A schematic diagram of the reading span task. A red fixation circle was presented at the beginning of the task, which was followed by a sentence in which a target word was underscore by a red line. Participants were instructed to read a sentence aloud and to remember the target word. After presentation of four sentences, a recall screen was given, and participants reported the words they remembered. For a clarification purpose, focused words were underlined by red lines and non-focused words were done by the blue ones. English translations were given next to the Japanese sentences.

A schematic diagram of the reading span task. A red fixation circle was presented at the beginning of the task, which was followed by a sentence in which a target word was underscore by a red line. Participants were instructed to read a sentence aloud and to remember the target word. After presentation of four sentences, a recall screen was given, and participants reported the words they remembered. For a clarification purpose, focused words were underlined by red lines and non-focused words were done by the blue ones. English translations were given next to the Japanese sentences.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing. Using the focused version of the reading span test (RST), in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence (focused word) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Whereas previous research has found that a Familiar Talker Advantage-better spoken language perception for familiar voices-occurs following explicit voice-learning, Case, Seyfarth, and Levi [(2018). J. Speech, Lang., Hear. Res. 61(5), 1251-1260] failed to find this effect after implicit voice-learning. To test whether the advantage is limited to ex...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments examined whether or not benchmark findings observed in the immediate retrieval from episodic memory are similarly observed over much greater time-scales. Participants were presented with experimentally-controlled lists of words at the very slow rate of one word every hour using an iPhone recall application, RECAPP, which was also...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to highlight that episodic memory and working memory compete for the same resource, which would be diminished in aging. Using the remember/know paradigm, we compared the interference related to the retrieval of words on the parallel processing of preestablished relational bindings (Shifting condition) or newly established...
Article
Full-text available
Within memory processing, feature and conjunction effects refer to higher false alarms (incorrectly naming items as previously seen) for stimuli with partial/all features taken from different previously studied versus novel items. In this study, we compared feature–conjunction effects in the memory tasks of both item recognition and source retrieva...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined age-related differences in the inconsistency effect, in which memory is enhanced for schema-inconsistent information compared to schema-consistent information. Young and older adults studied schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in an academic office under either intentional or incidental encoding instructions...

Citations

... Several studies such as Bolognini et al. 2010;Minamoto et al. 2014;Wright and Krekelberg 2014;Li et al. 2015;Benwell et al. 2015;Roe et al. 2016;Learmonth et al. 2017;and Falcone et al. 2018 combined the use of cognitive tasks with brain stimulation to try to maximize the benefits of the task. There are indications that by modulating the neuronal membrane threshold, tDCS can increase processing efficiency induced by the cognitive task since the changes in cortical excitability induced by tDCS can interact with learning processes, leading to gains behavioral (Bolognini et al. 2010). ...
... Regarding the use of tDCS as an adjunct tool to cognitive training, several studies (Bolognini et al. 2010;Minamoto et al. 2014;Wright and Krekelberg 2014;Li et al. 2015;Benwell et al. 2015;Roe et al. 2016;Learmonth et al. 2017;Falcone et al. 2018) combined cognitive training with brain stimulation to attempt to maximize the benefits of training. Evidence shows that by modulating the threshold of the neuronal membrane, tDCS can lead to an increase in processing efficiency induced by training since the changes in cortical excitability induced by tDCS can interact with the learning processes, leading to behavioural gains (Bolognini et al. 2010). ...
... Several studies have used tDCS in clinical or healthy populations, demonstrating its effectiveness in modulating attentional performance (Bolognini et al. 2010;Filmer et al. 2015;Roy et al. 2015;Benwell et al. 2015;Minamoto et al. 2014;Falcone et al. 2018). Thus, considering the hypothesis that stimulation by tDCS could assist in the enhancement of the attentional mechanisms of ATCOs and can expand their cognitive skills and contribute to better work performance and, consequently, to flight safety, this research investigated the effect of a single session of right parietal anodal tDCS associated with cognitive task on the visuospatial attention of ATCOs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Visuospatial attention is a cognitive skill essential to the performance of air traffic control activities. We evaluated the effect of an anodic session of transcranial low-intensity direct current stimulation (tDCS) right parietal associated with cognitive training of visuospatial attention of 21 air traffic controllers. Within-subject designs were used, with all volunteers undergoing two tDCS sessions; an experimental (2 mA anodic) and control (sham) performed concomitantly with the cognitive training (2-Back). Visuospatial performance was measured using the Attention Network Test for Interactions and Vigilance pre- and post-intervention. The results indicate that after an active parietal tDCS session, the ATCOs showed faster responses, but not more accurate, for visuospatial attention in its aspects of orientation and reorientation. This result was significant when comparing baseline and post-tests in the active tDCS group. Comparing the post-tests between the tDCS active and sham groups, it is possible to infer a trend of improvement in the results based on faster and more accurate responses, which suggests a possible refinement of the ATCO’s attentional orientation. However, this population may eventually have reached a plateau in the performance of this skill. From the analysis of the results we arrive at the following hypotheses: (I) the increase in cortical excitability mediated by anodic tDCS frequently recorded may not be accompanied by improvements in behavioural measures; (II) the interaction between anodic tDCS with another event of increased excitability—execution of a cognitive task, may have hindered the occurrence of neuroplasticity; (III) the air traffic control activity may be associated with a high level of attention, which may have contributed to a ceiling effect for the development of this skill; (IV) online assessments may be more relevant to identify acute effects; (V) repeated sessions may be more efficient to find cumulative effects; (VI) the analysis of interactions between attentional networks can contribute to the study of visuospatial attention; (VII) tDCS protocols aimed at ATCO need to consider the specifics of this audience, such as circadian rhythm and sleep and fatigue conditions.
