A, reconstructed pattern of the evolution of polytocy across Chiroptera (using make.simmap of phytools).
B, detail showing families Miniopteridae, Cistugidae and Vespertilionidae. Coloured circles at the nodes indicate the
posterior probabilities of the states. The tree shown includes 551 species and is based on the mammal tree presented at http://vertlife.org/ (see Material and Methods). Two species illustrate Myotinae on the left side [Myotis albescens (upper
left) and Myotis riparius (lower left)], and two species illustrate Vespertilioninae [Lasiurus ega (upper right) and Eptesicus
brasiliensis (lower right)]. Photograph credits: Roberto L. M. Novaes and Guilherme Garbino.

A, reconstructed pattern of the evolution of polytocy across Chiroptera (using make.simmap of phytools). B, detail showing families Miniopteridae, Cistugidae and Vespertilionidae. Coloured circles at the nodes indicate the posterior probabilities of the states. The tree shown includes 551 species and is based on the mammal tree presented at http://vertlife.org/ (see Material and Methods). Two species illustrate Myotinae on the left side [Myotis albescens (upper left) and Myotis riparius (lower left)], and two species illustrate Vespertilioninae [Lasiurus ega (upper right) and Eptesicus brasiliensis (lower right)]. Photograph credits: Roberto L. M. Novaes and Guilherme Garbino.

Source publication
Article
Litter size varies in mammals, with about half of the species producing at least two offspring per gestation (polytocy). In bats, however, the modal litter size is one (monotocy), and polytocy is restricted to family Vespertilionidae. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of polytocy in chiropterans and use phylogenetically informed regress...

