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A conceptual diagram of the constraint-effect-mitigation (CEM) model (modified from [99]).

A conceptual diagram of the constraint-effect-mitigation (CEM) model (modified from [99]).

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Exposure to green spaces can reduce the negative effects of stress. This study examines how frequency of visits and time spent in urban green spaces (UGS) affect urban dwellers’ subjective well-being. We also investigated the numbers of respondents visiting UGS, their primary motivation, and constraints on their ability to visit. Using quota sampli...

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... to the constraint-effect-mitigation model (CEM) proposed in leisure and recreation, "motivation" and "constraint" are determinants for one's participation in certain activities (e.g., visiting an urban forest). In the CEM model, motivation and constraint directly impact participation, as well as indirectly impact participation through the "negotiation" process based on one's previously structured value system [99] (Figure 2). The outcome (i.e., visiting or not visiting UGS) of the negotiation process is largely determined by the relative strength of, and interactions between, motivation and constraint factors [110]. ...

Citations

... Consistent with a study in Beijing [63], the current study found that the number of years lived in a community affects people's well-being. In a more riparian or natural environment with a large expanse of vegetated areas and water bodies such as the current study area, the relationship between years lived in a community and respondents' well-being can be explained by the biophilia hypothesis [23] and the Kaplan and Kaplan model [24]. ...
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The understanding of the complexities of human well-being (HWB) within the ecosystem service (ES) context is fundamental to the development of management plans to sustain the flow of ecosystem services (ESs) for HWB. However, research on HWB in the context of ecosystem services is still underrepresented on Africa’s coast. Primary data were collected from 794 household heads in six communities within Ghana’s eastern coastal zone. A sequential logistics regression model was used to assess the effect of the interactions between ESs, socio-economic conditions, and contextual factors on HWB. Respondents’ well-being varied across the study communities, with high well-being reported by 63% of respondents from Anloga and low well-being by 77% in Kedzi. A strong association was found between HWB and relevant characteristics of respondents including marital status, years lived in a community, subjective social position (SSP), main livelihood source, income class, access to a reliable credit facility, and being a member of a local community group. Gender was not a significant predictor of HWB levels. For the effect of ESs on HWB, we found that respondents who had high contentment with provisioning and cultural ESs were more likely to have high well-being as opposed to respondents who had low contentment. Respondents who had low to moderate contentment with regulatory ESs were more likely to have high well-being, but the contextual factors condensed the significance of this relationship. Findings suggest the implementation of deliberate actions to maintain or restore vital ecosystem functions and services for sustainable well-being in coastal communities.
... This is true for each individual sample and the two samples combined. This finding endorses a study which found that frequency of visits, not amount of time spent in urban green areas, significantly and positively predicts life satisfaction for residents in Daejeon City, South Korea [71]. Thus, frequent visits to urban green areas mean more than duration in increasing positive emotions, "leading to a feeling of happiness in daily life" [71] (p. ...
... This finding endorses a study which found that frequency of visits, not amount of time spent in urban green areas, significantly and positively predicts life satisfaction for residents in Daejeon City, South Korea [71]. Thus, frequent visits to urban green areas mean more than duration in increasing positive emotions, "leading to a feeling of happiness in daily life" [71] (p. 2). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created an opportunity for us to rethink the relationship between humans and the environment. However, few studies have examined the association between environmental attitudes, motivations, wellbeing, and quality of life in the context of urban green areas before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. This paper investigated the interrelationships among these variables based on data collected in 2019 (before COVID-19) and 2021 (after COVID-19). The results show that the 2021 sample differed significantly from the 2019 sample in environmental attitudes. Respondents after the outbreak with the belief in “humans with nature” were more likely to use urban green areas for being “close to nature” than pre-pandemic respondents. In addition, stronger belief in “humans over nature” led to stronger desire for “social interactions” in 2021 than in 2019, implying a close relationship between people’s perception of humankind’s ability to control nature during the pandemic and their desire to interact with people in urban green areas. The study also found that there may be a pent-up satisfaction among urban dwellers after the COVID-19 outbreak.
