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A participant wearing all investigated devices simultaneously, and a separate picture of each device. Note that during data collection, the participants wore only three devices simultaneously (one around the wrist, one on or around the chest, and one on or around another body part). *The Mio FUSE is not worn by the participant in the current image, yet was placed around the wrist in a similar manner to GENEActiv and fenix 3. 

A participant wearing all investigated devices simultaneously, and a separate picture of each device. Note that during data collection, the participants wore only three devices simultaneously (one around the wrist, one on or around the chest, and one on or around another body part). *The Mio FUSE is not worn by the participant in the current image, yet was placed around the wrist in a similar manner to GENEActiv and fenix 3. 

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Article
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OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS We investigated the wearing comfort of nine devices for monitoring physical activity in a military context. In general, the questionnaire-based survey revealed that the devices were highly acceptable. For long-term monitoring of physical activity in soldiers (>5 days), slightly more participants (85.2%) found that sensors...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... devices (fenix 3 and Axiamote PADIS 2.0) must be paired with a heart rate monitor for full function, however, in the current study participants rated only the device itself, without any additional heart rate monitor. Table 1 and Figure 1 show the characteristics and location of each device. ...
Context 2
... monitoring devices were investigated, each of which are either already used in military organizations or were suggested as potentially applicable in the mili- tary setting by experts of the NATO HFM-260 research panel. Three devices were worn on or around the chest, three devices were worn around the wrist, and one device each was worn on the upper arm, the hip and the backpack, and the shoe. Two devices (fenix 3 and Axiamote PADIS 2.0) must be paired with a heart rate monitor for full function, however, in the current study participants rated only the device itself, without any additional heart rate monitor. Table 1 and Figure 1 show the characteristics and location of each ...

Citations

... Wearer (or clothing) comfort covers more qualities than included by the CRS, nonetheless, the CRSdimensions include a range of dimensions that were judged as relevant to the type of application targeted in the current study. In addition to evaluating whether the system inhibits or restricts movement, the impact on work performance and an overall question on the comfort (Beeler et al. 2018) might need future investigations. It should be noted that the period of time did not exceed two hours in the current study nor in the study by Lind et al. (2020c) since the aim of these two studies focussed on the short period training programs. ...
Article
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Vibrotactile feedback training may be used as a complementary strategy to reduce time in demanding postures in manual handling. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term effects of concurrent posture-correction vibrotactile feedback training on trunk inclination exposure in real manual sorting work. Fifteen warehouse workers completed the training and the follow-up sessions. Trunk inclination angles were recorded using the ambulatory Smart Workwear System. Questionnaires were used for assessing system usability, perceived physical exertion, and work ability. The results showed reduced time in trunk inclination >30°, >45°, and >60°, and reductions in the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile trunk inclination angles, when receiving feedback and immediately after feedback withdrawal. No significant reduction was retained after one and three weeks. The wearer's comfort was scored high, and the feedback did not increase the perceived cognitive demands. No significant effects attributed to changed trunk inclination exposure were observed for perceived physical exertion or work ability. The training program has the potential of contributing to reduced trunk inclination exposure in the short term. Future studies are needed to evaluate if improvements in the feedback training can transfer the short-term results to retained median- and long-term effects. Practitioner summary: A two-day training program with concurrent posture-correction vibrotactile feedback can contribute to reduced exposure of trunk inclination in real manual sorting work in the short term. More research is needed on how to design the feedback training programs in order to be effective in the long term.
... Wearable inertial sensors are electromechanical devices typically comprised of a combination of accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers that directly measure the linear acceleration, rotational velocity, and heading of an object in space. They represent an extension of the single-axis inclinometers used for decades by ergonomists by measuring the information necessary to determine the three-dimensional orientation of an object in space; although they are often applied in work settings as more accurate inclinometers or for activity recognition and energy expenditure estimation purposes (i.e., a physical activity monitor) (Beeler et al., 2018;McNamara et al., 2016;Schall Jr et al., 2016a;Thiese, 2014). ...
... The relatively strong sex differences (relative to some other factors such as kinematic exposures) revealed in this study appear consistent with previous research findings suggesting that device preferences may differ based on sex and situation (Beeler et al., 2018;Huberty et al., 2015). The discomfort associated with the use of wearable sensors may be related to the manner by which it is secured to an individual. ...