... For example, two previous studies targeting the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed enhanced attentional orienting/reorienting responses on an attention network test following anodal tDCS of PPC (Lo et al., 2019;Roy, Sparing, Fink, & Hesse, 2015). These findings were replicated in a study by Minamoto et al. (2014), who found that online anodal stimulation of PPC facilitated stimulus-driven attentional processing in participants performing a reading span test. While these studies have provided critical data on how attentional processing and reallocation is affected by tDCS of the PPC, far less is known about how tDCS of earlier brain regions (e.g., visual cortices) affects attentional orienting. ...
... More specifically, the phenomena of attentional disengagement from an expected target site, which is an essential subcomponent of attentional reorientation, has been shown to be more susceptible to the loss of parietal functioning by lesion studies (Posner, Walker, Friedrich, & Rafal, 1984;Posner, Walker, Friedrich, & Rafal, 1987). Additional evidence comes from neuroimaging studies targeting the parietal cortex with tDCS (Minamoto et al., 2014) and TMS (Capotosto, Corbetta, Romani, & Babiloni, 2012). Like theta, stronger alpha oscillations to invalid versus valid trials following anodal stimulation may imply greater neuronal deployment and thus systematic parietal engagement to meet augmented demands of the task during invalid trials. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous brain stimulation studies have targeted the posterior parietal cortex, a key hub of the attention network, to manipulate attentional reorientation. However, the impact of stimulating brain regions earlier in the pathway, including early visual regions, is poorly understood. In this study, 28 healthy adults underwent three high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) visits (i.e., anodal, cathodal, and sham). During each visit, they completed 20 min of occipital HD-tDCS and then a modified Posner task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were transformed into the time-frequency domain and significant oscillatory events were imaged using a beamformer. Oscillatory response amplitude values were extracted from peak voxels in the whole-brain maps and were statistically compared. Behaviorally, we found that the participants responded slowly when attention reallocation was needed (i.e., the validity effect), irrespective of the stimulation condition. Our neural findings indicated that cathodal HD-tDCS was associated with significantly reduced theta validity effects in the occipital cortices, as well as reduced alpha validity effects in the left occipital and parietal cortices relative to anodal HD-tDCS. Additionally, anodal occipital stimulation significantly increased gamma amplitude in right occipital regions relative to cathodal and sham stimulation. Finally, we also found a negative correlation between the alpha validity effect and reaction time following anodal stimulation. Our findings suggest that HD-tDCS of the occipital cortices has a polarity dependent impact on the multispectral neural oscillations serving attentional reorientation in healthy adults, and that such effects may reflect altered local GABA concentrations in the neural circuitry serving attentional reorientation.