... Nature has psychological restorative and mental relaxation potential (Kaplan 1995;Kaplan et al. 1993aKaplan et al. , 1993bUlrich 1983;Ulrich et al. 1991), and urban green spaces are a significant form of nature. It is highly accepted that UGSs provide a natural platform for social cohesion and societal interaction, which causes social harmony (Dadvand et al. 2019;Hong et al. 2019;Larson et al. 2016). Overall life satisfaction and happiness were also positively associated with UGSs (Dadvand et al. 2019;Mavoa et al. 2019). ...
... Various studies support the finding of the current study, like 'green spaces actively encourage humans' physical health' concluded by Holt and Nath (Holt et al. 2019;Nath et al. 2018). In Daejeon (South Korea), frequent visits and maximum time spent in the natural environment were found significant for human physical health (Hong et al. 2019).Moreover, the nearness of green spaces delivers more advantages to people in London (UK), and 300 meters is determined as the best range of access to reap the highest benefits Kothencz et al. 2017). So, there is a wide range of connections between urban greenery and human well-being. ...
... The residents who are closely inter-connected with UGSs of the study area were found more active in social interaction. Green spaces improve social well-being by offering an optimal platform for social interaction (Hong et al. 2019), and almost similar results were found in Lahore, and the residents who keep active in social interaction found more inter-connected with urban green spaces. Urban parks found a source of social well-being by reducing social isolation, as concluded by Dadvant et al. (2019). ...
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Human has been evolving in a natural environment over a long time; thus, he is habitual to adapt it. Green spaces are obligatory landscapes in an urban structure that provide a natural environment and accelerate other life events. In contrast, unplanned urbanization, and conversion from green to grey structures have damaged natural environmental resources. Studies through different angles have highlighted the importance of urban green spaces for human well-being but now need to identify their role according to the potential. The demands of urban green spaces may differ with the change of population size, types of grey structure, urban expansion, the altitude of the place, and geographical location. Therefore, this systematic review aims to analyse the significance of urban green spaces for human well-being. The study opted for a systematic process during the selection and organization of studies for this review. After analysing, 46 studies were finalized with the consensus of three review authors. Accordingly, literature was analysed under the central theme of “Urban Green Spaces for Human Well-being.” Human Well-being was assessed under six sub-themes; physical, psychological, mental, social, subjective, and environmental well-being. The review concluded that urban green spaces are the primary pillar for a sustainable urban place and human well-being due to highly positive and positive correlations. Moreover, the study did not find any demarcation line between green spaces and grey structures according to any specific need. Therefore, the study suggested that the role of urban green spaces for human well-being should be analysed according to their potential and required optimal ratio under different communities’ urban specific environments and social behaviour.
... In the literature, park use behavior has been studied in combination with the subjective well-being of individuals (e.g., Hong et al. (2019) [44]), but not often in combination with experiences or sense of place. Hong et al. (2019) [44] found that the number of visits to a park influences the subjective well-being of individuals. ...
... In the literature, park use behavior has been studied in combination with the subjective well-being of individuals (e.g., Hong et al. (2019) [44]), but not often in combination with experiences or sense of place. Hong et al. (2019) [44] found that the number of visits to a park influences the subjective well-being of individuals. Moreover, a meta-analysis by Barton and Pretty (2010) [45] showed an inverted U-curve relationship between the duration of green exercise (such as walking in nature) and beneficial effects on mood, with a significant change observed in the effects for small (5 min) and large durations (whole day) compared to medium (10-60 min, half a day) durations of exposure. ...
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As our living environment is becoming increasingly urbanized, this puts the livability, health, and quality of life in cities under pressure. Due to the urbanization process, urban green spaces are under threat of becoming scarce, while it is recognized that these green spaces can positively contribute to the subjective well-being of citizens. It is thus important to maximize the use and benefits derived from green spaces by designing them as positively experienced places. The aim of this research is to gain more empirical insights on the relationships between personal and park characteristics, park use behavior, sense of place, and park visitors’ long-term subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction). An online questionnaire was administered to participants in two medium-sized cities in The Netherlands, namely Eindhoven and ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model. The results of this study show that the appreciation of facilities and the absence of disturbances positively influence the use and sense of place of a park. Furthermore, the findings show that sense of place has a positive influence on life satisfaction. The findings can be used by designers and policy-makers as guidelines to improve existing parks or to design new parks that support the subjective well-being of individuals in The Netherlands.