Article
Wearable inertial sensors may be used to objectively quantify exposure to some physical risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. However, concerns regarding their potential negative effects on user safety and satisfaction remain. This study characterized the self-reported daily discomfort, distraction, and burden associated with wearing inertial sensors on the upper arms, trunk, and dominant wrist of 31 manufacturing workers collected over 15 full work shifts. Results indicated that the workers considered the devices as generally comfortable to wear, not distracting, and not burdensome to use. Exposure to non-neutral postures (discomfort, right arm, beta = 0.02; trunk, beta = −0.01), non-cyclic tasks (distraction, beta = -0.26), and higher body mass indices (discomfort, beta = 0.05; distraction, beta = 0.02) contributed to statistically significant (p < 0.05), albeit practically small increases in undesirable ratings. For instance, for each additional percentage of time working with the right arm elevated ≥60°, self-reported discomfort ratings increased 0.02 cm on a standard 10 cm visual analog scale. Female workers reported less discomfort and distraction while wearing the sensors at work than males (discomfort, beta = −0.93; distraction, beta = −0.3). In general, the low ratings of discomfort, distraction, and burden associated with wearing the devices during work suggests that inertial sensors may be suitable for extended use among manufacturing workers.
... The high HR measurement accuracy, low bias and error rate of chest strap HR monitors have already been examined and demonstrated against clinical ECG [8,9]. However, their usage, comfort and stability may be challenging [10]. Hence, vests with integrated electrodes for HR monitoring have been introduced to overcome the shortcomings of chest straps. ...
Article
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Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) based physiological metrics such as Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC), Energy Expenditure (EE), and Training Impulse (TRIMP) are widely utilized in coaching to monitor and optimize an athlete’s training load. Chest straps, and recently also dry electrodes integrated to special sports vests, are used to monitor HR during sports. Mechanical design, placement of electrodes, and ergonomics of the sensor affect the measured signal quality and artefacts. To evaluate the impact of the sensor mechanical design on the accuracy of the HR/HRV and further on to estimation of EPOC, EE, and TRIMP, we recorded HR and HRV from a chest strap and a vest with the same ECG sensor during supervised exercise protocol. A 3-lead clinical Holter ECG was used as a reference. Twenty-five healthy subjects (six females) participated. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for HR was 0.76% with chest strap and 3.32% with vest. MAPE was 1.70% vs. 6.73% for EE, 0.38% vs. 8.99% for TRIMP and 3.90% vs. 54.15% for EPOC with chest strap and vest, respectively. Results suggest superior accuracy of chest strap over vest for HR and physiological metrics monitoring during sports.
... Device robustness (from impacts, dust, and water) is also a concern for harsh military environments. Ergonomically, wear tolerance is typically higher for non-chest worn devices (e.g., wrist, upper-arm, foot) which are less likely to influence military performance [61]. Anecdotal observations from the authors support these findings, having noted that tolerance for prolonged wearing of chest and wrist straps varied widely among military personnel, with reports of devices catching on equipment / objects as well as skin irritation and discomfort while wearing body armour and during prone activities as well as sleep. ...
Article
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Military personnel are required to complete physically demanding tasks when performing work and training, which may be quantified through the physical stress imposed (external load) or the resultant physiological strain (internal load). The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the techniques used to monitor work and training load in military settings, summarise key findings, and discuss important practical, analytical, and conceptual considerations. Most investigations have focused upon measuring external and internal load in military training environments; however, limited data exists in operational settings. Accelerometry has been the primary tool used to estimate external load, with heart rate commonly used to quantify internal load. Supplemental to heart rate, psychophysiological and biochemical measures have also been investigated to elucidate aspects of internal load. Broadly, investigations have revealed that military training requires personnel to perform relatively large volumes of physical activity (e.g., averaging ∼15,000 steps·day⁻¹) of typically low-moderate intensity activity (<6 MET), although considerable temporal and inter individual variability is observed from these gross mean estimates. There are limitations associated with these measures and, at best, estimates of external and internal load can only be inferred. These limitations are particularly pertinent for military tasks such as load carriage and manual material handling, which often involve complex activities performed individually or in teams, in a range of operational environments, with multiple layers of protection, over a protracted duration. Comprehensively quantifying external and internal loads during these functional activities poses substantial practical and analytical challenges.