Citations

... Bats have several attributes that make them prone to being parasitized: gregarious behavior, grooming, body size, age, sex, individual genetic aspects, nutritional status, areas of activity (see Poulin and Morand 2004). Compared to mammals of similar size, their life expectancy is very high (Seim et al. 2013, Garbino et al. 2021. Bats use a variety of roost structures, including foliage, tree cavities, abandoned buildings, and large cave systems ). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bat species present a series of attributes that makes them prone to being parasitized. Bat flies (Streblidae) are hematophagous ectoparasites exclusive to bats. Our study aimed to investigate the association of bat flies with the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (É. Geoffroy, 1810), in Honduras. We analyzed the effect of sex and age of the host on parasitism. Eight localities belonging to six departments were sampled in an altitudinal range between 50 and 995 m. Field data were obtained between May 2018 to November 2019 and 80 individuals were captured, from which 395 bat flies were extracted. Four species of bat flies were registered: Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais, 1844, T. joblingi Wenzel, 1966 and T. caecus Edwards, 1948. Trichobius parasiticus presented the highest prevalence and mean intensity, followed by S. wiedemanni. Trichobius joblingi and T. caecus are new records of parasitism on D. rotundus for Honduras, although we consider as an accidental association. We recorded six types of infracommunities that parasitized 85% of the hosts. The prevalence and mean intensity was not affected by age and sex of the host for any bat fly species.
... Migratory bats are most often found dead below wind turbines in the temperate zone (Arnett et al. 2016), suggesting that wind energy infrastructures may impede the connectivity between their summer and wintering habitats Barclay 2009, Voigt et al. 2015b). Populations may be unable to compensate for the additional losses of individuals at wind turbines since bats have a low reproductive rate, with only 1-2 offspring per year (Garbino et al. 2021). Recent population trend analyses suggested that some species with high collision risk may be in decline (Zahn et al. 2014, Frick et al. 2017), yet population effects are difficult to monitor in bats because wind turbines can kill migratory bats that originate from both local and distant populations of unknown location (Voigt et al. 2012, Lehnert et al. 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines globally, yet the specific demographic consequences of wind turbine mortality are still unclear. In this study, we compared characteristics of Nathusius' pipistrelles (Pipistrellus nathusii) killed at wind turbines (N = 119) to those observed within the live population (N = 524) during the summer migration period in Germany. We used generalised linear mixed effects modelling to identify demographic groups most vulnerable to wind turbine mortality, including sex, age (adult or juvenile), and geographic origin (regional or long‐distance migrant; depicted by fur stable hydrogen isotope ratios). Juveniles contributed with a higher proportion of carcasses at wind turbines than expected given their frequency in the live population suggesting that juvenile bats may be particularly vulnerable to wind turbine mortality. This effect varied with wind turbine density. Specifically, at low wind turbine densities, representing mostly inland areas with water bodies and forests where Nathusius' pipistrelles breed, juveniles were found more often dead beneath turbines than expected based on their abundance in the live population. At high wind turbine densities, representing mostly coastal areas where Nathusius' pipistrelles migrate, adults and juveniles were equally vulnerable. We found no evidence of increased vulnerability to wind turbines in either sex, yet we observed a higher proportion of females than males among carcasses as well as the live population, which may reflect a female bias in the live population most likely caused by females migrating from their north‐eastern breeding areas migrating into Germany. A high mortality of females is conservation concern for this migratory bat species because it affects the annual reproduction rate of populations. A distant origin did not influence the likelihood of getting killed at wind turbines. A disproportionately high vulnerability of juveniles to wind turbine mortality may reduce juvenile recruitment, which may limit the resilience of Nathusius' pipistrelles to environmental stressors such as climate change or habitat loss. Schemes to mitigate wind turbine mortality, such as elevated cut‐in speeds, should be implemented throughout Europe to prevent population declines of Nathusius' pipistrelles and other migratory bats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Based on our limited results, we surmise that M. yanbarensis occurs in lower numbers in a relatively restricted range due to a combination of greater roost specialization (mentioned previously) and a lower reproductive rate compared with M. ryukyuana. When perfect counting was possible (9 of 23 records), M. ryukyuana maternity colonies tended toward a ratio of one adult to two juveniles (e.g., Appendix S4C), suggesting that M. ryukyuana may birth 1-3 pups per year similar to other Murina species(Kuramoto & Uchida, 1981, Garbino et al., 2021.Conversely, our only record of an M. yanbarensis mother and pup (Appendix S5D) suggests that this species is monotocous like other Myotis species and most other Chiroptera(Racey & Entwistle, 2000).Differences in the current rarity of M. ryukyuana and M. yanbarensis may thus partially reflect differences in population growth following severe declines experienced during periods of large-scale clear-cutting such as the 1950s post-WWII reconstruction period. The higher capture rate of M. yanbarensis on Amami Ōshima (Funakoshi et al., 2019; Preble et al., in press) may reflect the longer period since large-scale clear-cutting compared with Okinawa and the resulting larger areas of suitable oldgrowth breeding habitat. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Roosting information is crucial to guiding bat conservation and bat‐friendly forestry practices. The Ryukyu tube‐nosed bat Murina ryukyuana (Endangered) and Yanbaru whiskered bat Myotis yanbarensis (Critically Endangered) are forest‐dwelling bats endemic to the central Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Despite their threatened status, little is known about the roosting ecology of these species and the characteristics of natural maternity roosts are unknown. To inform sustainable forestry practices and conservation management, we radio‐tracked day roosts of both species in the subtropical forests of Okinawa's Kunigami Village District. We compared roost and roost site characteristics statistically between M. ryukyuana nonmaternity roosts (males or nonreproductive females), maternity roosts, and all M. yanbarensis roosts. Generalized linear models were used to investigate roost site selection by M. ryukyuana irrespective of sex and age class. Lastly, we compiled data on phenology from this and prior studies. Nonreproductive M. ryukyuana roosted alone and primarily in understory foliage. Murina ryukyuana maternity roosts were limited to stands >50 years old, and ~60% were in foliage. Myotis yanbarensis roosted almost entirely in cavities along gulch bottoms and only in stands >70 years old (~1/3 of Kunigami's total forest area). Murina ryukyuana maternity roosts were higher (4.3 ± 0.6 m) than conspecific nonmaternity roosts (2.3 ± 0.5 m; p
Article
How, when and why do organisms, their tissues and their cells age remain challenging issues, although researchers have identified multiple mechanistic causes of aging, and three major evolutionary theories have been developed to unravel the ultimate causes of organismal aging. A central hypothesis of these theories is that the strength of natural selection decreases with age. However, empirical evidence on when, why and how organisms age is phylogenetically limited, especially in natural populations. Here, we developed generic comparisons of gene co-expression networks that quantify and dissect the heterogeneity of gene co-expression in conspecific individuals from different age-classes to provide topological evidence about some mechanical and fundamental causes of organismal aging. We applied this approach to investigate the complexity of some proximal and ultimate causes of aging phenotypes in a natural population of the greater mouse-eared bat Myotis myotis, a remarkably long-lived species given its body size and metabolic rate, with available longitudinal blood transcriptomes. Myotis gene co-expression networks become increasingly fragmented with age, suggesting an erosion of the strength of natural selection and a general dysregulation of gene co-expression in aging bats. However, selective pressures remain sufficiently strong to allow successive emergence of homogeneous age-specific gene co-expression patterns, for at least seven years. Thus, older individuals from long-lived species appear to sit at an evolutionary crossroad: as they age, they experience both a decrease in the strength of natural selection and a targeted selection for very specific biological processes, further inviting to refine a central hypothesis in evolutionary aging theories.