... For instance, tDCS over the parietal cortex, when compared to tDCS over the PFC, was able to decrease false recognition rate and bias in an item and source discrimination task (Pergolizzi & Chua, 2016). Moreover, anodal tDCS over the left parietal cortex was able to increase attention to a focus word in a sentence (Minamoto et al., 2014), and highdensity tDCS over the parietal cortex was able to increase speed of retrieval of correct word-picture pairs (Perceval, Martin, Copland, Laine, & Meinzer, 2017). Thus, it is of upmost importance to study other cortical targets for the modulation of cognitive functions, as they may help to understand the role of specific regions on broader network modulation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Aims: One of the components of working memory is the ability to respond to unexpected demands and rapidly shifting attention between tasks. Previous studies have used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in order to modulate task and set shifting ability over the prefrontal cortex. However, set shifting/task switching ability requires a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network. In this study we aimed to assess if delivering active cross-hemispheric tDCS over the parietal cortex - right anodal-left-cathodal (pRA-LC) and right cathodal-left anodal (pRC-LA), as compared to sham tDCS, is able to modulate task switching ability in healthy volunteers. Methods: A total of 17 college students who volunteered (age: 21.65 ± 4.42, 14 females) participated in this pilot study in which the effects of three different single session tDCS conditions over the parietal cortex on task switching ability were assessed. Results: There were significant differences in terms of switch costs F (2,28) = 4,01, p < .05 dependent on stimulation. Bonferroni pairwise comparisons showed that the Response Time (RT) of the Switch Cost increased significantly (M = 102.84, SD = 18.24) for the pRA-LC condition, when compared with the sham condition (M = 49.44, SD = 17.84) (p = .03, d=2.96) Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the importance of studying the role of the parietal cortex in task switching ability. An activity shift towards the right parietal hemisphere (i.e., pRA-LC) impaired task switching performance, which is consistent with the role of the left parietal cortex on endogenous preparation and adjustment of goal directed behaviors. Future studies should focus on exploring the electrophysiological and neuroimaging correlates associated with the tDCS effects over the parietal, as well as exploring the usefulness of multi-site stimulation.
... The reason for this limitation is that the studies aiming at investigating reading-related attentional processes employed experimental paradigms that are, in most cases, inadequate for the study of parafoveal preprocessing. More specifically, paradigms ranged from the presentation of isolated words [10][11][12][13] to sentence reading [14]. Presenting words in isolation at different eccentricities, however, is not a valid approach to study attentional processes during parafoveal preprocessing, because during reading, words are rarely recognized and processed in isolation. ...
... TDCS can induce changes in cortical excitability through hyperpolarization (cathodal stimulation) or depolarization (anodal stimulation) of the resting membrane potential of the stimulated neural tissue [48,52,53]. Previous tDCS studies investigating attention-related processes reported significant effects of current stimulation when applied over the PPC [14,[54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]. ...
... If, however, stimuli were presented bilaterally, both cathodal and anodal stimulation had inhibitory effects. Conversely, anodal stimulation over the PPC resulted in facilitatory effects in several other studies [14,56,60,61]. Furthermore, Bardi et al., (2013) [55] reported opposite effects of current stimulation depending on subtle differences in attentional control demands. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the functional role of the posterior parietal cortex during the processing of parafoveally presented letter strings. To this end, we simultaneously presented two letter strings (word or pseudoword)– one foveally and one parafoveally – and asked the participants to indicate the presence of a word (i.e., lexical decision flanker task). We applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)over the posterior parietal cortex in order to establish causal links between brain activity and lexical decision performance (accuracy and latency). The results indicated that foveal stimulus difficulty affected the amount of parafoveally processed information. Bayes factor analysis showed no effects of brain stimulation suggesting that posterior parietal cathodal tDCS does not modulate attention-related processes during parafoveal preprocessing. This result is discussed in the context of recent tDCS studies on attention and performance.
... However, this area is also associated with cognitive skills such as visual attention, which can also influence reading skill ( Bosse et al., 2007;Shaywitz and Shaywitz, 2008;Vidyasagar and Pammer, 2010;Gabrieli and Norton, 2012;Heim et al., 2015). Studies using a similar target site have also shown stimulation can affect visual attention ( Minamoto et al., 2014) and working memory ( Hill et al., 2016;Trumbo et al., 2016;Möller et al., 2017). These cognitive mechanisms are related to grapheme-phoneme processing, and thus may have mediating roles on the relationship between reading skill, parietotemporal stimulation and grapheme-phoneme mapping. ...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroimaging work from developmental and reading intervention research has suggested a cause of reading failure may be lack of engagement of parietotemporal cortex during initial acquisition of grapheme-phoneme (letter-sound) mappings. Parietotemporal activation increases following grapheme-phoneme learning and successful reading intervention. Further, stimulation of parietotemporal cortex improves reading skill in lower ability adults. However, it is unclear whether these improvements following stimulation are due to enhanced grapheme-phoneme mapping abilities. To test this hypothesis, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to manipulate parietotemporal function in adult readers as they learned a novel artificial orthography with new grapheme-phoneme mappings. Participants received real or sham stimulation to the left inferior parietal lobe (L IPL) for 20 min before training. They received explicit training over the course of 3 days on 10 novel words each day. Learning of the artificial orthography was assessed at a pre-training baseline session, the end of each of the three training sessions, an immediate post-training session and a delayed post-training session about 4 weeks after training. Stimulation interacted with baseline reading skill to affect learning of trained words and transfer to untrained words. Lower skill readers showed better acquisition, whereas higher skill readers showed worse acquisition, when training was paired with real stimulation, as compared to readers who received sham stimulation. However, readers of all skill levels showed better maintenance of trained material following parietotemporal stimulation, indicating a differential effect of stimulation on initial learning and consolidation. Overall, these results indicate that parietotemporal stimulation can enhance learning of new grapheme-phoneme relationships in readers with lower reading skill. Yet, while parietotemporal function is critical to new learning, its role in continued reading improvement likely changes as readers progress in skill.
