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(A) Recent burning of pajonal and grazing activity in the highland páramo, Azuay province, Ecuador. (B) Initial phase of road construction through Saraguro-Oña-Yacuambi wetland system, Azuay province, Ecuador. (Photos by Jessica Helsley, June 2012) 

(A) Recent burning of pajonal and grazing activity in the highland páramo, Azuay province, Ecuador. (B) Initial phase of road construction through Saraguro-Oña-Yacuambi wetland system, Azuay province, Ecuador. (Photos by Jessica Helsley, June 2012) 

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International mountain conservation paradigms have shifted in the past 30 years from establishment of centrally governed protected areas that exclude communities, to collaborative and community-based conservation stewardship with communities that depend on resources for their livelihoods. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Rams...

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... most Basic demographic information for study areas and land area. commonly stated change for water was a decrease in quantity due to the burning of pajonal for agricultural expansion, increased grazing, and construction of new roads ( Figure 3A, B). ...

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... Vol 29, 2022 321 on topics of land rights in protected areas (Mollett & Kepe, 2018), biases in the 'landscape approach' popular with conservation actors (Clay, 2016), and community-based wetland governance (Gallardo et al., 2013). The fourth article investigates the rationalities of ecosystem services-based water governance mechanisms and their impacts in terms of justice and equity for indigenous populations (Nahuelhual et al., 2018). ...
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Recent political ecology scholarship appears to be turning towards de-growth agendas and radical activism, notably in Europe. These postures diverge somewhat from the 'classical' political ecological tradition rooted in a critical deconstruction of dominant ideas and actors and field-based analyses. We posit a heuristic distinction between these two impulses. While both are based in critiques (Robbins' 'hatchet'), as far as the 'seed' one impulse leans more towards critical 'deconstruction', the other towards radical 'advocacy.' Through a systemic review of the political ecology literature, we seek to identify and characterize these impulses, link them to epistemic communities of knowledge production, and explain these trends. Our review incorporates qualitative analysis of key texts, as well as quantitative bibliometric and content analysis of Scopus-indexed publications referring to political ecology (1951-2019) and abstracts from all the articles published in Journal of Political Ecology, from POLLEN conferences in Europe (2016, 2018) and from DOPE conferences in the US (2013- 2019). Among other things, we find that even if political ecology has long been divided between deconstructivist and advocacy approaches, the second is becoming preeminent since many political ecologists are taking a radical turn, with strong theoretically rooted attacks on the capitalist system taking place. Some political ecological research increasingly positions itself in socio-political debates related to the greening of unjust societies in the First World. This is most prominent in continental European academia (and some English universities), where political ecology is institutionally more marginal; in the remaining British and North American universities, the more deconstructivist impulse is more dominant but also more pluralistic in its orientations.
... In addition, local capacities and skills of local and technical personnel should be strengthened. The management of conflicts that occur between communities and local governments, especially when HAWs extend across provincial, national or international borders, requires the intervention of national governments and the implementation of policies with adequate communication between the sectors involved (Iñiguez Gallardo et al., 2013). The bottom-up approach and decentralization in environmental management are consistent with incentivizing communities and local governments, who make decisions about practices in HAWs, to be part of all processes towards wetland conservation and restoration. ...
... Además, se debe fortalecer las capacidades y habilidades locales y del personal técnico. El manejo de conflictos que ocurren entre comunidades y gobiernos locales, especialmente cuando los HAA se extienden a través de fronteras provinciales, nacionales o internacionales, requiere la intervención de gobiernos nacionales y la implementación de políticas con una adecuada comunicación entre los sectores involucrados (Iñiguez Gallardo et al., 2013). El enfoque de "abajo hacia arriba" y la descentralización en el manejo ambiental son consistentes con incentivar a las comunidades y gobiernos locales, que toman las decisiones de las prácticas en los HAA, a formar parte de todos los procesos hacia la conservación y restauración de los humedales. ...
... Among their main activities were the establishment of private PAs such as Cuyas and Samanga (Ostovar 2019). In Ecuador, Iñiguez Gallardo et al. (2013) assessed the governance of a proposed Ramsar wetland (Saraguro-Oña-Yacuambi) containing several lakes (e.g., Laguna Grande and Tres Lagunas) and located within the PA of Shincata Protected Forest and the municipal Yacuambi Natural Reserve. In Ecuador as well, payment for ecosystem services has been one of the ways by which to address water resources protection. ...
