Fig 1 - uploaded by Gal Hochman
Content may be subject to copyright.
A comparison of CO 2 emission changes between developed and developing countries for 1997-2015. Data source: IEA, 2017a. et al. (2018) for Austria, De Freitas and Kaneko (2011a, b) and Lenzen et al. (2013) for Brazil, Song et al. (2019), Wang et al. (2018b), and Zhang et al. (2013) for China, Hatzigeorgiou et al. (2008) and Roinioti and Koroneos (2017) for Greece, Mousavi et al. (2017) for the Islamic Republic of Iran, O'Mahony et al. (2012) and O'Mahony (2013) for Ireland, Huang et al. (2019), Matsumoto et al. (2019), Shigetomi et al. (2018), and Shiraki et al. (2020) for Japan, Kim (2019) and Oh et al. (2010) for the Republic of Korea, Chong et al. (2019) for Malaysia, Cansino et al. (2015) and O'Mahony and Dufour (2015) for Spain, Löfgren and Muller (2010) for Sweden, Akbostancı et al. (2018) and Tunç et al. (2009) for Turkey, and Feng et al. (2015), Jiang and Li (2017), and Jiang et al. (2019) for the United States (US). At the regional level, studies that decomposed CO 2 include Ang and Goh (2016) for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Branger and Quirion (2015) for 27 European countries, Chen et al. (2018) for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), De Oliveira-De Jesus (2019) for the Latin American and Caribbean countries, González et al. (2014) and Karstensen et al. (2018) for the European Union (EU), and Moutinho et al. (2015) for Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern Europe. In addition to country and regional levels, some scholars have decomposed CO 2 at the global level, including Bacon et al. (2007), Le Quéré et al. (2019), Peters et al. (2017), Wagner (2008), Wang et al. (2018a), and Wang and Ang (2018). Notably, significant differences exist in CO 2 emission and its determinants among countries with different income levels (Dong et al., 2019a). Although the changes in CO 2 emissions have been extensively decomposed into various driving forces at the country, regional, and global levels, to the best of our knowledge, the vast majority of studies on global CO 2 emissions decomposition has ignored differences across countries with different income-based groups. This study aims to investigate the factors behind the global growth in CO 2 emissions for the 1997-2015 period with consideration of the differences across countries with different income-based groups. Two main features distinguish this study from the existing literature. First, unlike many existing studies that determine the drivers of CO 2 growth at the national or regional level, this paper uses global data

A comparison of CO 2 emission changes between developed and developing countries for 1997-2015. Data source: IEA, 2017a. et al. (2018) for Austria, De Freitas and Kaneko (2011a, b) and Lenzen et al. (2013) for Brazil, Song et al. (2019), Wang et al. (2018b), and Zhang et al. (2013) for China, Hatzigeorgiou et al. (2008) and Roinioti and Koroneos (2017) for Greece, Mousavi et al. (2017) for the Islamic Republic of Iran, O'Mahony et al. (2012) and O'Mahony (2013) for Ireland, Huang et al. (2019), Matsumoto et al. (2019), Shigetomi et al. (2018), and Shiraki et al. (2020) for Japan, Kim (2019) and Oh et al. (2010) for the Republic of Korea, Chong et al. (2019) for Malaysia, Cansino et al. (2015) and O'Mahony and Dufour (2015) for Spain, Löfgren and Muller (2010) for Sweden, Akbostancı et al. (2018) and Tunç et al. (2009) for Turkey, and Feng et al. (2015), Jiang and Li (2017), and Jiang et al. (2019) for the United States (US). At the regional level, studies that decomposed CO 2 include Ang and Goh (2016) for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Branger and Quirion (2015) for 27 European countries, Chen et al. (2018) for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), De Oliveira-De Jesus (2019) for the Latin American and Caribbean countries, González et al. (2014) and Karstensen et al. (2018) for the European Union (EU), and Moutinho et al. (2015) for Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern Europe. In addition to country and regional levels, some scholars have decomposed CO 2 at the global level, including Bacon et al. (2007), Le Quéré et al. (2019), Peters et al. (2017), Wagner (2008), Wang et al. (2018a), and Wang and Ang (2018). Notably, significant differences exist in CO 2 emission and its determinants among countries with different income levels (Dong et al., 2019a). Although the changes in CO 2 emissions have been extensively decomposed into various driving forces at the country, regional, and global levels, to the best of our knowledge, the vast majority of studies on global CO 2 emissions decomposition has ignored differences across countries with different income-based groups. This study aims to investigate the factors behind the global growth in CO 2 emissions for the 1997-2015 period with consideration of the differences across countries with different income-based groups. Two main features distinguish this study from the existing literature. First, unlike many existing studies that determine the drivers of CO 2 growth at the national or regional level, this paper uses global data

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The rapid increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions in recent decades is a major concern because CO 2 emissions are the main precursor of global warming. Thus, a clear understanding of the factors behind this increase is crucial for the design of policies that limit or at least stabilize global concentrations of CO 2. In this study,...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... 2 ) have increased steadily in most countries. In fact, according to statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2017a, b), global energy consumption and CO 2 emissions increased 2.0% annually from 1997 to 2015. While the growth in CO 2 emissions in recent decades has been much faster in developing countries than in developed ones (see Fig. 1; also see IEA, 2017a), the historical flow of emissions from developed countries is mainly responsible for the stock of global concentration of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. However, limiting the growth of CO 2 emissions, especially in those developing countries where the current volume and speed of ...