... In this study, the respondents also show that they frequently visit at least weekly (34.33%) or monthly (33.58%) before the Covid-19 pandemic. People who had come to urban green spaces within the past two weeks were associated with higher positive emotions (Hong et al. 2019). ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic has drastically changed the social and environmental conditions. People should stay at home for self-isolation and social distancing to avoid the spread of Covid-19. People tend to have more plants at home associated with psychological impact during self-isolation. This study aimed to describe having more plants during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. A nationwide cross-sectional survey involving an online survey was carried out of an Indonesian population-based sample of 412 respondents from 26 provinces, considered demographic, social, and behavioral variables. The variable affecting the having plants during the Covid-19 pandemic was analyzed using non-parametric analysis of the Kruskal Wallis test. The result showed that people preferred having more plants during the Covid-19 pandemic to reduce negative emotions and feelings. The majority of the respondents tend to have 1-10 plants and spend around <100 K (IDR) monthly to maintain and buy plants. They think that efforts to maintain were the most challenging in gardening activities. The majority of the respondents had potted plants at home to make their homes greener. The Kruskal Wallis test showed the p-value (>0.05) for all characteristic respondents. Thus, it can be concluded that there was no significant difference regarding the motivation to have planted during the Covid-19 pandemic from characteristic respondents.
... These impacts on mental wellbeing (namely acting as a protective factor Melis et al. 2015) are noticeable among women, those under 60 years of age, and residents in areas with low socioeconomic status (Sarkar et al. 2018). According to Hong et al. (2019), regular visitors or periodic users, i.e., those that visit green spaces fortnightly, express higher general life satisfaction levels. ...
Chapter
This study presents a systematic review to investigate the multiple dimensions of cultural ecosystem services (CES) provided by urban green spaces (UGS) that aim to contribute to supporting the ecosystem services framework towards more sustainable cities. Methodologically, the search was based on peerreviewed journal papers indexed in ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google Scholar platforms (2000–2020), following the PRISMA specific guidelines. The search returned 5417 results. After the initial screening process, 41 articles were finally selected. The results highlighted a set of main dimensions of CES: (1) perception and assessment, (2) recreation, and mental and physical health, (3) aesthetic appreciation/ inspiration for culture, art and design, (4) tourism, and (5) spiritual experience and sense of place. The common framework among these dimensions shows that UGS’ uses and motivations are influenced by user age and space characteristics. The findings encourage the development of relational approaches to help understand what UGS’ users feel and experience in these places, how UGS contribute to promoting healthier and more sustainable cities, and how UGS increase wellbeing for people of all ages.
... These impacts on mental wellbeing (namely acting as a protective factor Melis et al. 2015) are noticeable among women, those under 60 years of age, and residents in areas with low socioeconomic status (Sarkar et al. 2018). According to Hong et al. (2019), regular visitors or periodic users, i.e., those that visit green spaces fortnightly, express higher general life satisfaction levels. ...
Book
This book aims to give a contribution to a more comprehensive and interdisciplinary understanding of the cross-cutting issues on energy, environment and health research topics in the current world scenario, where nations all over the world are struggling to accomplish the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and to ensure sustainable patterns for all. This interdisciplinary implies a commitment between all fields of science, working together to provide knowledge that could result in the promotion of quality of life. At the present, it is evident that not all people benefit from sustainable policies and practices and the communication between health, energy, environmental and social problems is undeniable. A call for different views could be a pathway attracting universities, stakeholders, organizations and civil society to deeply discuss how one solution does not fit all societies. Few publications are coherently handling this matter. This book is expected to fill this gap and to develop an interest in a larger audience working in general sustainable development and cross-cutting issues. This book is produced by the European School of Sustainability Science and Research (ESSSR). It gives special emphasis to state-of-the-art descriptions of approaches, methods, initiatives and projects from universities, stakeholders, organizations and civil society across the world, regarding cross-cutting issues in energy, environment and health research.