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Although protected areas (PAs) play an important role in ecosystem conservation and climate change adaptation, no systematic information is available on PA protection of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems (e.g., lakes and watersheds with glaciers), their biodiversity and their ecosystem services in the tropical Andes. We therefore combined a literature review and map analysis of PAs of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and national systems of PAs and freshwater ecosystems. We found that seven national parks were created for water resources protection but were not designed for freshwater conservation (i.e., larger watersheds). High-value biodiversity sites have not been protected, and new local PAs were created due to water resource needs. We quantified 31 Ramsar sites and observed that PAs cover 12% of lakes, 31% of glacial lakes and 12% of the total stream length in the tropical Andes. Additionally, 120 watersheds (average area 631 km ² ) with glaciers and 40% of the total glacier surface area were covered by PAs. Future research into the role of PAs in ecosystem services provision and more detailed freshwater inventories within and around PAs, especially for those dependent on glacier runoff, will fill key knowledge gaps for freshwater conservation and climate change adaptation in the tropical Andes.
... Collective páramo management is a recent phenomenon in the PÑU that responds to a strong demand for water in the past 3 decades and to an increasing demand by local communities for their territorial rights. These findings concur with studies that show that communal regulations for páramo conservation have not taken place until in the past decade (Hayes et al 2017), mostly in the context of the development of collaborative multi-stakeholder models (Iñiguez Gallardo et al 2013) and the recognition of the political agency of water-user movements (Boelens et al 2016). ...
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This study examines how agricultural frontier expansion and grazing practices develop in the páramos under communal tenure in the northern Ecuadorian Andes and how rules to control them emerge within communal governance. We approach these questions through the lens of collective action and cultural resilience, to understand the evolution of communal governance. We analyze a case study of the Comité de Páramo Ñukanchik Urku, a multicommunal organization created in the 1990s for collective resource management. We use the analytical framework of social–ecological systems (SES) to approach changes of the agricultural frontiers and grazing activities as conservation outcomes resulting from changes in resource units, actors, and governance structures. Through a mixed-method approach combining air photo analysis (years 1956, 1993, and 2008) and qualitative research, we examine spatial patterns of settlement and agricultural frontier expansion, historical grazing practices, and the main elements of current collective páramo management. Our results indicate that: (1) the demarcation of an agreed agricultural frontier as a territorial landmark is a response aiming to control the increase of crops and dwellings at higher elevations, and to limit grazing activities; (2) the authority's legitimation of the Committee and its Board is crucial to develop rules and to enforce them; and (3) legitimation is achieved through conservation knowledge and autonomous decisions to control páramos considered a communal territory. A broader comprehension of the context and history of cultural change is needed to understand the emergence of communal governance of páramos. Cultural-political dimensions are key to the cultural resilience of social systems in SES and to strengthening rules and institutional diversity to manage the commons in Andean communities.
... Using interpretive analysis, we identified collaboration between stakeholders as being significantly important for achieving effectiveness in community-based innovation promotion efforts and greater uptake of ECDIs. As indicated elsewhere, stakeholder collaboration creates buy-in and legitimacy between the various actors (Gallardo et al., 2013), and provides new ideas, as well as combines resources and efforts (Tanguilig and Tanguilig, 2009), which ultimately enhance programs success and long-term sustainability . This research finding shows that the lead institution (that is, DWNP) recognised local participation as an essential ingredient for fostering project ownership. ...
Article
It is widely recognised that government intervention in development issues can shape people's perceptions and experiences. This study examined the influence of a Ministry-based extension system on community-based, problem animal control and perceptions among local arable farmers at the eastern Okavango Panhandle in northern Botswana. Using a survey of 388 arable farmers and key informant interviews, our results showed that participation of local people in the implementation of the participatory project was vital for improving people's perceptions and gaining adoption of the innovations, and significantly contributing to project outcomes. Lack of people participation in decision making, the extent to which farmers perceived extension agents as trustworthy, the number of extension agents and extension delivery methods were found to be important factors explaining farmers' perceptions and adoption decisions. Analyses also indicated that knowledge development alone (which is a form of community empowerment) was not enough to encourage participation and innovation adoption. Village project committee (VPC) members' and farmers' remarks about their socioeconomic hardships suggested that they preferred economic incentives over any other incentives. This suggests that community's immediate needs for livelihood and food security are among the locally pressing needs that should be addressed to drive people's commitment to the project. From a policy perspective, our results underscore the need to implement comprehensive interventions that address wildlife management and community development, and actively involve local people in management and decision making to achieve sustainability in human elephant conflict management. There is need, therefore, for government (particularly the wildlife departments) to provide an institutional structure for supporting community-based governance for the purpose of ensuring effective and sustainable wildlife management and conservation.
