmental degradation as well as increasing the awareness toward sustainable approach.