... To achieve high acceptance levels for body worn sensors, good wearing comfort is essential. Results from [8], suggest that devices placed on or around the upper arm, the hip, or the shoe will be preferred over devices worn around the wrist or on or around the chest in a military context. Investigations into wearing comfort are therefore an important aspect in the project and different positions of additional sensor solutions will be tested. ...
Chapter
Military organizations have extensive technological solutions to precisely monitor machines and operating equipment. In recent decades, extensive research and development projects have been launched focusing on the physiological monitoring of soldiers, with new opportunities arising from innovative developments in the field of biosensors. This paper describes the main objectives of the VitalMonitor project, which is carried out in the frame of the Austrian Defence Research Program FORTE (FORTE - Austrian Defence Research Program; https://projekte.ffg.at/projekt/3781447). The project focuses on the development of a real-time monitoring system for situation-dependent physiological load on soldiers based on innovative body worn biosensors integrated into clothing or equipment. Intelligent sensor fusion and data analysis methods enable an overview of the actual physical stress situation in military training, exercises or missions. The analysis of scenario-based physiological requirements will be the basis for the optimization of physical resilience as well as operational readiness and will eventually reduce the risk for dangerous situations caused by physical exhaustion.
... The choice of on-body sensor placement locations in the workplace depends not only on the likelihood of obtaining high quality measurements, but also on the practicality of the selected sensor location(s)comfortable to wear, not interfering with a work tool, work environment, personal equipment, etc. (Beeler et al., 2018;Mokhlespour Esfahani and Nussbaum, 2018). Considering these factors, and to support the ease of IMU use in the field, four different single IMU placement locations were considered: ...
Article
The use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) for monitoring and classifying physical activities has received substantial attention in recent years, both in occupational and non-occupational contexts. However, a “user-friendly” approach is needed to promote this approach to quantify physical demands in actual workplaces. We explored the use of a single IMU for extracting information about different manual material handling (MMH) tasks (i.e., specific type of task performed, and associated duration and frequency), using a bidirectional long short-term memory network for classification. Classification performance using single IMUs placed on several body parts was compared with performance using multiple IMU configurations (2, 3, and 17 IMUs). Overall, the use of a single sensor led to satisfactory results (e.g., median accuracy >97%) in classifying MMH tasks and estimating task duration and frequency. Limited benefits were obtained using additional sensors, and several sensor locations yielded similar outcomes. Classification performance, though, was relatively inferior for push/pull vs. other tasks.
... Headbands are usually worn during the night only, whereas ear-level hearing devices are often not worn during the night. Because it is still early days with medical wearables, there are numerous questions relatively unexplored with regards to attachment, user adoption, performance and user experience (Stauffer et al. 2018;Beeler et al. 2018;Cheung et al. 2019;DeVore et al. 2019;L'Hommedieu et al. 2019). Table 2 shows a simplified overview of conditions addressed here and their relevant physiological parameters to be monitored either continuously or intermittently. ...
Article
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With an ongoing shift from managing disease toward the inclusion of maintaining health and preventing disease, the world has seen the rise of increasingly sophisticated physiological monitoring and analytics. Innovations range from wearables, smartphone-based spot monitoring to highly complex noncontact, remote monitoring, utilizing different mechanisms. These tools empower the individual to better navigate their own health. They also generate powerful insights towards the detection of subclinical symptoms or processes via existing and novel digital biomarkers. In that context, a topic that is receiving increasing interest is the modulation of human physiology around an individual "baseline" in everyday life and the impact thereof on other sensorineural body functions such as hearing. More and more fully contextualized and truly long-term physiological data are becoming available that allows deeper insights into the response of the human body to our behavior, immediate environment and the understanding of how chronic conditions are evolving. Hearing loss often goes hand in hand with chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cognitive impairment, increased risk of fall, mental health, or cardiovascular risk factors. This inspires an interest to not only look at hearing impairment itself but to take a broader view, for example, to include contextualized vital signs. Interestingly, stress and its physiological implications have also been shown to be a relevant precursor to hearing loss and other chronic conditions. This article deduces the requirements for wearables and their ecosystems to detect relevant dynamics and connects that to the need for more ecologically valid data towards an integrated and more holistic mapping of hearing characteristics.
... However, issues related to compliance, protection of personal data, and comfort, as well as the lack of standardized protocol for data acquisition and processing, are still under debate. Thus, the use of such devices in daily practice is not as widespread as expected [34][35][36]. ...