... The municipal, parish, and larger provincial boundaries and protected area designations are generally shown in Figure 1 and remained contested through 2015. Jurisdictional boundaries and the general road alignment are shown on Figures 3 and 4. As a forest and not a park unit, the Shincata was not nationally staffed (Gallardo et al., 2013) and as confirmed by MAE staff, multiple uses and claims are allowed. ...
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In Latin America and the Global South, policy-makers are adopting community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) principles for local governments. The idealized emphasis on ‘local’ collaborative approaches is known to neglect human geographic contexts and issues of capacity, power, and human drivers of change at larger scales. However, critiques lack empirical evidence of policy implementation decisions. How do local government and community actors choose to use decentralized environmental governance policies in relation to a threatened cultural and natural landscape across their jurisdictions? This question is explored in an ethnographic case of a high Andean wetland region in southern Ecuador by focusing on the context and micro-politics of two seemingly contradictory local government decisions: proposals to nationalize a local community protected area and to work with other local governments to construct a road across the wetlands that could threaten protected area status. When different sectors are devolved to different local actors without strong sub-state institutions for conflict management, decentralization may create incentives for conflict rather than conservation. Governance design depends on understanding how and why diverse local actors engage in boundary-spanning regional strategies, calling for additional contributions from political geographers.
... Η ανάπτυξη τέτοιων στρατηγικών βρίσκεται στην αιχµή της επιστηµονικής έρευνας (Zhelezov, 2011) και η τεκµηρίωση µιας νέας µεθοδολογικής προσέγγισης για την ανάπτυξη των ορεινών περιοχών αποτελεί στόχο µεγάλων ερευνητικών προγραµµάτων (BioScene, 2005;DIAMONT, 2006;SARD-M Project, 2007;Green Mountain, 2012). Έχουν προταθεί διάφορες προσεγγίσεις για τη διαχείριση σε επίπεδο κοινότητας των διαθέσιµων πόρων των ορεινών περιοχών (Gallardo et al 2013) αλλά λίγες έρευνες προσπάθησαν ολοκληρωµένα και δυναµικά να ενσωµατώσουν τις αντιλήψεις του κοινού στην αναπτυξιακή πολιτική σε ορεινές περιοχές. ...
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The multidimensional crisis, especially in countries like Greece, demands the new development approaches that respond to actual needs and describe the way for the creative use of the particular characteristics of the natural and socio-economic resources. The need for such planning approaches becomes more intense in mountainous areas, which remained - to a large extent - outside from central development strategies. Integrated approach, interdisciplinarity and education can be key features of these new approaches. In this context, the postgraduate students of the MSc “Environment and Development of Mountainous Areas” held by the National Technical University of Athens conduct development surveys for different regions in Greece using the methodology of Worthliving Integrated Development. During the academic year of 2014-2015, an interdisciplinary workgroup of students conducted a development survey for the mountainous municipality of Souli. This paper presents the methodological steps followed as well as the results for the region of Souli.
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Tuna resources in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are the world’s largest and most valuable fisheries of their type and are vital to the economy and the sustainable development of the region. However, the region witnesses a rapid decline in tuna resources and the depletion of species such as bigeye and yellowfin tunas, and overharvesting of the other species. This study investigated the collaborative management model used to manage migratory tuna resources. The study followed a case study design with a focus on the Western and Central Pacific Ocean Fisheries Commission. Forty interviews were conducted with key stakeholders. The findings indicated that six factors, namely, structure and size, self-interest, self-enforcement, leadership style, equality of power, and culture, affected significantly the outcomes of a collaborative management model. The findings also provide important insights on how the factors influenced the outcomes. The study contributes to a better understanding of international governance of common-pool resources (CPRs) and its challenges, and thus helps policymakers develop strategies for managing migratory fishing resources for the sake of economic viability and sustainability in the region.