... Community environment is largely composed of natural and artificial green spaces and both of them affect SWB (Maurer 2021), and a large number of studies have proven that being close to the natural environment is beneficial to human perception and mental health (Navarrete-Hernandez and Laffan 2019). Also, a walkable city environment and high green space accessibility improve the SWB of urban residents (Hong et al. 2019). However, there is no significant interaction effect between the community environment and the individual landsense. ...
Article
Subjective well-being (SWB) is closely related to people’s health especially in the post stages of migration. China completed the poverty alleviation relocation (PAR) of 9.6 million people from 2016 to 2020. In the post-migration stage, the changes appearing on the poverty alleviation migrants’(PAM) perception of the environment and the factors affecting their SWB are both worthy of attention, however, there are few current studies. Landsenses ecology is a science that focuses on the relationship between human perception and the environment. Therefore, based on this existing theoretical framework, this article evaluates the SWB of PAMs and establishes a residential environmental perception evaluation system for PAMs to evaluate their landsense level, then evaluates the environment of the resettlement community, using a hierarchical regression model to analyze the impact of PAMs’ landsense level and community environment on their SWB. The results show that the score of PAMs’ SWB is above the neutral level, but improvement is needed in the affection dimension. Also, there is still room to improve PAMs’ landsense level especially in psychological perceptions. Also, we found psychological perceptions and interpretation of the physical setting at the individual level, and community environment at the community level all have a positive effect on SWB, but interaction effect between the community environment and the individual landsense is not verified. Based on this, this article puts forward policy recommendations for the improvement of PAMs’ SWB, their landsense level, and landsense creation of communities, also for the sustainable development of cities and reference for global PAR.
... An additional effect modifier in the study is urbanicity. According to the literature, urban dwellers experience more serious psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety than people living in rural areas [51]. Some research examined the difference of health benefits between urban and rural greenspace, while results are inconsistent [52]. ...
... A need for refuge has been reported for users of natural urban forests and wetlands in the New York city area [48]. By contrast, for park spaces (through open interview), escaping cognitive stress did not emerge as a motivator in UK parks [43]; however when presented as a check-box survey [111,112], through focus groups [113] or online survey [114], these themes emerged. Although an important motivator for more natural spaces, the picture is more unclear for urban green spaces and is variable across methodologies. ...
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The health benefits associated with spending time in natural environments have been highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lockdowns and restrictions to safeguard public health have exacerbated the pre-existing mental health crisis and rise of non-communicable diseases. Thus, the importance of nature as a health resource has been elevated, hastening calls for a better understanding of how health benefits might differ across user groups and nature provisions. In this regard , urban green spaces have become the greatest research focus; however, blue spaces, especially inland freshwater (e.g., wetlands), remain less studied. First-hand user experiences are also under-represented. This exploratory study examines the motivations and benefits of active wetland centre users in the UK, both during and after visits. Responses to three open-ended questions were collated online from 385 participants, and a qualitative content analysis was conducted based on an existing taxonomy from users of urban green spaces. The results showed strong motivations to visit due to the biodiversity at the site (mainly the birdlife), while less tangible nature (e.g., fresh air) and amenities were also important. In contrast to other studies on natural environments, physical activity was a less influential motivation. Salient derived effects included positive and intensely positive emotions , relaxation and mental restoration. After visits to wetland centres, feelings of vitality and satisfaction were the most prominent effects that emerged. For decision-makers looking to leverage inland blue spaces for public health benefit, our results highlight the broad range and relative prominence of the reasons for use and the associated perceived health benefits derived by users of UK wetland centres. They highlight how biodiversity, abiotic nature and good amenities are important qualities to consider when planning, managing and encouraging people to use natural environments for health benefit, qualities that may also provide important environmental co-benefits.