... In the present research, we sought to investigate whether the multiple sessions of c-tDCS applied over the left PPC in the intact hemisphere or a-tDCS applied over the right PPC in the lesioned hemisphere, might boost the beneficial effects of PA. A total of 19 post-acute neglect patients after right stroke performed PA treatment, in combination with tDCS protocols that were effective in enhancing (a-tDCS) or inhibiting (c-tDCS) parietal functioning both in neurologically intact individuals and stroke patients (Ko et al., 2008;Bolognini et al., 2013Bolognini et al., , 2015Convento et al., 2014;Minamoto et al., 2014). Eleven patients were tested in the a-tDCS group and eight patients were tested in the c-tDCS group. ...
... Indeed, while such brain stimulation protocol might ameliorate neglect symptoms when uncoupled with a specific treatment (Sparing et al., 2009), it can also interfere with motor control functions of parietal regions (Convento et al., 2014) and thus with the PA rehabilitation itself. Rather, a greater improvement is expected after a-tDCS over right PPC, as anodal stimulation of PPC has been proven to enhance parietal functions (Convento et al., 2014;Minamoto et al., 2014;Bolognini et al., 2015) and improve neglect symptoms (Ko et al., 2008). A-tDCS over right PPC may activate residual tissue in the affected parietal cortex, without interfering with left hemisphere sensorimotor networks mediating the progressive realignment process, necessary for PA to occur. ...
... Moreover, a-tDCS with similar PPC-contralateral orbit montage and stimulation intensity enhanced parietal functioning (e.g. performance in attentional tasks, action planning) in other studies on healthy subjects (Convento et al., 2014;Minamoto et al., 2014) and stroke patients (Bolognini et al., 2015). For the c-tDCS, the cathodal electrode was placed over P5 (left PPC) and the reference electrode was positioned over the right supraorbital region. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study is to compare the effects of multiple sessions of cathodal (c-tDCS) or anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) in modulating the beneficial effects of prism adaptation (PA) treatment in neglect patients. 30 neglect patients were submitted to 10 daily sessions of PA treatment. Patients were pseudo-randomly divided into 3 groups. In the c-tDCS-group, each PA session was coupled with 20 minutes of cathodal stimulation of the left, intact PPC; in the a-tDCS-group, anodal stimulation was applied to PPC of the damaged hemisphere; in the Sham group, sham stimulation was applied. Neglect was evaluated before and after treatment with the Behavioral Inattention Test. Combined tDCS-PA treatment induced stronger neglect improvement in the a-tDCS group as compared to the Sham group. No improvement was found in the c-tDCSgroup, with respect to that normally induced by PA and found in the Sham group. c-tDCS abolished neglect amelioration after PA, possibly because stimulation affected the sensorimotor network controlling prism adaptation. Instead, a-tDCS PPC boosted neglect amelioration after PA probably thanks to increased excitability of residual tissue in the lesioned hemisphere, which in turn might reduce dysfunctional over-excitability of the intact hemisphere.
Chapter
So far, several methods have been developed to treat attention deficit disorder symptoms or enhance attention performance and concentration. The most common method is medicinal therapy. Recently, new nonmedicinal therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques have been proposed. Some of these methods are used in clinics or are prescribed as home use. Some others are still being studied and researched despite their positive effects. In this chapter, some of the most famous clinical and nonclinical methods and their features are briefly introduced.
Chapter
A major challenge in neuroscience research is to develop stimulation systems (both minimally invasive and noninvasive) that can safely, flexibly and efficiently tap into the human brain, to coordinate complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. In this regard, neural technology is targeting new therapeutic approaches to improve mental performance for patients with cognitive disorders. Herein, we discuss recent developments in electro-stimulation therapies that have been instrumental in improving memory and cognition, including working memory, decision making and executive control, by enhancing cognitive performance. The use of various stimulation devices and technologies developed recently is examined in terms of preclinical (nonhuman primate experiments) and clinical applications to human brain disorders.