Context 2
... we separately analyze the effect of the US and China on the LMDI results; the results are reported in Fig. 10. Fig. 10a shows the decomposition results of the global CO 2 emission changes between 1997 and 2015 before and after dropping China, indicating that after dropping China, the increase in global CO 2 emissions will be significantly reduced as the effect of economic growth on promoting global CO 2 emissions is weakened. Fig. 10b suggests that, ...
Context 3
... are reported in Fig. 10. Fig. 10a shows the decomposition results of the global CO 2 emission changes between 1997 and 2015 before and after dropping China, indicating that after dropping China, the increase in global CO 2 emissions will be significantly reduced as the effect of economic growth on promoting global CO 2 emissions is weakened. Fig. 10b suggests that, different from China, the increase in global CO 2 emissions after dropping the US will be significantly reduced as the effect of energy intensity reduction on inhibiting global CO 2 emissions is weakened. In addition, the comparison between the US and China also implies that China's effect on the LMDI decomposition ...

Similar publications

Article
The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has gained global importance to overcome the global warming and meet future energy needs. The performance of a solar PV plant depends on many factors such as solar irradiance, weather conditions, various types of energy losses and system degradation over time. Although the deterministic models nicely predict t...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming is expected to affect yield-determining factors of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), including the number of flowers and pods. However, little is known about the effects of high temperature on the temporal patterns of flowering and pod set. Experiments in the temperature-controlled greenhouses were conducted to examine the temporal p...
Article
Full-text available
Solar-driven absorption refrigeration technology has the potential to reduce the peak electricity demand and global warming. Optimization of this technology can change the future energy economy of the world. Herein, the straightforward and inexpensive preparation of new stable aqueous solution for direct solar absorption refrigeration systems is re...

Citations

... In similar studies, Rahman [70] confirmed that population density significantly intensified emission in India; while in 28 European nations, Pham et al. [71] found that population size accelerates environmental pollution in the long run. Dong et al. [72] and Ali et al. [73] confirmed that population density contributes significantly to emissions. On the other hand, several studies reported contrasting results. ...
... To put it another way, the result of POPD is significant and negatively associated with EQ in all the models (model 1 to model 6). This finding is consistent with Rahman [70], Pham et al. [71], Ali et al. [73] and Dong et al. [72]. Meanwhile, this outcome is not in line with Begum et al. [74] and Sulaiman and Abdul-Rahim [75] in the case of Malaysia and Nigeria respectively. ...
Article
The current research evaluated the role of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption in environmental sustainability following the N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve framework controlling financial development, population density, and composite trade share. Unlike previous studies, this research used six indices to depict environmental deterioration and environmental quality. More precisely, pressures on nature, ecological footprints, environmental vulnerability, and adjusted net saving are employed to represent environmental deterioration, while environmental performances and environmental sustainability are adopted to proxy environmental quality. The Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations were used on panel data from 1994 to 2019 in the selected Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. The findings revealed the N-shaped linkage between per capita income and environmental deterioration indicators, such as ecological footprints, adjusted net saving, pressures on nature, and environmental vulnerability. Regarding the linkage between environmental quality indicators, including environmental performances and environmental sustainability, and per capita income, an inverted N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve is verified. Considering all six environmental indicators, non-renewable energy tends to deteriorate the environment, while the use of renewable energy promotes environmental quality. Moreover, population density, financial development, and composite trade share raise environmental deterioration. The results are vital for achieving a green economy with better environmental quality.