Article
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Trunk flexion represents a risk factor for the onset of low-back disorders, yet limited quantitative data exist regarding flexion exposures in actual working conditions. In this study, we evaluated the potential of using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) to classify trunk flexion, in terms of amplitude, frequency, and duration, and assessed the influence of alternative time durations on exposure results. Twelve warehouse workers were monitored during two hours of an actual shift while wearing a single IMU on their low back. Trunk flexion data were reduced using exposure variation analysis integrated with recommended exposure thresholds. Workers spent 5.1% of their working time with trunk flexion of 30-60° and 2.3% with flexion of 60-90°. Depending on the level of acceptable error, relatively shorter monitoring periods (up to 50 min) might be sufficient to characterize trunk flexion exposures. Future work is needed, however, to determine if these results generalize to other postural exposures and tasks.
... Sensors are even becoming fully portable with the possibility for data collection to occur via a smartphone or tablet, even for measures of brain activity (Poulsen et al., 2017;Stopczynski, Stahlhut, Larsen, Petersen, & Hansen, 2014). All these devices promise to provide medical grade data and several studies have provided evidence of their successful application (Amaral, Simoes, Mouga, Andrade, & Castelo-Branco, 2017;Barrios, Oldrati, Santini, & Lutterotti, 2018;Beeler et al., 2018;Corino et al., 2017;Tinga et al., 2019b). ...
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Up till now, there has been an unresolved discussion in the literature regarding the validity of non-invasive neurophysiological measures in learning. On the one hand studies have shown promise for these measures in learning (Krigolson et al., 2015; Lai et al., 2013; Leff et al., 2011), while on the other hand there has been caution for the use of such measures (Ansari et al., 2011; Brouwer et al., 2014; Cowley, 2015; Dahlstrom-Hakki et al., 2019). This dissertation was aimed to address this discussion. To this aim, this dissertation focused on experimentally examining non-invasive neurophysiological changes during learning and factors that influence these changes. Additionally, this dissertation focused on providing insight into how to move towards applying these measures validly and effectively in a wide range of settings, not only in the laboratory but also in real-world contexts. Considering all of these findings together, it becomes clear that understanding the assessment of learning through neurophysiology requires an understanding of the interplay between learning, neurophysiology, behavior, individual differences, and task-related aspects. Comprehending this complex interaction is key to resolving the discussion regarding the validity of non-invasive neurophysiological measures in learning. As the reported findings demonstrate non-invasive neurophysiology to be able to provide insight into learning, the discussion should not be focussed on whether neurophysiological measures are able to assess learning, but on how to obtain valid assessments across different learning tasks and across different trainees.Although it is clear that further development and research are needed for largescale application of neurophysiology in learning and training, the potential of neurophysiology is expected to increase as the field advances (see Chapter 8 for a more in-depth discussion). Industry could benefit from being involved in future endeavors to move the field forward. Vice versa, development and research can move forward in promising directions when taking into account the needs and experiences from the industry. The embedding of the work presented in this dissertation within the CAMPIONE project highlights how fundamental research can provide valuable contributions to application. Even though fundamental research may sometimes seem to be far removed from application, understanding the fundamentals will ultimately lead to the most valid and reliable application. I am looking forward to seeing future research contribute to our knowledge about assessment of learning through non-invasive neurophysiological measures and to seeing application of neurophysiology in training and education advance. This dissertation has paved the way and I hope many scholars and other professionals will follow up on the presented work.
... Everion (arm) None but monitoring in healthy volunteers showed acceptability (Beeler et al. 2018), and validation with Holter monitoring (Barrios et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Optimal management of infectious diseases is guided by up-to-date information at the individual and public health level. For infections of global importance including emerging pandemics such as COVID-19 or prevalent endemic diseases such like dengue, identifying patients at risk of severe disease and clinical deterioration can be challenging given the majority present with a mild illness. In our article, we describe the use of wearable technology for continuous physiological monitoring in healthcare. Deployment of wearables in hospital settings for the management of infectious diseases, or in the community to support syndromic surveillance during outbreaks could provide significant, cost effective advantages and improve healthcare delivery. We highlight a range of promising technologies employed by wearable devices and discuss the technical and ethical issues relating to implementation in the clinic, with specific focus on low- and middle- income countries. Finally, we propose a set of essential criteria for the roll-out of wearable technology for clinical use.