The wide use of fossil fuels is gradually documented as unsus-tainable due to the significant reduction of supplies and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Alternative and renewable energy sources are required to fulfill the ever increasing energy demands. Microalgae are the alternative renewable energy source as it has the pot...
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Renewable energy development is growing rapidly due to vast population growth and the limited availability of fossil fuels in Southeast Asia. Located in a tropical climate and within the Ring of Fire, this region has great potential for a transition toward renewable energy utilization. However, numerous studies have found that renewable energy deve...
... While microalgae biomass is considered carbon neutral, industrial production is exploring the viability of microalgal biomass for biofuels. Javed et al. (2019) investigated the use of oil production and lipid productivity from microalgae for 3rd generation feedstock. Open microalgal production ponds are sustainable while allowing for the potential capture of CO 2 from the atmosphere. ...
This article is a review of the scientific literature published in 2019 on topics relating to bioenergy from biofuel residues and waste. This literature review is divided into the following sections: Feedstocks, Biodiesel, Bioethanol, Hydrogen, Biohydrogen, Biofuel Residues, Microalgae, and Lignocelluloses.
The aquaculture industry has rapidly increased in response to the increasing world population, with the appreciation that aquaculture products are beneficial for human health and nutrition. Globally, aquaculture organisms are mainly divided into two divisions, aquatic animals (finfish, crustaceans, and molluscs) and aquatic plants (microalgae and seaweed). Worldwide aquaculture production has reached more than 82 million tonnes (MTs) in 2018 with more than 450 cultured species. The development of economical, environmentally friendly, and large-scale feasible technologies to produce aquaculture organisms (even aquatic animals and/or aquatic plants) is an essential need of the world. Some aquaculture technologies are related to aquatic animals or aquatic plants, as well as some technologies have an integrated system. This integration between aquatic plants and aquatic animals could be performed during early larvae rearing, on-growing and/or mass production. In the context of the blue revolution, the current review focuses on the generations of integration between aquatic plants and aquatic animals, such as live feeds, biomass concentrates, water conditioners “green water technique”, aqua-feed additives, co-culturing technologies, and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). This review could shed light on the benefit of aquatic animals and plant integration, which could lead future low-cost, highly efficient, and sustainable aquaculture industry projects.
The rapid rise in emissions of greenhouse gases due to utilization of fossil fuels led to the increase in pollution level and climate change along with depletion of the resources. Thus, biofuels produced from microalgae provide an alternative approach toward replacing fossil fuels. Microalgae are the photosynthetic microorganisms which grow in marine and fresh water. The biofuels obtained from microalgae are more sustainable, economical, renewable, and prevent elevation of greenhouse gas emissions. The microalgal biofuels are considered under third generation of biofuels. Also, microalgae used for biofuels possess the advantage of providing nutrients such as lipid, carbohydrate along with requiring less land and water for cultivation. However, biofuels produced commercially are not sustainable due to low production and costly operating procedures. The main purpose of this chapter is to enlighten the concepts as well as technologies which are involved in evolution of biofuels such as biodiesel, biomethane, bioethanol, and biohydrogen. Also, it highlights the generations, benefits, drawbacks, global production of biofuels along with the other applications of microalgae in different areas. The usage of microalgae in the production of biofuels proves to be a novel and scientific outlook in reducing environmental degradation as well as increasing the awareness toward sustainable approach.