... And each can be further divided into additive decomposition analysis and multiplicative decomposition analysis (Ang and Choi, 1997;Ang et al., 2003;Ang and Zhang, 2000;Choi and Ang, 2003). Additive decomposition characteristics are convenient, easy to utilize, and intuitive (Baležentis et al., 2011;Dong et al., 2018aDong et al., , 2020. For example, Ma and Stern (2008) explore China's energy intensity effects in 1980-2003 by using the additive decomposition method and intensity changes due to fuel substitution, technological change, and structural shift factors. ...
Article
The economywide energy intensities in the service sectors are declining in many countries worldwide. We identify the drivers of the declining trends by employing the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) on annual data from 16 countries in the Asia and Eastern Europe for the 2000–2014 period. We find that the change in fuel mix has little contribution to driving the economywide energy intensity of the service sector down during the study horizon. Instead, the change in energy intensity contributes to a decrease in economywide energy intensity of service sectors in most countries except the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, and Turkey. Moreover, since energy intensity is inseparable from economic development, changes in economic structure are an essential determinant of the economywide energy intensity of service sectors. This work also analyzes the sectoral attribution and energy feedstocks attribution of economywide energy intensity of the service sectors.
... With a growing global population and economic scale, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide bringing the problem of global climate change has already been recognized as an indisputable fact [1,2]. Vehicle emissions occupy an important proportion of the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions [3,4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The turbocharger, a key component in a vehicle’s powertrain, results in insufficient accuracy if it does not fully consider the unsteady flow effects of the intake and exhaust systems. Based on the difference between the turbocharger’s actual operating performance with unsteady flow and the corresponding steady flow performance, unsteady flow correction concepts and correction methods for the compressor and turbine were put forward, and the correction of the internal joint operation curve was investigated. The results show that when unsteady correction coefficients were added to both ends of the turbocharger and the optimized structure was used at both ends, the original turbocharger’s surge margin was reduced by 4.6% to 11.8%, and that of the optimized turbocharger was reduced by 15.2% to 21.9% in the medium–low-speed range. Meanwhile, the unsteady flow energy utilization coefficient of the optimized turbocharger was more than 14.5% higher than that of the original turbocharger in the medium–low speed range, and the energy utilization advantage was obvious. It indicated that the optimized turbocharger was working earlier, and the engine’s medium–low-speed admission performance has been obviously improved. Therefore, compared with the steady curve, the corrected unsteady curve was closer to the actual engine performance.
... In another related study on Turkey, Ref. [35] also commented that higher intensity of energy use is a major factor responsible for higher CO2 emissions. Identical environmental adversities attached to higher intensity of energy use were reported by Ref. [36] for selected countries from Asia, Ref. [37] for high-income countries, and Ref. [38], for emerging economies. ...
Article
The economies and population sizes of the Next Eleven countries are anticipated to surge in the next couple of decades whereby their energy demands can be assumed to rise in tandem. However, meeting the rising energy demand with the traditionally-consumed unclean energy resources can impose adverse environmental consequences. As a result, achieving environmental sustainability has become an utmost important issue for these countries. Against this backdrop, this study examines whether improving energy efficiency, enhancing renewable electricity production, and promoting financial inclusivity can help the Next Eleven countries reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. Overall, the findings reveal that energy efficiency improvement and greater renewable electricity shares in total electricity outputs mitigate carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. Contrarily, financial inclusion, economic growth, and international trade are observed to boost carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency and financial inclusion are found to jointly impede emissions whereby the mediating and moderating effects of energy efficiency on the financial inclusion-carbon dioxide emissions nexus are verified. Furthermore, these findings are robust across alternate estimation techniques and also when total greenhouse gas emissions are considered as an alternative proxy for measuring environmental well-being. Accordingly, several relevant environmental sustainability-related policies are recommended to the concerned governments.
... Tajudeen et al. (2018) reported that energy efficiency plays a relatively major role in reducing CO 2 emissions. Dong et al. (2020) and find similar outcomes among energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions. Lastly, patent development is also seen an essential proxy of technological innovation, which is extensively used in the earlier studies to analyze the nexus among technological innovation and CO 2 emissions for instance Cheng ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last two decades, financial inclusion has dramatically augmented the accessibility and affordability of financial services and significantly contributes towards economic development; however, its environmental implications cannot be ignored. In this context, this study investigates the impact of financial inclusion on CO2 emissions in Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries. Furthermore, we analyze the moderating role of technological innovation and economic globalization in the relationship between financial inclusion and CO2 emissions. Drawing on the data from 2004 to 2018, advanced econometric techniques robust to cross-sectional dependence and slope heterogeneity are employed. The augmented mean group (AMG) outcome reveals that financial inclusion and renewable energy consumption significantly promote environmental sustainability by reducing CO2 emissions. On the other hand, economic growth and economic globalization damage environmental quality by increasing CO2 emissions. The findings further unfold that financial inclusion fosters environmental sustainability through the channel of technological innovation. Additionally, the interaction term effect of financial inclusion with economic globalization poses an unfavorable impact on environmental quality. Besides, Dumitrescu and Hurlin (D-H) non-causality test revealed the unidirectional casualty between financial inclusion, renewable energy, and CO2 emissions, while feedback hypothesis among economic globalization, technological innovation, economic growth, and CO2 emissions. In line with these crucial findings, this study recommends that the APEC countries should promote financial inclusion along with technological innovations and, at the same time, integrate economic globalization with the climate change policies to achieve sustainable development goals.
