A double steganography model combining blockchain and IPFS

A double steganography model combining blockchain and IPFS

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The secret information may be compromised for the lack of security and concealment in conventional covert communication. Blockchain is a suitable platform for establishing covert channels to protect the secret information, due to its features of anti-tamper, anti-forgery, anonymity, and information synchronization. However, the cost of storing larg...

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... A novel coverless image steganography algorithm based on image retrieval of DenseNet features and DWT sequence mapping is proposed by Liu et al. [9]. The other is steganography based on the spatial domain [10][11][12][13], which can directly use the pixel of the carrier image to embed secret information and is very popular. For example, A. Hamza et al. [14] propose a new compressed encrypted data embedding method. ...
... The amount of embedding is an important reference index to evaluate a steganography algorithm and the embedding amount can be calculated by Eq. (12). Table 4 shows the variation of the embedding amount and image quality evaluation metrics of the proposed steganography algorithm when the input parameter BitNum is different. ...
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This paper proposes a novel color image steganography scheme using a compound sinusoidal discrete memristor map and bit counting method. Firstly, a new 2D compound sinusoidal discrete memristor map is designed to generate chaotic sequences with good randomness. Secondly, a new steganography algorithm combining bit counting and multiple-base system is proposed to reduce the distortion of the stego image. Finally, a new steganography framework based on the HSV model is designed to improve the security of the steganography scheme. Experimental and test results show that the proposed algorithm has good imperceptibility and can embed a large number of secret information.
... Zhang et al. [24] used the intelligent contract of voting and bidding to transmit secret information, used an encryption algorithm and two rounds of protocols to ensure data privacy, and designed corresponding information embedding and transmission methods for different scenarios, which is a new covert communication scheme. She et al. [25] put forward a double steganography model which combines blockchain and Interplanetary File System (IPFS). e model consists of image steganography and plain text steganography. ...
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Due to the unique characteristics of blockchain, such as decentralization, anonymity, high credibility, and nontampering, blockchain technologies have become an integral part of public data platforms and public infrastructure. The communication between the stakeholders of a given blockchain can be used as a carrier for covert communication under cover of legal transactions, which has become a promising research direction of blockchain technology. Due to the special mechanism of blockchain, some traditional blockchain covert communication schemes are not mature enough. They suffer from various drawbacks, such as weak concealment of secret information, cumbersome identification and screening of special transactions, poor availability, and low comprehensive performance. Therefore, this paper designs a scheme of covert communication in the Bitcoin blockchain, which takes normal transactions as a mask and leverages the Bitcoin transaction mechanism to embed secret information in the public key hash field. Specifically, we propose a novel key update mechanism combined with the hash algorithm to construct a covert channel. It ensures security and can update the channel to prevent the related problems caused by address reuse. We are taking advantage of the feature of Bitcoin that cannot be double-spent to solve the problem of burning bitcoin when paying bitcoin to a fake public key hash. In our scheme, both parties to the communication are anonymous, and the attacker cannot detect the covert data or track the transaction and address. Our proposed scheme was tested in real Bitcoin blockchain network, and the experimental results were analyzed to verify its security, availability, and efficiency.
... Several works combine the concepts of steganography and blockchain. For instance, in [49] secrets are embedded in images which are later shared through a blockchain and a file system. On the other hand, in [50] each transaction is divided in two parts which are hidden in videos. ...
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Permanent availability makes blockchain technologies a suitable alternative for building a covert channel. Previous works have analysed its feasibility in a particular blockchain technology called Bitcoin. However, Ethereum cryptocurrency is gaining momentum as a means to build distributed apps. The novelty of this paper relies on the use of Ethereum to establish a covert channel considering all transaction fields and smart contracts. No previous work has explored this issue. Thus, a mechanism called Zephyrus, an information hiding mechanism based on steganography, is developed. Moreover, its capacity, cost and stealthiness are assessed both theoretically, and empirically through a prototype implementation that is publicly released. Disregarding the time taken to send the transaction to the blockchain, its retrieval and the mining time, experimental results show that, in the best case, 40 Kbits can be embedded in 0.57 s. for US$ 1.64, and retrieved in 2.8 s.
Article
Blockchain-based covert communication has opened up a new research direction for the covert communication field. In blockchain-based storage covert communication, reliability can be guaranteed because of the inherent immutable property of blockchain. Besides, enhanced undetectability is also achieved because the sender and the receiver do not need to establish a direct connection or be online simultaneously. However, in existing blockchain-based solutions, pre-negotiated and fixed addresses are used as static labels to scan the specific transaction that embeds covert messages, which increases the risk of channel exposure. Moreover, some of them do not support large covert message transmission. In this paper, we present an effective blockchain-based covert storage channel with dynamic labels. More specifically, a novel dynamic label mechanism is proposed to help the receiver extract the covert message efficiently, whereas adversaries cannot distinguish whether a block contains specific transactions. Besides, a message segmentation mechanism is also proposed to achieve large covert message transmission. Theoretical security analysis and detailed experimental evaluations based on the public Ethereum blockchain network show that the proposed scheme is secure under Chosen Hidden-text Attacks with acceptable efficiency.
Article
Secure transmission of data is achieved through the steganography images, where the secret data are embedded and transmitted so that the prohibited users couldn’t able to access the data. In this research, the data are embedded in the optimal location of the network using the proposed FIEO Optimal Location Enabled Stegochain. The algorithm effectively determines the location for the embedding of secret data in the finest region of the image with faster convergence. The two different steps utilized in the research is the determination of the optimal location for embedding the image using the proposed algorithm and the embedded image transformation using the discrete wavelet transform while transferring the image is the first step. And the reconstruction of the original image at the receiver side with the help of the Inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed (IDWT). The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of the performance metrics such as correlation coefficient, and PSNR with the salt and pepper noise is 0.777, and 52.588 respectively. Similarly, for the random noise the correlation coefficient and PSNR obtained by the proposed method are 0.796, and 52.397 respectively.
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Data encryption aims to protect the confidentiality of data at storage, during transmission, or while in processing. However, it is not always the optimum choice as attackers know the existence of the ciphertext. Hence, they can exploit various weaknesses in the implementation of encryption algorithms and can thus decrypt or guess the related cryptographic primitives. Moreover, in the case of proprietary applications such as online social networks, users are at the mercy of the vendor’s security measures. Therefore, users are vulnerable to various security and privacy threats. Contrary to this, covert communication techniques hide the existence of communication and thus achieve security through obscurity and hidden communication channels. Over the period, there has been a significant advancement in this field. However, existing literature fails to encompass all the aspects of covert communications in a single document. This survey thus endeavors to highlight the latest trends in covert communication techniques, related challenges, and future directions.