... Resource extraction, conflicts, and capital flows have some impact on sustainability of the host community's environment. Though the factors influencing environmental sustainability may vary from one country to another, factors such as resource extraction for investment and energy use are considered as general based on theory (Dong et al., 2020;Khan et al., 2022a). Despite the importance of having a quality environment, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge considering the huge population of the world that need to be housed and fed without destroying the environment. ...
Article
This paper investigates the impact of natural resources on conflict-capital flows relationship in 54 African economies over the 2010–2019 period. Applying econometric method of data analysis, the empirical estimation hinges on generalized method of moments, unit root tests, Kao cointegration test, cross-sectional dependence test, and quantile regression. The estimated results revealed the following. First, generalized method of moments revealed that conflict persistently decreases capital flow. Second, unit root test for both first-and-second generation affirmed stationarity. Third, Kao cointegration test revealed long-run relationship among the modelled variables. Fourth, tests for cross-sectional dependency revealed the existence of structural break and cross-sectional dependence of countries. Fifth, the quantile regression indicated that conflict decreases capital flows for all parts of the distribution, even when the initial degree of capital flows is at 25th percentile. Furthermore, the interaction term (i.e., interacting conflict with the natural resource) showed that natural resources are the reason for the inflow of capital into the Africa. In other words, conflict decreases capital flow into Africa when the level of natural resource extraction is low and vice versa. As such, there is a need to develop and implement policies aimed at increasing sources of capital inflow into the Africa’s economy, such as domestic capital productivity, while decreasing all forms of conflict that can impede capital inflow. To avoid over-reliance on natural resources, policies should aim at creating a peaceful and conducive environment for foreign direct investment inflows to service sectors such as education, financial institutions and others. Thus, there is need to combat conflict in the continent.
... In that study, it was concluded that there are bidirectional causations between these variables; this finding implied that not only do the energy intensity levels affect Portugal's CO2E figures; but changes in the levels of CO2E also influence the level of energy intensity. In another relevant study by Dong et al. (2020), the authors opined that a reduction in the energy intensity levels in high-income countries is necessary for inhibiting CO2E. In the cases of the emerging economies, Sadorsky (2014) . ...
Article
The Next 11 countries are among the world's most rapidy emerging economies that are poised to becoming key drivers of the global economy. Nonetheless, despite progressing economically, these nations have experienced persistent deterioration in their environmental conditions. Hence, this study specifically investigates whether energy productivity gains, controlling for financial inclusion, renewable energy use, economic growth, international trade, and urbanization, can harness the carbon dioxide emissions (CO2E)-inhibiting objectives of the Next 11 countries. The empirical analysis, using annual data spanning from 2004 to 2020, involves the application of advanced econometric tools that are robust to handling the cross-sectional dependency and slope heterogeneity-related issues. The results from the econometric analysis indicate that although energy productivity gains and greater renewable energy consumption reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, making the financial system more inclusive tends to amplify the emission levels. More importantly, energy productivity gains and financial inclusion are observed to jointly reduce the CO2E figures of the Next 11 countries. Thus, it can be said that making more productive use of energy can, to some extent, neutralize the adverse environmenntal impacts of financial inclusion. Additionally, higher economic growth, greater international trade participation, and urbanization are evidenced to boost CO2E in these countries while higher renewable energy use is observed to curb the emission levels. Furthermore, heterogeneous country-specific outcomes are also witnessed. In particular, energy productivity improvement is seen to curb CO2E in eight of these nations while a simultaneous rise in the levels of energy productivity and financial inclusion is found to jointly mitigate and boost CO2E in 55% and 18% of the Next 11 nations, respectively. Hence, in line with these key findings, a set of critically important environmental development-related policies are suggested.
... The existing carbon mitigation assessment system is primarily based on absolute values of changes in carbon emissions. In most current studies at the national scale, the assessment of the carbon mitigation effect is mainly focused on comparing the absolute values of carbon mitigation in different years, mainly because carbon mitigation changes are more obvious compared with other variables [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapidly growing carbon emissions of residential building operations have become an obstacle to China's commitment to achieving its carbon-neutral goals by 2060, but they also demonstrate great carbon mitigation potential. To help buildings reach carbon neutrality targets, this study decomposes the drivers of carbon emissions and evaluates the changes in carbon mitigation of residential buildings across 30 Chinese provinces from 2000 to 2018. The results indicate that (1) the operational carbon intensity increased in most provinces and the average annual growth rate across the 30 provinces was 4.2%; (2) from 2001 to 2018, North China and Northeast China had the highest average annual carbon mitigation intensity, at 602.7 and 376.9 kg of carbon dioxide per household, respectively. However, Northwest China had the highest carbon mitigation efficiency, with a carbon mitigation rate of 23.5%; and (3) in most cases, the total carbon mitigations of the operational residential buildings assessed at the provincial scale higher than those assessed nationwide, with a difference of 14.4 million tons of carbon dioxide on average. In addition, this study reviewed the energy efficiency codes for residential buildings and summarized effective energy efficiency measures. Overall, this study fills a gap in our understanding of carbon mitigation tools and provides a reference for the evaluation of historical carbon mitigation effects in the operation of residential buildings.
... The environment has steadily deteriorated since the beginning of this decade (Dong et al. 2020). Human activities primarily cause climate change. ...
Article
Full-text available
Developing countries have depleted their natural resources in economic interest to achieve high economic growth. Current urbanization patterns and energy consumption and natural resource extraction are largely unsustainable. In this background, this paper investigates the impact of natural resources rent, energy resources consumption, and tax revenue on carbon emissions for developing countries. The study employed data for 48 developing countries from 1990 to 2020. We used second-generation methods for empirical analysis that control heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in the data. The advanced panel data estimates of CS-ARDL provide reliable outcomes by addressing these panel data econometric issues. The study results revealed that natural resources or natural resources rent in their exploitation accelerates carbon emission. Similarly, energy resources excessive consumption and economic growth are highly carbon-intensive for these countries and lead to environmental degradation. In contrast, tax revenue and education stabilized the environmental quality of the study interest. Besides this, to analyze the directional association among variables, the study applied DH causality test, which indicates a bidirectional link between tax revenues and emissions, energy resources and emissions, and income and CO 2 emissions. Based on the finding, the study suggests some policy implications to limit the extraction of natural resources and abate carbon emissions by establishing appropriate strategies and imposing environmental charges.
... Since the reform and opening up, China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by excessive energy consumption and rapid environment deterioration [1][2][3]. Facing increasingly prominent environmental pollution, especially the problem of air pollution related to people's livelihood, the Chinese government has adopted a series of administrative and economic measures to compensate for the failure of market mechanisms in environmental protection [4]. The government's environmental protection fiscal expenditures have provided several public services through direct investment in environmental governance projects and subsidies for green innovation [5], which have played an essential role in environmental governance. ...
... With regard to the correlation between FD and GTI behavior, this paper introduces the interaction terms between FD and GTI based on the benchmark model (1). The relevant estimation results are shown in the second and fourth columns of Table 7. Overall, the direction of the impact of FD and GTI on regional air pollution has not changed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fiscal decentralization (FD), as an institutional arrangement for the fiscal division between central and local governments, gives local governments the enthusiasm and autonomy to provide public products and services. With the dominance of environmental governance, how local governments can avoid intergovernmental “race to the bottom” issues through green technology innovation (GTI) is a matter of regional green development and continuous improvement of atmospheric environmental quality. Based on a sample of 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2018, this paper uses the spatial Durbin model (SDM) to examine the relationship between FD, GTI, and regional air pollution and explores their spatial spillover effect and regional heterogeneity from the perspective of intergovernmental competition. The results indicate that the FD and GTI in various provinces had significant and regionally differentiated inhibitory effects on local air pollution. In Western China, due to the regional competition among local governments in terms of economic development, economic development-oriented fiscal expenditures crowd out environmental governance-oriented fiscal expenditures, which has led to the consequence that FD can intensify local air pollution and has a positive spillover effect, but the demonstration effect of green technological innovation can well moderate the effect of FD on air pollution. FD in the eastern region has played a positive role in promoting regional air quality improvement. However, its green technological innovation has not played a positive role in reducing emissions, and it plays a significant negative regulatory role in the emission reduction effect led by FD. Finally, the article puts forward policy recommendations in terms of a fiscal decentralization system, green technological innovation, and performance evaluation mechanism.